ResearchPad - Endocrinology Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[The Bones of Children With Obesity]]> Excess adiposity in childhood may affect bone development, ultimately leading to bone frailty. Previous reports showing an increased rate of extremity fractures in children with obesity support this fear. On the other hand, there is also evidence suggesting that bone mineral content is higher in obese children than in normal weight peers. Both adipocytes and osteoblasts derive from multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and obesity drives the differentiation of MSCs toward adipocytes at the expense of osteoblast differentiation. Furthermore, adipocytes in bone marrow microenvironment release a number of pro-inflammatory and immunomodulatory molecules that up-regulate formation and activation of osteoclasts, thus favoring bone frailty. On the other hand, body adiposity represents a mechanical load, which is beneficial for bone accrual. In this frame, bone quality, and structure result from the balance of inflammatory and mechanical stimuli. Diet, physical activity and the hormonal milieu at puberty play a pivotal role on this balance. In this review, we will address the question whether the bone of obese children and adolescents is unhealthy in comparison with normal-weight peers and discuss mechanisms underlying the differences in bone quality and structure. We anticipate that many biases and confounders affect the clinical studies conducted so far and preclude us from achieving robust conclusions. Sample-size, lack of adequate controls, heterogeneity of study designs are the major drawbacks of the existing reports. Due to the increased body size of children with obesity, dual energy absorptiometry might overestimate bone mineral density in these individuals. Magnetic resonance imaging, peripheral quantitative CT (pQCT) scanning and high-resolution pQCT are promising techniques for the accurate estimate of bone mineral content in obese children. Moreover, no longitudinal study on the risk of incident osteoporosis in early adulthood of children and adolescents with obesity is available. Finally, we will address emerging dietary issues (i.e., the likely benefits for the bone health of polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols) since an healthy diet (i.e., the Mediterranean diet) with balanced intake of certain nutrients associated with physical activity remain the cornerstones for achieving an adequate bone accrual in young individuals regardless of their adiposity degree.

<![CDATA[Avoidance Learning Across the Menstrual Cycle: A Conceptual Replication]]> Hormonal transitions across the menstrual cycle may modulate human reward processing and reinforcement learning, but previous results were contradictory. Studies assessed relatively small samples (n < 30) and exclusively used within-subject designs to compare women in hormonally distinct menstrual cycle phases. This increased the risk of sporadic findings and results may have been disproportionally affected by expectancy effects. Also, replication studies are widely missing, which currently precludes any reliable inferences. The present study was intended as a conceptual replication of a previous study [(1), Neuropsychologia 84; n = 15]. There, we had observed a reduction in avoidance learning capacity when women were in the high estradiol state of the late follicular phase as compared to the mid luteal phase with enhanced progesterone influence. These results conformed to the idea that estradiol and progesterone may antagonistically modulate dopaminergic transmission as a dopamine agonist and antagonist, respectively. Heightened progesterone in the luteal phase thereby supported the ability to learn from the negative outcomes of one's actions, while the follicular rise in estradiol interfered with this capacity. Here, we re-examined the above described within-subject difference between the follicular and the luteal phase in a between-subjects design. Seventy-five women were tested once with a probabilistic feedback learning task, while being either in the follicular (36 women) or luteal phase (39 women), and were compared for phase-related differences in behavior. Secondly, we combined the new data with data from three previous studies from our laboratory that used the same task and menstrual cycle phases. This meta-analysis included only data from the first test day, free of any biasing expectancy effects. Both analyses demonstrated the consistency of the decline in avoidance learning in the follicular relative to the luteal phase. We also showed that this decline reliably occurred in all of the included samples. Altogether, these results provide evidence for the consistency of a behavioral difference and its apparent association with a transient change in hormonal state that occurs in the natural menstrual cycle. Our findings may also open new avenues for the development of reliable between-subjects test protocols in menstrual cycle research.

<![CDATA[Androgens In Men Study (AIMS): protocol for meta-analyses of individual participant data investigating associations of androgens with health outcomes in men]]> This study aims to clarify the role(s) of endogenous sex hormones to influence health outcomes in men, specifically to define the associations of plasma testosterone with incidence of cardiovascular events, cancer, dementia and mortality risk, and to identify factors predicting testosterone concentrations. Data will be accrued from at least three Australian, two European and four North American population-based cohorts involving approximately 20 000 men.Methods and analysisEligible studies include prospective cohort studies with baseline testosterone concentrations measured using mass spectrometry and 5 years of follow-up data on incident cardiovascular events, mortality, cancer diagnoses or deaths, new-onset dementia or decline in cognitive function recorded. Data for men, who were not taking androgens or drugs suppressing testosterone production, metabolism or action; and had no prior orchidectomy, are eligible. Systematic literature searches were conducted from 14 June 2019 to 31 December 2019, with no date range set for searches. Aggregate level data will be sought where individual participant data (IPD) are not available. One-stage IPD random-effects meta-analyses will be performed, using linear mixed models, generalised linear mixed models and either stratified or frailty-augmented Cox regression models. Heterogeneity in estimates from different studies will be quantified and bias investigated using funnel plots. Effect size estimates will be presented in forest plots and non-negligible heterogeneity and bias investigated using subgroup or meta-regression analyses.Ethics and disseminationEthics approvals obtained for each of the participating cohorts state that participants have consented to have their data collected and used for research purposes. The Androgens In Men Study has been assessed as exempt from ethics review by the Human Ethics office at the University of Western Australia (file reference number RA/4/20/5014). Each of the component studies had obtained ethics approvals; please refer to respective component studies for details. Research findings will be disseminated to the scientific and broader community via the publication of four research articles, with each involving a separate set of IPD meta-analyses (articles will investigate different, distinct outcomes), at scientific conferences and meetings of relevant professional societies. Collaborating cohort studies will disseminate findings to study participants and local communities.PROSPERO registration numberCRD42019139668. ]]> <![CDATA[How self-stigma affects patient activation in persons with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study]]> Self-stigma is associated with lower patient activation levels for self-care in persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the causal pathway linking self-stigma with patient activation for self-care has not been shown. In order to determine how self-stigma affects patient activation for self-care, we tested a two-path hypothetical model both directly and as mediated by self-esteem and self-efficacy.DesignA cross-sectional study.SettingTwo university hospitals, one general hospital and one clinic in Japan.ParticipantsT2DM outpatients receiving treatment (n=209) completed a self-administered questionnaire comprising the Self-Stigma Scale, Patient Activation Measure, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, General Self-Efficacy Scale, Patient Health Questionnaire, haemoglobin A1c test, age, sex and body mass index.Primary and secondary outcome measuresSelf-stigma levels were measured by using the Self-Stigma Scale. Patient activation levels were measured by the Patient Activation Measure.ResultsPath analysis showed a strong relationship between self-stigma and patient activation (χ2=27.55, p=0.120; goodness-of-fit index=0.97; adjusted goodness-of-fit index=0.94; comparative fit index=0.98; root mean square error of approximation=0.04). Self-stigma had a direct effect on patient activation (β=−0.20; p=0.002). Indirectly, self-stigma affected patient activation along two paths (β=0.31; p<0.001) by reducing self-esteem (β=−0.22; p<0.001) and self-efficacy (β=−0.36; p<0.001).ConclusionsDue to the cross-sectional design of the study, longitudinal changes between all the variables cannot be established. However, the findings indicate that self-stigma affected patient activation for self-care, both directly and as mediated by self-esteem and self-efficacy. Interventions that increase self-esteem and self-efficacy may decrease self-stigma in patients with T2DM, thus increasing patient activation for self-care. ]]> <![CDATA[Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus]]> Background

In the recent years, controversy has emerged regarding the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and the potential effects it could have on glycemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). This study investigates the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency in pediatric patients with T1D from a single, large volume practice.


This was a retrospective chart review that collected clinical/demographic data as well as serum 25(OH) D levels from medical records of 395 children between the ages of 3 and 18 years with T1D followed at Nemours Children’s Hospital. This data was compared to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) database. A Pearson’s Chi-square test was used between group associations. All statistical tests were two-sided and p < 0.05 was used for statistical significance.


Of the 395 children included in these analyses, 4% were vitamin D deficient and 60% were vitamin D insufficient. There were no significant associations of vitamin D deficiency based on sex and age. Vitamin D deficiency was more common among White children when compared to Hispanic children and African American children (42% vs 29%; p < 0.001). Of those that were vitamin D insufficient (n = 235), most were Hispanic (51%), 36% White and 13% African American. There was a significant association between vitamin D deficiency and body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.035). In the summer, children were less likely to be vitamin D deficient (3% vs 6% in winter) and less likely to be vitamin D insufficient (55% vs 71% in winter) (p = 0.007).


Vitamin D insufficiency is highly prevalent among pediatric type 1 diabetics of Central Florida and statistically significant correlation was found between vitamin D status and ethnicity, BMI as well as seasonal variation.

<![CDATA[SUN-LB96 Basal Contralateral Aldosterone Suppression Is Rare in Lateralized Primary Aldosteronism and Can Be Useful in Predicting Surgical Outcome]]> Background: Adrenal venous sampling (AVS) is performed to distinguish between unilateral or bilateral source of aldosterone in primary aldosteronism (PA). Unilateral aldosteronomas should lead to suppression of renin and contralateral (CL) aldosterone secretion, assessed by the CL suppression ratio. We recently found that CL aldosterone suppression was relatively rare using the ratio of basal aldosterone concentration of the opposite adrenal vein/periphery (AOPP/AP) in contrast to the traditional cortisol-corrected aldosterone ratio ((A/C)OPP(A/C)P). Pathology studies showed frequent zona glomerulosa (ZG) hyperplasia adjacent to a dominant aldosteronoma, which could also indicate probable ZG hyperplasia in the CL adrenal. The ratio of basal CL suppression could be a usefull parameter to predict cure following unilateral adrenalectomy (UA), but controversy remains in the literature.


1. To evaluate the prevalence of basal CL suppression using the AOPP/AP ratio as compared to the (A/C)OPP/(A/C)P ratio at previously established cut-offs.

2. To determine the best cut-off to predict clinical and biochemical surgical cure in two Canadian referral centers.

3. To compare the accuracy of the AOPP/AP ratio to the basal lateralization ratio (LR) and the post-ACTH LR in predicting the surgical outcome.

Methods: 330 patients with PA and successful bilateral simultaneous basal and post-ACTH stimulated AVS (selectivity index >2 basally and >5 post-ACTH) were included; 124 patients found to be lateralized underwent UA. The follow-up data were evaluated for clinical and biochemical cure at 3 and 12 months using the PASO criteria.

Results: Using AOPP/AP and (A/C)OPP/(A/C)P at the cut-off of 1, the prevalence of CL suppression is 6% and 45%, respectively. The median CL suppression ratio is 2.3 (1.3-5.1) in lateralized cases of PA using AOPP/AP. Using ROC curves, the AOPP/AP ratio is associated with clinical cure at 3 and 12 months and biochemical cure at 12 months. (A/C)OPP/(A/C)P is associated with biochemical cure only. The cut-offs for AOPP/AP offering the best sensitivity and specificity for clinical and biochemical cures at 12 months are 2.15 (Se 63% and Sp 71%) and 6.15 (Se 84% and Sp 77%), respectively. Basal LR and post-ACTH LR are associated with clinical cure but only the post-ACTH LR is associated with biochemical cure.

Conclusions: Basal CL suppression defined by the AOPP/AP ratio is rare and incomplete compared to the traditional (A/C)OPP/(A/C)P ratio in lateralized cases of PA. This may reflect the frequent micronodular hyperplasia adjacent to dominant aldosteronomas and possibly in the CL adrenal. Basal CL aldosterone suppression may predict clinical postoperative outcome, but with modest accuracy.

<![CDATA[Silencing of LncRNA PVT1 inhibits the proliferation, migration and fibrosis of high glucose-induced mouse mesangial cells via targeting microRNA-93-5p]]> Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the regulatory role of long non-coding RNA plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 (PVT1) on high glucose (HG)-induced mouse mesangial cells (MMCs).

Methods: PVT1 expression in diabetic nephropathy (DN) mice and HG-induced MMCs was detected by qRT-PCR. EdU and Colony formation, Annexin V-PI staining, Muse cell cycle, Scratch, and Transwell assays were performed to detect the cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle, migration, and invasion, respectively. The contents of fibrosis factors in cell-culture supernatants were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Western blot was performed to detect the expression of factors involved in apoptosis, cell cycle, migration and invasion, fibrosis, and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. The targeting relation between miR-93-5p and PVT1 was predicted by StarBase3.0 (an online software for analyzing the targeting relationship) and identified by Dual-luciferase reporter (DLR) assay.

Results: PVT1 was overexpressed in DN kidney tissues and HG-induced MMCs. HG-induced MMCs exhibited significantly increased EdU-positive cells, cell colonies, S and G2/M phase cells, migration and invasion ability, and contents of fibrosis factors, as well as significantly decreased apoptosis rate compared with NG-induced MMCs. HG significantly up-regulated Bcl-2, CyclinD1, CDK4, N-cadherin, vimentin, Col. IV, FN, TGF-β1 and PAI-1, and down-regulated Bax, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved PARP, and E-cadherin in MMCs. Silencing of PVT1 eliminated the effects of HG in MMCs and blocked PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. MiR-93-5p was a target of PVT1, which eliminated the effects of PVT1 on HG-induced MMCs.

Conclusions: PVT1 silencing inhibited the proliferation, migration, invasion and fibrosis, promoted the apoptosis, and blocked PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in HG-induced MMCs via up-regulating miR-93-5p.

<![CDATA[Negative pressure wound therapy compared with standard moist wound care on diabetic foot ulcers in real-life clinical practice: results of the German DiaFu-RCT]]> The aim of the DiaFu study was to evaluate effectiveness and safety of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) in patients with diabetic foot wounds in clinical practice.DesignIn this controlled clinical superiority trial with blinded outcome assessment patients were randomised in a 1:1 ratio stratified by study site and ulcer severity grade using a web-based-tool.SettingThis German national study was conducted in 40 surgical and internal medicine inpatient and outpatient facilities specialised in diabetes foot care.Participants368 patients were randomised and 345 participants were included in the modified intention-to-treat (ITT) population. Adult patients suffering from a diabetic foot ulcer at least for 4 weeks and without contraindication for NPWT were allowed to be included.InterventionsNPWT was compared with standard moist wound care (SMWC) according to local standards and guidelines.Primary and secondary outcome measuresPrimary outcome was wound closure within 16 weeks. Secondary outcomes were wound-related and treatment-related adverse events (AEs), amputations, time until optimal wound bed preparation, wound size and wound tissue composition, pain and quality of life (QoL) within 16 weeks, and recurrences and wound closure within 6 months.ResultsIn the ITT population, neither the wound closure rate (difference: n=4 (2.5% (95% CI−4.7% – 9.7%); p=0.53)) nor the time to wound closure (p=0.244) was significantly different between the treatment arms. 191 participants (NPWT 127; SMWC 64) had missing endpoint documentations, premature therapy ends or unauthorised treatment changes. 96 participants in the NPWT arm and 72 participants in the SMWC arm had at least one AE (p=0.007), but only 16 AEs were related to NPWT.ConclusionsNPWT was not superior to SMWC in diabetic foot wounds in German clinical practice. Overall, wound closure rate was low. Documentation deficits and deviations from treatment guidelines negatively impacted the outcome wound closure.Trial registration numbers NCT01480362 and DRKS00003347. ]]> <![CDATA[SAT-081 Hidden in Plain Sight: Rethinking Our Approach to Allan-Herndon-Dudley Syndrome]]> Background: Allan-Herndon-Dudley (AHD) is a rare X-linked disorder with neurological manifestations secondary to a mutation in monocarboxylate transporter 8, a protein that transports T3 into nerve cells in the brain. AHD is characterized by increased serum free T3, decreased serum free T4 and normal serum TSH levels as well as the severe neurological manifestations including global developmental delay, hypotonia, and joint contractures (1). A phase 2 trial using triodyothyroacetic acid has shown promise in treating this disorder (2). We report on three children who were diagnosed by whole exome sequencing after presenting with neurological manifestations.

Clinical Cases: Patient 1 presented at 4 months to the neurology clinic for seizures. He had a normal newborn screen. Worsening developmental delays and central hypotonia prompted a brain MRI that revealed delayed myelination for age. At 6 months a chromosomal microarray and metabolic work-up were performed and were nondiagnostic. Whole exome sequencing was obtained at the age of 4.5 years revealing a mutation in the SLC16A2 gene (p.Ser210Tyr). Thyroid studies were consistent with the diagnosis.

Patient 2 presented to neurology at 9 months for developmental delay. A brain MRI was obtained which was within normal limits. At 14 months an acylcarnitine profile was obtained which indicated a possible CPT1 deficiency, which did not fit his clinical picture. Chromosomal microarray as well as work-up for inborn errors of metabolism were performed and were nondiagnostic. Thyroid studies were obtained which showed low free T4 with normal TSH. Whole exome sequencing was obtained at the age of 2.5 years, which revealed a mutation in SLC16A2 (p.R371C).

Patient 3 presented as sibling of patient 2 with known AHD syndrome. Testing for SLC16A2 was performed at the age of 5 months and returned positive for same mutation as sibling (p.R371C).

Conclusion: Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome is a rare neurological disease secondary to a mutation in the T3 transporter protein to nervous tissue. A high index of suspicion as well as thyroid studies should be obtained in patients presenting with central hypotonia and global developmental delay with normal newborn screens, particularly in states that use TSH as a screening test. This is especially important as treatments are becoming available that may help prevent neurological devastation seen in these patients.


1. Dumitrescu AM, Fu J, Dempsey MA, Refetoff S. MCT8-Specific Thyroid Hormone Cell-Membrane Transporter Deficiency. In: Adam MP, Ardinger HH, Pagon RA, et al., eds. GeneReviews®. Seattle (WA): University of Washington, Seattle; 1993

2. Groeneweg S, Peeters RP, Moran C, et al. Effectiveness and safety of the tri-iodothyronine analogue Triac in children and adults with MCT8 deficiency: an international, single-arm, open-label, phase 2 trial. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2019;7(9):695-706.

<![CDATA[SUN-001 Identification of Dehydroepiandrosterone-s (DHEA-s) Elevation Due to Performance Enhancing Supplements]]> Background: Recreational athletes and individuals in certain occupations may utilize supplements with the goal of enhancing their physical performance and strength. These individuals may be reluctant to provide their supplement use history due to the stigma associated with performance enhancing drugs. We report a case of supplement use causing elevated dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) levels in a young woman presenting with alopecia. Clinical Case: A 29-year-old Caucasian woman presented for evaluation of progressive alopecia spanning 7 years. She was initially managed by dermatology with topical ketoconazole and clobetasol creams followed by intra-lesional triamcinolone injections. Despite treatment, she had minimal improvement. She reported menarche at age 15 with normal regular monthly menstrual cycles and normal breast development. She has no significant medical history. Physical exam was unremarkable other than localized alopecia and athletic build. She denied any medication use. Routine laboratory screening showed a DHEA-S of 624 ug/dL (ref. 35-430) with repeat DHEA-S at 602.2 ug/dL. Complete blood count, metabolic panel, thyroid function test, total/free testosterone, estradiol, 17-hydroxprogesterone, urinary 17-ketosteroids, prolactin, and iron panel were all within normal limits. Anabolic abuse screen was negative. Adrenal imaging was normal. After discussion on elevated DHEA-S results, patient revealed that she was taking a supplement that contained enobosarm (Ostarine). She was instructed to discontinue the supplement and repeat her labs but she was lost to follow up. Discussion: Developed in 1997, enobosarm is a selective androgen receptor modulator (SARMs) that is increasingly used as a performance-enhancing drug. SARMs have tissue specific androgenic receptor effect and patients on SARMs can present with a completely normal hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal axis without biochemical evidence of hyperandrogenism; which was the case in our patient. Conventional anabolic drug abuse screens do not detect SARMs. There have been multiple studies that have evaluated different performance enhancing supplements and nearly 25% of tested products contained compounds that were not correctly labeled. It is therefore uncertain what may have raised this patient’s DHEA-S levels, but the authors theorize the supplement may have contained exogenous DHEA rather than a direct effect of enobosarm. Unfortunately, there is paucity of data or literature on the effect of SARMs on androgen hormone synthesis and DHEA-S levels. A PubMed search for SARMs and DHEA-S levels led to zero returns. It is important for clinicians to recognize and identify the possibility of SARM or supplement use in order to guide diagnostic and management decisions. Further investigation is needed to understand the impact of SARMs on laboratory data and its long term effects.

<![CDATA[MON-001 Peripartum Sertraline (Zoloft®) Increases Pup Mortality Immediately Postpartum]]> Peripartum and postpartum depression can be detrimental to both the mother and the developing child. Use of antidepressants, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), is common during the peripartal period and SSRIs have been the leading prescribed antidepressant to treat maternal depression. One of the most commonly prescribed SSRIs is sertraline (Zoloft®) because of the limited fetal teratogenic effects observed, unlike maternal paroxetine (Paxil®) usage which can manifest in fetal cardiovascular defects. Fluoxetine (Prozac®), like sertraline, has previously been shown to have limited teratogenic effects, however, we have shown treatment with fluoxetine for the entire period of pregnancy and lactation in mice compromises pup bones at weaning resulting in decreased long bone length and head circumference. Furthermore, maternal fluoxetine usage results in a sustained reduction in maternal bone mineral density post weaning, which may lead to long-term osteopenia, putting the mother at risk for bone-related disorders later in life. We hypothesized sertraline, like fluoxetine, will compromise maternal bone postpartum and fetal bone development at weaning. Treatment with sertraline in C57BL/6 dams throughout pregnancy and lactation reduced litter size (5.4 pups/dam) and increased pup mortality during the first 24 hours postpartum (20% dead pups/litter) compared to controls (6.8 pups/dam, 5% dead pups/litter, respectively; P < 0.018). Maternal calcium transporters (Orai1 and Serca2) were downregulated in the mammary gland in sertraline-treated dams on day 21 of lactation (P < 0.0032). Together, our data suggests in utero pharmacological exposure to sertraline may induce a failure to thrive in the pups and alters calcium metabolism in the dam. SSRI exposure during pregnancy and lactation may adversely affect the developing neonate(s) as well as have lasting impacts on the mother.

<![CDATA[SAT-567 Hypertriglyceridem...From Mild to Fatal!... Is Time for Awareness]]> Hypertriglyceridemia… From mild to fatal! … Is Time for Awareness.

Hypertriglyceridemia can be primary or acquired. High triglycerides are related to complications such as pancreatitis and there is a positive correlation between hypertriglyceridemia and atherosclerotic burden. In this case series we aim to discuss pancreatitis as a hypertriglyceridemia complication and to acknowledge the importance of prevention and management. Is there something we can do to raise awareness and avoid complications as in the cases?

All cases present with chief complaint of epigastric cramp-like abdominal pain, radiating to the back, nausea/vomiting and with highly lipemic blood samples.

38y/o F admitted after been found with lipase 268 U/L (n<60 U/L), amylase 131 U/L (n<100 U/L) and findings of pancreatitis on CT scan. Patient with one-year history of T2DM refers this is the 4th episode of pancreatitis and reports that last time she was told about having triglycerides in 4,000 mg/dL for which she went to her physician that prescribe her Fenofibrate. Patient triglycerides were 7,931 mg/dL (n<199 mg/dL) and found with poorly controlled diabetes with HgbA1c 8.4%. She was properly managed, and triglycerides decrease to 1,309 mg/dL.

31y/o F with elevated lipase (237 U/L, n<60 U/L) and findings of pancreatitis on CT scan was admitted and found with 7,755 mg/dL triglycerides. She refers to have endometriosis for which she uses OCPs for >5years. She develops intractable abdominal pain along with abdominal distension and progress to Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) requiring mechanical ventilation. She had a prolonged ICU stay and after management triglycerides decrease to 95mg/dL, symptoms resolve, and patient was discharge.

48y/o F with pancreatitis, lipase levels 1,452 U/L, amylase 744 U/L and positive imaging findings. Patient with uncontrolled diabetes (HgbA1c 11.0%) and breast mass s/p lumpectomy for which she used tamoxifen for the last 2 years. Triglycerides 7,444mg/dL on Gemfibrozil started due to previous levels found >4,000 mg/dL on outpatient evaluation. She deteriorates clinically and develops renal failure, abdominal compartment syndrome, respiratory distress and hypotension requiring mechanical ventilation and vasopressors. On repeated abdominal CT pancreas changes were suggestive of fulminant pancreatitis. Patient did not respond to treatment and passed away 48 hours after admission.

Hypertriglyceridemia complications can be mild or fatal as in these cases. They were evaluated by a primary care physician before complications occur and had secondary causes that predispose them to hypertriglyceridemia, but they were not addressed, reason for which these scenarios raise concern of how much we know? How much we are doing to prevent these outcomes?... Awareness of hypertriglyceridemia management and adverse effects is necessary to avoid complications and fatal outcomes. Is time!

<![CDATA[SUN-083 Screening of Vitamin D and Calcium Concentrations in Neonates of Mothers at High Risk of Vitamin D Deficiency]]> Objective: The aim of this study was to determine, retrospectively, the serum 25OHD and calcium concentrations of screened neonates of mothers at high risk of 25OHD deficiency (maternal 25OHD < 25 nmol/L or unknown vitamin D concentrations and risk factors for vitamin D deficiency) and critically analyse whether their measurements contributes to the management of these neonates.

Methods: Serum 25OHD and calcium concentrations from 600 samples of umbilical cord blood or venous blood collected from neonates over a 12-month period were analysed. 25OHD concentrations were reported for all while both the corrected calcium concentrations and vitamin D concentrations were available for 569 samples.

Results: There was little or no evidence of association between neonatal 25OHD concentrations and gender, gestational age or birth weight. There was a high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (27.6%, 30–50 nmol/L) and deficiency (21.3%, < 30 nmol/L) in neonates from high-risk maternal groups. There was a statistically positive but weak correlation (ρ = 0.22, P < 0.0001) between serum calcium and 25OHD concentrations. Only 7 neonates out of 569 (1.2%) had calcium levels in the hypocalcaemic range; however, a significant number (47.6%) were reported to be in the hypercalcaemic range. Nearly all of these were venous samples collected in first 24 hours after birth. We calculated the reference interval for corrected calcium from our data of venous samples in first 24 hours and the upper limit was significantly higher (2.38–3.04 mmol/L) than the standard reference range used.

Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in neonates of high-risk mothers but the risk of hypocalcaemia due to vitamin D deficiency at birth is low. Screening neonates entails blood testing which can cause distress to neonates and their parents, substantial impost on staff and financial burden on the health care system. 25OHD deficiency is corrected relatively easily in neonates with supplementation and vitamin D supplementation of neonates from birth without routine screening appears to offer better value of care. Also, the data from this study suggest that the paediatric reference range for corrected calcium concentrations in neonates is higher and the paediatric reference range should be reconsidered.

<![CDATA[SAT-LB92 Sex Hormones Therapy Differentially Modulates HDL Function in Transgender Individuals]]> Background/aim: The main proposed atheroprotective function of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) lays on their role to promote macrophage cholesterol efflux. An insightful way to learn more about the effects of sex hormones on HDL function is to study changes during hormone therapy. The present study was aimed at evaluating the effects of exogenous sex hormones administration on HDL cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) within transgender individuals. CEC estimates the ability of HDL to remove cholesterol from cells, i.e. the initial step in reverse cholesterol transport.

Subjects/Methods: Transmen were treated with testosterone gel, a mix of testosterone esters once every three weeks) or testosterone undecanoate once every twelve weeks, whereas transwomen were treated with either oral estradiol valerate or a transdermal application of estradiol (patches). Cyproterone acetate was prescribed as a testosterone-blocking agent to all transwomen. HDL function was evaluated by a radioisotopic technique. Hormone levels, lipids and HDL function were evaluated after one year of follow-up.

Results: In transmen (n= 15), testosterone markedly increased (+ 97%; p < 0.0001), whereas luteinizing hormone (LH) decreased significantly (- 64%; p = 0.049). Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were not affected by testosterone treatment, whilst triglycerides (TG) were raised (+ 11.76%; p = 0.0078) and HDL-C reduced (- 19.6%, p=0.0103). Concerning HDL CEC, only the aqueous diffusion process was lowered (- 9.8%; p = 0.0032), an effect directly correlated with HDL-C changes (r = 0.6242, p = 0.0002). Total-, ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABCA1)-, and ABCG1-mediated CEC were not affected by testosterone treatment. In transwomen (n= 15), estradiol levels were raised (+200%, p=0.013) whereas LH and testosterone significantly reduced, i.e. - 97% for both. Relative to lipids, estradiol supplementation reduced total cholesterol (- 10.7%, p=0.0017), HDL-C (- 14.3%, p = 0.0024) and LDL-C (- 10.9%, p = 0.0058). Total HDL CEC decreased (- 11%, p=0.0001) with a specific decrement in CEC mediated by the ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABCA1) (-24%, p = 0.0003) and aqueous diffusion (-4.7%, p = 0.0014). This last was associated to a reduction in HDL-C (r = 0.4084, p = 0.0251). Conversely, the drop in ABCA1 and total CEC did not associate to reductions in HDL-C levels.

Conclusions: In transmen, testosterone supplementation was associated with a reduction in aqueous diffusion-mediated CEC, an effect potentially dependent to HDL-C changes. In transwomen, estrogen significantly decreased HDL function (CEC), independent of HDL-C levels changes.

<![CDATA[SUN-LB1 Atypical Presentation Of Myocardial Infarction In A Young Patient With Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome]]> Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a very common and complex endocrine problem in women of childbearing age, with a prevalence of 4 to 12% globally. Myocardial infarction (MI) is the leading cause of death in women worldwide. PCOS increases the risk of MI because of chronic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, impaired pulse wave velocity and its association with metabolic syndrome, and hormonal imbalance.

Clinical Case: A 36-year-old female with a history of PCOS, hirsutism, severe acne on spironolactone, presented to ER with a chief complaint of lower back pain for 10 days that started after lifting a 60-pounds printer. The pain was attributed to musculoskeletal type, one dose of ketorolac intramuscularly was given and she was discharged on cyclobenzaprine. The next morning, she presented with worsening back pain and new-onset vomiting. Physical exam was normal except for BMI 34.6kg/m2; vitals were stable. Lab work showed elevated troponin of 1.43 which rose to 10.6 ng/ml (normal 0.00-0.034), cholesterol 125 mg/dL (less than 200), HDL 33 mg/dL (normal 40-59), LDL 164 mg/dL (normal 100-129). Electrocardiogram showed sinus tachycardia with Q wave changes in leads III and V1 to V3. Echocardiogram showed hypokinesia of left ventricular wall in the mid to apical anterior septum. Computed tomography (CT) scan of the thoracic spine was negative for abscess or fracture. CT of abdomen and pelvis as well as CT angiography chest were negative. Urine drug screening was also negative.

As her presentation was attributed to MI, patient was started on heparin drip, aspirin, atorvastatin, and metoprolol. She underwent cardiac catheterization that showed 99% ostial left anterior descending artery stenosis; a drug-eluting stent was successfully placed. After intervention her back pain resolved. She was discharged on dual antiplatelet therapy (aspirin and Prasugrel) along with atorvastatin, metoprolol and nitroglycerin.

Conclusion: This case suggests an association of PCOS with MI. A meta-analysis has shown a two-fold increase in risk of coronary artery disease in patients with PCOS (1). Future studies are need to examine opportunities for cardiovascular disease risk reduction in PCOS patients.

Reference:1. de Groot PCM, Dekkers OM, Romijn JA, Dieben SWM, Helmerhorst FM. PCOS, coronary heart disease, stroke and the influence of obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Human Reproduction Update 2011. 17 495-500.

<![CDATA[SAT-553 Use of Optimal Cutting Temperature Compound (OCT)-Embedded Adrenal Tumor Tissue for Intratumoral Steroid Hormone Profiling]]> Background: Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most common cause of secondary hypertension, accounting for 5-8% of all hypertension. PA is most commonly attributed to an aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) or to bilateral hyperaldosteronism (BHA). Mutations in the inward-rectifying K+ channel (mKCNJ5), which increase autonomous aldosterone production, are most frequently detected in APAs. APAs with mKCNJ5 display aberrant expression of aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) and 17α-hydroxylase (CYP17A1), which are involved in aldosterone and cortisol synthesis, respectively. Co-expression of these enzymes results in the production of a set of “hybrid” steroids, which have been proposed as serum biomarkers. The relative production of hybrid steroids in adrenal tumors vs. adjacent normal adrenal (NA) tissue has not been investigated. Objectives: To determine the utility of OCT-embedded adrenal tumor tissue for steroid profiling. To use immunohistochemistry (IHC)-guided OCT tumor capture for intratumoral hybrid steroid profiling in mKCNJ5 APA and NA tissue. Methods: OCT-embedded adrenal tissue from 9 patients (8 women, Age 45.9 ± 3.3 years) with APAs harboring known KCNJ5 mutations were used for the study. Where available OCT-embedded normal adrenal (NA) tissue adjacent to APAs were used as controls (n=4). IHC was performed for CYP11B2 and CYP17A1 on OCT tissue allowing guided APA capture from serial sections. Steroids were extracted from APA and adjacent NA tissue, and quantified by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Steroids measured were normalized to the protein content of the extracted tissue. Results: Compared to NA, APA tissue demonstrated 23-, 5.6- and 6.4-fold higher levels of aldosterone, 11-deoxycorticosterone, and 18-hydroxycorticosterone, respectively (P<0.05). In addition, the “hybrid” steroid products, 18-oxocortisol and 18-hydroxycortisol, were significantly elevated in APA vs. NA (P<0.01). Conversely, the adrenal androgens dehydroepiandrosterone and 11-hydroxyandrostenedione were lower in APA as compared with NA (P<0.05). All mKCNJ5 APAs were also found to co-express CYP11B2 and CYP17A1. Conclusion: IHC-guided mKCNJ5 APA capture and steroid extraction identified a distinct intratumoral hybrid steroid signature that associated with co-expression of CYP11B2 and CYP17A1.These findings also demonstrate that OCT-embedded tissue can be used to accurately define intra-tissue steroid profiles, which will have application for steroid-producing and steroid-responsive tumors.

<![CDATA[OR27-05 Sexual Desire Changes in Transgender Individuals upon Initiation of Hormone Treatment; Results from the Longitudinal ENIGI Study]]> Introduction: Several steps in the transitioning process may affect sexual desire in transgender people. This is often underexposed by those providing gender affirming care. Testosterone therapy in transgender men (TM) generally leads to increasing frequency of desire, masturbation, sexual fantasies and arousal. Studies in transgender women (TW) are inconclusive: some report an increase in the prevalence of hypoactive sexual desire after initiation of hormone therapy, whereas others have shown a positive impact of hormonal therapy on sexual quality of life. The current study prospectively assesses sexual desire during the first three years of hormonal therapy (HT) in transgender people. Methods: This prospective cohort study was part of the European Network for the Investigation of Gender Incongruence (ENIGI). Sexual desire was prospectively assessed in 766 participants (401 TW, 364 TM) by Sexual Desire Inventory (SDI) during a three-year follow-up period, starting at the initiation of hormone treatment (HT). SDI scores were analyzed as total, dyadic and solitary SDI scores. At baseline, psychological questionnaires were administered. Sex steroids were measured at each follow-up visit. Data were analyzed cross-sectionally and prospectively. Results: In TW, total, dyadic and solitary SDI scores decreased during the first three months of HT. However, after 36 months, total and dyadic SDI scores were higher than baseline scores. Solitary scores after 36 months were comparable to baseline scores. In TM, total, dyadic and solitary SDI scores increased over the first three months, remaining stable thereafter. However, total and dyadic SDI scores after thirty-six months were comparable to baseline scores, whereas solitary scores remained higher than baseline. Factors associated with a prospective increase in SDI scores included having undergone gonadectomy, no longer experiencing vaginal bleedings (in TM) or higher gender dysphoria levels at baseline (in TM only). Factors associated with higher cross-sectional SDI scores included being in a relationship, undergoing gonadectomy, no longer experiencing vaginal bleedings (TM), lower gender dysphoria scores (TW only) and lower body dysphoria scores (TW only). Conclusion: Gender affirming hormonal therapy induces short-term changes in sexual desire in transgender people. Over a longer period of time, a net increase in dyadic sexual desire in TW receiving feminizing HT was observed. Sexual desire scores comparable to baseline in TM receiving virilizing HT were found. We observed no correlation between sexual desire and absolute serum testosterone levels. However, other factors, including undergoing gonadectomy, persistence of vaginal bleedings (in TM) and psychological factors may influence sexual desire in transgender people.

<![CDATA[SAT-559 Patients with Hyperaldosteronism Have Higher Prevalence of Obstructive Sleep Apnea. From the National Inpatient Sample]]> Introduction: Previous studies suggested that aldosterone excess may worsen obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) through causing peri-pharyngeal edema. Objective: In this study we sought to examine if hyperaldosteronism is associated with OSA. Methods: The National Inpatient Sample (NIS) data was queried for adults with diagnosis of primary and secondary hyperaldosteronism during the years 2012 - 2015. Patients with hyperaldosteronism were identified using the international classification of disease (ICD-9). Each patient who was diagnosed with hyperaldosteronism was matched to randomly selected controls at a 1:4 ratio by age, gender and year of hospitalization. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of OSA among patients with hyperaldosternoism. We adjusted for patient demographics, socioeconomic factors, hospital factors and clinical comorbidities. Subgroup analysis was performed based on gender, race and age groups; young adults (aged 18–35 years), middle aged (> 35-<55 years) and older adults (aged > 55 years). Results: There were 23,465 patients diagnosed with hyperaldosteronism identified. The mean age was 59 (standard error of the mean (SEM): 0.1. Females represented 48.5%. Compared to control, patients with hyperaldosteronism had higher prevalence of hypertension, CHF, stroke, obesity, diabetes, renal failure and lower prevalence of tobacco use and COPD. The proportions of African Americans were higher among patients with hyperaldosteronism compared to the control 30.1 vs 15.5, p<0.001. Patients with hyperaldosteronism had higher prevalence of OSA 16.4 vs 8.3, p<0.001. On multivariate analysis, hyperaldosteronism was independently associated with higher odds for OSA with aOR 2.01 (95%CI: 1.81–2.23) p<0.001. On subgroup analysis, similar findings were observed irrespective of gender, age group or race. Conclusion: Prevalence of OSA is higher among patients with hyperaldosteronism. Physicians may need to consider a case detection of hyperaldosteronism in patients with OSA and hypertension. Similarly we suggest to evaluate patients with hyperaldosteronism for OSA.

<![CDATA[MON-103 Pattern and Predictors of Thyroid Dysfunction Among Paediatric Endocrine Referrals at Tertiary Care Centre: A Longitudinal Study]]> Background Post iodisation era has experienced gradual change in pattern of thyroid disorders among paediatric population with autoimmunity taking precedence over iodine deficiency disorders and subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) now more frequently diagnosed but inappropriately managed. Aims This study was conducted to evaluate pattern of abnormal thyroid function among children referred to our tertiary care centre, to ascertain characteristics that influence treatment decisions and to follow them for various outcome measures. Design It was an observational longitudinal follow up study where all children less than 18 years, referred to our outpatient clinic for suspected thyroid disorder were recruited. Demographic data, personal and family history, clinical features were noted and laboratory tests including TT4, TT3, TSH, anti-thyroid peroxidase(antiTPO) and anti-thyroglobulin(antiTG) antibody were conducted in study subjects. Management was based on the clinical judgment of the attending endocrinologist. Patients were followed at 6 week, 3 months, 6 months and one year with clinical and laboratory work up at each visit. Results A total of 241 subjects aged 18 days to 17 years were included out of which 62.25% were females. Initial evaluation revealed SCH in 40% of refereed subjects, overt hypothyroidism (OH) in 33%, congenital hypothyroidism (CH) in 18% and overt thyrotoxicosis in 5%. Autoimmune thyroiditis constituted the major cause of hypothyroidism in the OH group with significantly higher prevalence of anti-TPO and antiTG antibody in comparison of SCH group (61% vs 31%; 45% vs 21.9%, p<0.05) respectively. All subjects in OH group were treated whereas 76% subjects in SCH group were treated and the mean dose of L thyroxine required to treat OH was significantly higher (2.31+1.1ug/kg/day vs 1.76+1.07ug/kg/day; p<0.001) in comparison of SCH group. A major independent predictor of treatment in SCH was initial TSH which was significantly higher in the treated group (11.65 + 3.80 uIU/ml vs 9.24 + 1.31 uIU/ml; p<0.001). Subjects with congenital hypothyroid presented at a mean age of 6 months (18 days to 2 years) with most common aetiology being thyroid hypoplasia and dyshormonogenesis

(20% each). Graves’ disease was diagnosed in 11 out of 12 subjects with thyrotoxicosis and were treated with antithyroid drugs. Overall 85.5% of refereed subjects were treated and after one-year follow up management was found to be adequate in 81% subjects. Conclusions The evolving trend of diagnosing children having nonspecific symptoms with SCH is a matter of concern as many are subjected to the burden of unwanted prolonged treatment and frequent testing as highlighted in our study. Delayed presentation of CH in our study warrants active surveillance of children at birth for thyroid disorders to avoid long term adverse effects on mental development.

<![CDATA[MON-072 A 2 -Year Old Girl with Turner Syndrome and Neurofibromatosis Type 1]]> Introduction: Turner syndrome (TS) occurs due to loss of either all or part of the X chromosome, in some or all the cells of the body. The most consistent features of TS are short stature and premature ovarian failure. Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an inheritable in an autosomal dominant manner tumor predisposition syndrome and is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the tumor suppressor NF1 gene (neurofibromin 1). Literature review indicated rare cases with NF1 and TS (1). We report the sixth girl with mosaic TS and NF1 who presented with optic nerve glioma.

Case report: A 2-year-old female presented to us due to short stature. Her height was 2,5 SD lower than the mean parental height curve, and her bone age was delayed only by 3 months. She already had a normal (46XX) peripheral blood karyotype (70 mitoses). She had abnormal body proportions and with short limbs with unremarkable café au lait spots. Additionally, to the short stature laboratory investigation we ordered a gene panel to exclude hypochondroplasia, and a Karyotype in fibroblasts culture from oral cavity sample. The results revealed low IGF-1 and mosaic TS in 14%. We preformed 2 provocative tests which revealed low growth hormone peak < 5 ng/ml. A brain and pituitary MRI to exclude pituitary lesions or structural abnormalities revealed gliomas of the optic chiasma and the right optic nerve with characteristic NF1 “spots” (regions of signal abnormality in T2 sequences) involving the basal ganglia, cerebellum and the right temporal lobe. DNA sequencing targeted to a gene panel related to NF1 and NF2 revealed a novel de novo heterozygous NF1 gene mutation in exon 28 [3764Α>G];[=]p.[Gln1255Arg].

Discussion: NF1- Gliomas are most commonly seen in young children, (mean 4.5 years). Only 1/3 of affected children will require therapeutic intervention. However early diagnosis, of optic gliomas is important. Our patient was completely asymptomatic by the time of diagnosis and no other symptom or sign of NF1 was apparent. Ophthalmologic examination was normal, but visual electrophysiologic testing was abnormal as far the right optic nerve is concerned. The oncology team decided to preform chemotherapy. In TS impaired growth is related to resistance in GH. Some studies suggested that there could be a relationship between GHD and NF1 even in the absence of an organic pituitary damage. In our patient it has been decided not to treat with GH and closely track the patient’s growth.

Conclusion: Coexistence of NF1 with TS is rare. Awareness is needed as early identification and treatment of CNS gliomas can prevent visual loss and severe co-morbidities.


Rare Presentation of Neurofibromatosis and Turner Syndrome in a Pediatric Patient. Pediatr Rep. 2017 Jun 26; 9(2): 6810