ResearchPad - Endocrine and Autonomic Systems https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Kisspeptin neurones in the posterodorsal medial amygdala modulate sexual partner preference and anxiety in male mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bfb99dad5eed0c484b171a1

The posterodorsal medial amygdala (MePD) is a neural site in the limbic brain involved in regulating emotional and sexual behaviours. There is, however, limited information available on the specific neuronal cell type in the MePD functionally mediating these behaviours in rodents. The recent discovery of a significant kisspeptin neurone population in the MePD has raised interest in the possible role of kisspeptin and its cognate receptor in sexual behaviour. The present study therefore tested the hypothesis that the MePD kisspeptin neurone population is involved in regulating attraction towards opposite sex conspecifics, sexual behaviour, social interaction and the anxiety response by selectively stimulating these neurones using the novel pharmacosynthetic DREADDs (designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs) technique. Adult male Kiss‐Cre mice received bilateral stereotaxic injections of a stimulatory DREADD viral construct (AAV‐hSyn‐DIO‐hM3D(Gq)‐mCherry) targeted to the MePD, with subsequent activation by i.p. injection of clozapine‐N‐oxide (CNO). Socio‐sexual behaviours were assessed in a counter‐balanced fashion after i.p. injection of either saline or CNO (5 mg kg‐1). Selective activation of MePD kisspeptin neurones by CNO significantly increased the time spent by male mice in investigating an oestrous female, as well as the duration of social interaction. Additionally, after CNO injection, the mice appeared less anxious, as indicated by a longer exploratory time in the open arms of the elevated plus maze. However, levels of copulatory behaviour were comparable between CNO and saline‐treated controls. These data indicate that DREADD‐induced activation of MePD kisspeptin neurones enhances both sexual partner preference in males and social interaction and also decreases anxiety, suggesting a key role played by MePD kisspeptin in sexual motivation and social behaviour.

]]>
<![CDATA[Role of the T and B lymphocytes in pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid diseases]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b4ae2a7463d7e6cefa31ed8

Autoimmune thyroid disorders (AITD) broadly include Graves’ disease and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis which are the most common causes of thyroid gland dysfunctions. These disorders develop due to complex interactions between environmental and genetic factors and are characterized by reactivity to self-thyroid antigens due to autoreactive lymphocytes escaping tolerance. Both cell-mediated and humoral responses lead to tissue injury in autoimmune thyroid disease. The differentiation of CD4+ cells in the specific setting of immune mediators (for example cytokines, chemokines) results in differentiation of various T cell subsets. T cell identification has shown a mixed pattern of cytokine production indicating that both subtypes of T helper, Th1 and Th2, responses are involved in all types of AITD. Furthermore, recent studies described T cell subtypes Th17 and Treg which also play an essential role in pathogenesis of AITD. This review will focus on the role of the T regulatory (Treg) and T helper (Th) (especially Th17) lymphocytes, and also of B lymphocytes in AITD pathogenesis. However, we have much more to learn about cellular mechanisms and interactions in AITD before we can develop complete understanding of AITD pathophysiology.

]]>
<![CDATA[Subclinical hypothyroidism in population of aging Polish women and men over 65yrs old and cardiovascular risk factor, endogenous vitamin D levels and its gene receptor polymorphisms &#8211; PolSenior Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989daedab0ee8fa60bbfea6 ]]> <![CDATA[Various types of autoimmunological diseases of thyroid gland]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989db37ab0ee8fa60bd3989 ]]> <![CDATA[Recent progress in thyroid surgery]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989dac8ab0ee8fa60bb34fd ]]> <![CDATA[Obliteration of thyroid arteries as a new method of treatment of thyroid diseases]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989da34ab0ee8fa60b85916 ]]> <![CDATA[Effectiveness analysis of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) diagnostics in Holycross Cancer Centre (HCC) in Kielce according to fine needle aspiration biopsy quality assurance program in pathology department between years 2001 and 2012]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989da29ab0ee8fa60b81b54 ]]> <![CDATA[Combined glucocorticoid and orbital radiation therapy &#8211; literature review and clinical experience]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989db18ab0ee8fa60bcd78d ]]> <![CDATA[The proteins of iodine metabolism in the pathophysiology of the thyroid gland]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989daa7ab0ee8fa60ba7f33 ]]> <![CDATA[Odd thyroid function tests results: interference versus non-compliance]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989d9ecab0ee8fa60b6cf43 ]]> <![CDATA[Evaluation of the effectiveness of iodine prophylaxis in Poland based on the examination of school-age children in Opoczno]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989da9eab0ee8fa60ba4a16 ]]> <![CDATA[Maintenance of iodine intake]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989da89ab0ee8fa60b9d4bb ]]> <![CDATA[Protective antioxidative effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) in the thyroid and the liver are similar to those caused by melatonin]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989db47ab0ee8fa60bd8c0d

Background

Whereas oxidative reactions occur in all tissues and organs, the thyroid constitutes such an organ, in which oxidative processes are indispensable for physiological functions. In turn, numerous metabolic reactions occurring in the liver create favourable conditions for huge oxidative stress. Melatonin is a well-known antioxidant with protective effects against oxidative damage perfectly documented in many tissues, the thyroid and the liver included. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a component of honeybee propolis, has been suggested to be also an effective antioxidant.

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of CAPE on Fenton reaction-induced oxidative damage to membrane lipids (lipid peroxidation, LPO) in porcine thyroid and liver, and to compare the results with protective effects of melatonin.

Methods

Thyroid and liver homogenates were incubated in the presence of CAPE (500; 100; 50; 10; 5.0; 1.0 μM) or melatonin (500; 100; 50; 10; 5.0; 1.0 μM), without or with addition of FeSO4 (30 μM) + H2O2 (0.5 mM).

The level of lipid peroxidation was measured spectrophotometrically and expressed as the amount of MDA + 4-HDA (nmol) per mg of protein.

Results

Whereas CAPE decreased the basal LPO in a concentration-dependent manner in both tissues, melatonin did not change the basal LPO level. When antioxidants were used together with Fenton reaction substrates, they prevented – in a concentration-dependent manner and to a similar extent – experimentally-induced LPO in both tissues.

Conclusions

Protective antioxidative effects of CAPE in the thyroid and the liver are similar to those caused by melatonin. CAPE constitutes a promising agent in terms of its application in experimental and, possibly, clinical studies.

]]>
<![CDATA[Vitamin D and thyroid cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989db0eab0ee8fa60bcb5dc ]]> <![CDATA[The assessment of side effects of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) applied in patients with advanced thyroid cancer (TC) - one centre experience]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989db28ab0ee8fa60bd0bfd ]]> <![CDATA[Association of thyroid function with arterial pressure in normotensive and hypertensive euthyroid individuals: A cross-sectional study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989daaaab0ee8fa60ba8dff

Background

Overt hypothyroidism has been associated with arterial hypertension and increased arterial stiffness. Results in euthyroid individuals have been conflicting. We investigated associations of thyroid function with systolic (SAP) and diastolic (DAP) arterial pressure in euthyroid subjects.

Methods

311 euthyroid individuals (185 women, mean age 43.9 ± 9) without a history of diabetes attending a preventive medicine program were examined. Subjects receiving thyroxine (10.6%) were excluded; 19.3% had hypertension, 43% had a family history for hypertension. TSH, fT4, thyroid autoantibodies, insulin, glucose were measured. The "fT4.TSH product", which has been suggested as a T4 resistance-index, was calculated.

Results

TSH range was 0.1–8, median 1.4 mU/L, fT4 range was 11.5–25.2 pmol/L, median 17.4. TSH and the "fT4.TSH product" were positively associated with DAP (p < 0.03, for both associations). In the subgroup of individuals with TSH levels 0.36–2.5 mU/L, both TSH and the "fT4.TSH product" were positively correlated with SAP (r = +0.133 p = 0.044, r = +0.152 p = 0.026) and DAP (r = +0.243 p < 0.001, r = +0.252 p < 0.001 respectively); in multivariate analysis the "fT4.TSH product" was a significant predictor of DAP independently of HOMA-IR and BMI (p < 0.001). Similar associations were found when only the non-hypertensive subjects were analysed (p = 0.004). Hypertensive patients had higher TSH levels (p = 0.02) and belonged more frequently to the subgroup with TSH > 2 mU/L (35.3% vs 21.3%, p = 0.045).

Conclusion

In euthyroid individuals the association of thyroid function with diastolic arterial pressure remains significant even when a stricter "normal range" for TSH levels is considered. The "freeT4.TSH" product appears to be an even stronger predictor of DAP, independently of HOMA insulin resistance index and obesity.

]]>
<![CDATA[Postoperative follow up in patients showing no evident residual disease - cut-offs for imaging/ intervention]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989da9cab0ee8fa60ba426d

The European Group generally agrees with the American guidelines on the issue of the indications for additional surgery in patients with recurrence of medullary thyroid cancer. The discussions have been focused mainly on the postoperative follow-up, where some European experts feel that a postoperative calcitonin-stimulating test is of some importance in assigning the patient to the “Cured” or “Non-cured” group immediately after surgery. A part of the European group feels that a negative calcitonin-stimulating test might lead to a less intensive follow-up in the late follow-up of these patients.

]]>
<![CDATA[Imaging techniques in diagnostics, differentiation and monitoring of different types of thyroiditis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989db42ab0ee8fa60bd738a ]]> <![CDATA[Aberrant expression of follicle stimulating hormone receptors (FSHR) in thyroid neoplasia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989db41ab0ee8fa60bd6be1 ]]> <![CDATA[Thyroid disorders and pregnancy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989dae9ab0ee8fa60bbe6b2 ]]>