ResearchPad - Environmental Engineering https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[The southern Gulf of Mexico: A baseline radiocarbon isoscape of surface sediments and isotopic excursions at depth]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Ne8afb4d0-568f-42aa-84a3-644a9625edfc

The southern Gulf of Mexico (sGoM) is home to an extensive oil recovery and development infrastructure. In addition, the basin harbors sites of submarine hydrocarbon seepage and receives terrestrial inputs from bordering rivers. We used stable carbon, nitrogen, and radiocarbon analyses of bulk sediment organic matter to define the current baseline isoscapes of surface sediments in the sGoM and determined which factors might influence them. These baseline surface isoscapes will be useful for accessing future environmental impacts. We also examined the region for influence of hydrocarbon deposition in the sedimentary record that might be associated with hydrocarbon recovery, spillage and seepage, as was found in the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGoM) following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill in 2010. In 1979, the sGoM experienced a major oil spill, Ixtoc 1. Surface sediment δ13C values ranged from -22.4‰ to -19.9‰, while Δ14C values ranged from -337.1‰ to -69.2‰. Sediment δ15N values ranged from 2.8‰ to 7.2‰, while the %C on a carbonate-free basis ranged in value of 0.65% to 3.89% and %N ranged in value of 0.09% to 0.49%. Spatial trends for δ13C and Δ14C were driven by water depth and distance from the coastline, while spatial trends for δ15N were driven by location (latitude and longitude). Location and distance from the coastline were significantly correlated with %C and %N. At depth in two of twenty (10%) core profiles, we found negative δ13C and Δ14C excursions from baseline values in bulk sedimentary organic material, consistent with either oil-residue deposition or terrestrial inputs, but likely the latter. We then used 210Pb dating on those two profiles to determine the time in which the excursion-containing horizons were deposited. Despite the large spill in 1979, no evidence of hydrocarbon residue remained in the sediments from this specific time period.

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<![CDATA[Valuing and mapping cork and carbon across land use scenarios in a Portuguese montado landscape]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c8accd7d5eed0c484990136

The ecosystem services approach can inform decision-making by accounting for both short- and long-term benefits from different land use options. Here we used the InVEST toolkit to quantify and map key ecosystem services at the largest publicly-owned agro-silvo-pastoral farmstead in Portugal–a site representative for the montado landscape. We analyzed how Provisioning (cork production) and Regulating & Maintenance (carbon storage and sequestration) services would be affected under three land use change scenarios, which were developed in collaboration with the forest manager of the study area: Cattle Intensification, Forest Improvement, and Residential Development. Results show that increasing cattle or residential development would deliver substantially lower levels of services. We find that extensive management, improvements to forest quality, and promotion of traditional livestock grazing would provide the highest levels of assessed ecosystem services, resulting in 13.5% more carbon storage (worth between $0.34-$7.79 million USD depending on carbon price) and 62.7% more cork production (total value of USD $3.5 million) than the current land use. However, a shift in economic incentives to make sustainable cork harvesting and traditional low-density grazing of smaller ruminants like sheep and goats profitable are likely needed to reward traditional land stewardship and help support this iconic Mediterranean landscape in the future.

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<![CDATA[AutonoMouse: High throughput operant conditioning reveals progressive impairment with graded olfactory bulb lesions]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c897775d5eed0c4847d2d5d

Operant conditioning is a crucial tool in neuroscience research for probing brain function. While molecular, anatomical and even physiological techniques have seen radical increases in throughput, efficiency, and reproducibility in recent years, behavioural tools have somewhat lagged behind. Here we present a fully automated, high-throughput system for self-initiated conditioning of up to 25 group-housed, radio-frequency identification (RFID) tagged mice over periods of several months and >106 trials. We validate this “AutonoMouse” system in a series of olfactory behavioural tasks and show that acquired data is comparable to previous semi-manual approaches. Furthermore, we use AutonoMouse to systematically probe the impact of graded olfactory bulb lesions on olfactory behaviour, demonstrating that while odour discrimination in general is robust to even most extensive disruptions, small olfactory bulb lesions already impair odour detection. Discrimination learning of similar mixtures as well as learning speed are in turn reliably impacted by medium lesion sizes. The modular nature and open-source design of AutonoMouse should allow for similar robust and systematic assessments across neuroscience research areas.

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<![CDATA[Rainfall trend and variability in Southeast Florida: Implications for freshwater availability in the Everglades]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c6c759ed5eed0c4843cff23

Freshwater demand in Southeast Florida is predicted to increase over the next few decades. However, shifting patterns in the intensity and frequency of drought create considerable pressure on local freshwater availability. Well-established water resources management requires evaluating and understanding long-term rainfall patterns, drought intensity and cycle, and related rainfall deficit. In this study, the presence of rainfall monotonic trends was analyzed using linear regression and Mann–Kendal trend tests. Pettit's single point detection test examined the presence of an abrupt change of rainfall. Drought in Southeast Florida is assessed using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) in 3-, 6-, 12-, and 24-months scale; and the Fast Fourier Transform is applied to evaluate the frequency of each drought intensity. There was an increase of rainfall in most of the wet season months, the total wet season, and the annual total. The wet season duration showed a decrease driven by a decrease in October rainfall. Since 1990, wet season and total annual rainfall exhibited an abrupt increase. The SPI analysis has indicated that extended wetness characterizes the contemporary rainfall regime since 1995, except for the incidence of intermittent dry spells. Short-term droughts have 3-year to 5-year recurrence intervals, and sustained droughts have a 10-year and 20-year recurrence intervals. In Southeast Florida, prolonged drought limits freshwater availability by decreasing recharge, resulting in a longer hydro-period to maintain the health of the Everglades Ecosystem, and to control saltwater intrusion. The increasing dry season duration suggests the growing importance of promoting surface water storage and demand-side management practices.

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<![CDATA[Ecosystem services changes between 2000 and 2015 in the Loess Plateau, China: A response to ecological restoration]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c58d655d5eed0c484031bf4

The Loess Plateau of China is one of the most severe soil and water loss areas in the world. Since 1999, the Grain to Green Program (GTGP) has been implemented in the region. This study aimed to analyze spatial and temporal variations of ecosystem services from 2000 to 2015 to assess the effects of the GTGP, including carbon sequestration, water regulation, soil conservation and sand fixation. During the study period, the area of forest land and grassland significantly expanded, while the area of farmland decreased sharply. Ecosystem services showed an overall improvement with localized deterioration. Carbon sequestration, water regulation and soil conservation increased substantially. Sand fixation showed a decreasing trend mainly because of decreased wind speeds. There were synergies between carbon sequestration and water regulation, and tradeoffs between soil conservation and sand fixation. It was concluded that ecological projects have contributed significantly to the rehabilitation of the fragile ecosystems of this region. To make these projects more successful and sustainable, long-term management procedures are necessary to maintain and consolidate the improvements.

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<![CDATA[Integrating ecosystem services considerations within a GIS-based habitat suitability index for oyster restoration]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c57e667d5eed0c484ef3039

Geospatial habitat suitability index (HSI) models have emerged as powerful tools that integrate pertinent spatial information to guide habitat restoration efforts, but have rarely accounted for spatial variation in ecosystem service provision. In this study, we utilized satellite-derived chlorophyll a concentrations for Pamlico Sound, North Carolina, USA in conjunction with data on water flow velocities and dissolved oxygen concentrations to identify potential restoration locations that would maximize the oyster reef-associated ecosystem service of water filtration. We integrated these novel factors associated with oyster water filtration ecosystem services within an existing, ‘Metapopulation Persistence’ focused GIS-based, HSI model containing biophysical (e.g., salinity, oyster larval connectivity) and logistical (e.g., distance to nearest restoration material stockpile site) factors to identify suitable locations for oyster restoration that maximize long-term persistence of restored oyster populations and water filtration ecosystem service provision. Furthermore, we compared the ‘Water Filtration’ optimized HSI with the HSI optimized for ‘Metapopulation Persistence,’ as well as a hybrid model that optimized for both water filtration and metapopulation persistence. Optimal restoration locations (i.e., locations corresponding to the top 1% of suitability scores) were identified that were consistent among the three HSI scenarios (i.e., “win-win” locations), as well as optimal locations unique to a given HSI scenario (i.e., “tradeoff” locations). The modeling framework utilized in this study can provide guidance to restoration practitioners to maximize the cost-efficiency and ecosystem services value of habitat restoration efforts. Furthermore, the functional relationships between oyster water filtration and chlorophyll a concentrations, water flow velocities, and dissolved oxygen applied in this study can guide field- and lab-testing of hypotheses related to optimal conditions for oyster reef restoration to maximize water quality enhancement benefits.

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<![CDATA[Metagenomic analysis of viruses in toilet waste from long distance flights—A new procedure for global infectious disease surveillance]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c466576d5eed0c4845194b7

Human viral pathogens are a major public health threat. Reliable information that accurately describes and characterizes the global occurrence and transmission of human viruses is essential to support national and global priority setting, public health actions, and treatment decisions. However, large areas of the globe are currently without surveillance due to limited health care infrastructure and lack of international cooperation. We propose a novel surveillance strategy, using metagenomic analysis of toilet material from international air flights as a method for worldwide viral disease surveillance. The aim of this study was to design, implement, and evaluate a method for viral analysis of airplane toilet waste enabling simultaneous detection and quantification of a wide range of human viral pathogens. Toilet waste from 19 international airplanes was analyzed for viral content, using viral capture probes followed by high-throughput sequencing. Numerous human pathogens were detected including enteric and respiratory viruses. Several geographic trends were observed with samples originating from South Asia having significantly higher viral species richness as well as higher abundances of salivirus A, aichivirus A and enterovirus B, compared to samples originating from North Asia and North America. In addition, certain city specific trends were observed, including high numbers of rotaviruses in airplanes departing from Islamabad. Based on this study we believe that central sampling and analysis at international airports could be a useful supplement for global viral surveillance, valuable for outbreak detection and for guiding public health resources.

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<![CDATA[Effects of improved drinking water quality on early childhood growth in rural Uttar Pradesh, India: A propensity-score analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c3e4f27d5eed0c484d724a1

Context

Recent randomised controlled trials in Bangladesh and Kenya concluded that household water treatment, alone or in combination with upgraded sanitation and handwashing, did not reduce linear growth faltering or improve other child growth outcomes. Whether these results are applicable in areas with distinct constellations of water, sanitation and hygiene (WaSH) risks is unknown. Analysis of observational data offers an efficient means to assess the external validity of trial findings. We studied whether a water quality intervention could improve child growth in a rural Indian setting with higher levels of circulating pathogens than the original trial sites.

Methods

We analysed a cross-sectional dataset including a microbiological measure of household water quality. All households accessed water from an improved source. We applied propensity score methods to emulate a randomised trial investigating the hypothesis that receipt of drinking water meeting Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6.1 quality standards for absence of faecal contamination leads to improved growth. Growth outcomes (stunting, underweight, wasting, and their corresponding Z-scores) were assessed in children 12–23 months of age. For each outcome, we estimated the mean and 95% confidence interval of the absolute risk difference between treatment groups.

Findings

Of 1088 households, 442 (40.62%) received drinking water meeting SDG 6.1 standards. The adjusted risk of child underweight was 7.4% (1.3% to 13.4%) lower among those drinking water satisfying SDG 6.1 norms than among controls. Evidence concerning the relationship of drinking water meeting SDG 6.1 norms to length-for-age and weight-for-age was inconclusive, and there was no apparent relationship with stunting or wasting.

Conclusions

In contexts characterised by high pathogen transmission, water quality improvements have the potential to reduce the proportion of underweight children, but are unlikely to impact stunting or wasting. Further research is required to assess how these modelled benefits can best be achieved in real world settings.

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<![CDATA[The accumulation of metals, PAHs and alkyl PAHs in the roots of Echinacea purpurea]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c12cf57d5eed0c484914406

We examined the accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkyl PAHs, and toxic metals in soils by the roots of Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench, in a 20-week greenhouse study and a 2-year field study. In the greenhouse study, inoculation by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF), Rhizoglomus intraradices (N.C. Schenck & G.S. Sm.). increased the first order accumulation rates (k1) for PAHs by 10-fold, though had no effect on the bioaccumulation rates of toxic metals. In the greenhouse study, PAHs concentrations in soil increased over time with AMF inoculation, suggesting AMF promote ‘solvent depletion’ in soils by enhancing absorption of minerals and carbon by roots, concentrating the more hydrophobic PAHs in the residual soil. Under field conditions, contaminant concentrations in soils remained unchanged over the 2-year duration of the study. Despite this, all contaminants in E. purpurea roots increased significantly, as a result of a long term extraction of contaminants by plants from soil and a reduction in soil volume as a result of plant growth. First order accumulation rates by roots were inversely correlated to log Kow for the PAHs and alkyl PAHs, indicating that accumulation is inversely related to the compound’s hydrophobicity. This study is the first to our knowledge to assess the accumulation of alkyl PAHs by roots, with implications for soil bioremediation by plants because alkyl PAHs are a major source of petrogenic contamination in soils.

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<![CDATA[Pre-existing comorbidity modify emergency room visit for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in association with ambient environments]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bb530d840307c24312bb0b3

Background

This study evaluated risks of emergency room visit (ERV) for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in 2005–2011, among patients with cardiologic and metabolic syndromes (CMS), in association with ambient environments.

Methods

Pooled and area-specific weather related cumulative six-day (lags 0 to 5) relative risks (RRs) and confidence intervals (CIs) of ERV for OHCA were evaluated for CMS cases, using distributed lag nonlinear models and multivariate meta-analytical second-stage model in association with the daily average temperatures and daily concentrations of air pollutants.

Results

ERV risk increased as average temperature dropped to <27°C. At the mean temperature of 14°C, the cumulative six-day RRs of ERV were 1.73 (95% CI: 1.22, 2.46) for all OHCA patients, 1.74 (95% CI: 1.06, 2.84) for OHCA patients younger than 65 years old, and 1.99 (95% CI: 1.03, 3.81) for subjects with pre-existing hypertension. High temperature was also associated with elevated ERV of OHCA. Increased ERV risks in cases with pre-existing hypertension and diabetes mellitus were also associated with concentrations of air pollutants in northern Taiwan.

Conclusions

Our data provided evidences to clinicians, emerging medical services and public health that the ERV risk for OHCA patients is greater at low temperature than at high temperature. Patients with cardio and metabolic disorders need to pay greater attention to low temperature and avoid heat wave.

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<![CDATA[Arsenic level in toenails is associated with hearing loss in humans]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b4a1966463d7e428027f8af

Arsenic (As) pollution in drinking water is a worldwide health risk for humans. We previously showed hearing loss in young people who live in areas of As-polluted drinking water and in young mice orally treated with As. In this study, we epidemiologically examined associations between As levels in toenails and hearing in 145 Bangladeshi aged 12–55 years in 2014. Levels of As in toenails, but not those in urine, were shown to be significantly correlated with hearing loss at 4 kHz [odds ratio (OR) = 4.27; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.51, 12.05], 8 kHz (OR = 3.91; 95% CI: 1.47, 10.38) and 12 kHz (OR = 4.15; 95% CI: 1.55, 11.09) by multivariate analysis with adjustments for age, sex, smoking and BMI. Our experimental study further showed a significant association between As levels in inner ears and nails (r = 0.8113, p = 0.0014) in mice orally exposed to As, suggesting that As level in nails is a suitable index to assess As level in inner ears. Taken together, the results of our study suggest that As level in nails could be a convenient and non-invasive biomarker for As-mediated hearing loss in humans.

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<![CDATA[Cholera outbreak caused by drinking contaminated water from a lakeshore water-collection site, Kasese District, south-western Uganda, June-July 2015]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b49f0bd463d7e3adec7b984

On 20 June 2015, a cholera outbreak affecting more than 30 people was reported in a fishing village, Katwe, in Kasese District, south-western Uganda. We investigated this outbreak to identify the mode of transmission and to recommend control measures. We defined a suspected case as onset of acute watery diarrhoea between 1 June and 15 July 2015 in a resident of Katwe village; a confirmed case was a suspected case with Vibrio cholerae cultured from stool. For case finding, we reviewed medical records and actively searched for cases in the community. In a case-control investigation we compared exposure histories of 32 suspected case-persons and 128 age-matched controls. We also conducted an environmental assessment on how the exposures had occurred. We found 61 suspected cases (attack rate = 4.9/1000) during this outbreak, of which eight were confirmed. The primary case-person had onset on 16 June; afterwards cases sharply increased, peaked on 19 June, and rapidly declined afterwards. After 22 June, eight scattered cases occurred. The case-control investigation showed that 97% (31/32) of cases and 62% (79/128) of controls usually collected water from inside a water-collection site “X” (ORM-H = 16; 95% CI = 2.4–107). The primary case-person who developed symptoms while fishing, reportedly came ashore in the early morning hours on 17 June, and defecated “near” water-collection site X. We concluded that this cholera outbreak was caused by drinking lake water collected from inside the lakeshore water-collection site X. At our recommendations, the village administration provided water chlorination tablets to the villagers, issued water boiling advisory to the villagers, rigorously disinfected all patients’ faeces and, three weeks later, fixed the tap-water system.

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<![CDATA[The Impact of Diesel Oil Pollution on the Hydrophobicity and CO2 Efflux of Forest Soils]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bf7a3b2d5eed0c484eab493

The contamination of soil with petroleum products is a major environmental problem. Petroleum products are common soil contaminants as a result of human activities, and they are causing substantial changes in the biological (particularly microbiological) processes, chemical composition, structure and physical properties of soil. The main objective of this study was to assess the impact of soil moisture on CO2 efflux from diesel-contaminated albic podzol soils. Two contamination treatments (3000 and 9000 mg of diesel oil per kg of soil) were prepared for four horizons from two forest study sites with different initial levels of soil water repellency. CO2 emissions were measured using a portable infrared gas analyser (LCpro+, ADC BioScientific, UK) while the soil samples were drying under laboratory conditions (from saturation to air-dry). The assessment of soil water repellency was performed using the water drop penetration time test. An analysis of variance (ANVOA) was conducted for the CO2 efflux data. The obtained results show that CO2 efflux from diesel-contaminated soils is higher than efflux from uncontaminated soils. The initially water-repellent soils were found to have a bigger CO2 efflux. The non-linear relationship between soil moisture content and CO2 efflux only existed for the upper soil horizons, while for deeper soil horizons, the efflux is practically independent of soil moisture content. The contamination of soil by diesel leads to increased soil water repellency.

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<![CDATA[Assessment of soil water, carbon and nitrogen cycling in reseeded grassland on the North Wyke Farm Platform using a process-based model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bf08b44d5eed0c4849da5be <![CDATA[Modelling water and nutrient fluxes in the Danube River Basin with SWAT]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bf08b45d5eed0c4849da617 <![CDATA[Modelling highly variable environmental factors to assess potential microbial respiration in complex floodplain landscapes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bcf6aec40307c74ebb862b3 <![CDATA[Automatic generation of water distribution systems based on GIS data]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bcf6ae640307c74ebb862b1 <![CDATA[Environmental Safety of the Use of Major Surfactant Classes in North America]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5ad7d681463d7e12f460f25b

This paper brings together over 250 published and unpublished studies on the environmental properties, fate, and toxicity of the four major, high-volume surfactant classes and relevant feedstocks. The surfactants and feedstocks covered include alcohol sulfate or alcohol sulfate (AS), alcohol ethoxysulfate (AES), linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), alcohol ethoxylate (AE), and long-chain alcohol (LCOH). These chemicals are used in a wide range of personal care and cleaning products. To date, this is the most comprehensive report on these substance's chemical structures, use, and volume information, physical/chemical properties, environmental fate properties such as biodegradation and sorption, monitoring studies through sewers, wastewater treatment plants and eventual release to the environment, aquatic and sediment toxicity, and bioaccumulation information. These data are used to illustrate the process for conducting both prospective and retrospective risk assessments for large-volume chemicals and categories of chemicals with wide dispersive use. Prospective risk assessments of AS, AES, AE, LAS, and LCOH demonstrate that these substances, although used in very high volume and widely released to the aquatic environment, have no adverse impact on the aquatic or sediment environments at current levels of use. The retrospective risk assessments of these same substances have clearly demonstrated that the conclusions of the prospective risk assessments are valid and confirm that these substances do not pose a risk to the aquatic or sediment environments. This paper also highlights the many years of research that the surfactant and cleaning products industry has supported, as part of their environmental sustainability commitment, to improve environmental tools, approaches, and develop innovative methods appropriate to address environmental properties of personal care and cleaning product chemicals, many of which have become approved international standard methods.

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<![CDATA[The Dublin SURGE Project: geochemical baseline for heavy metals in topsoils and spatial correlation with historical industry in Dublin, Ireland]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5ad2df0f463d7e4d2af6bc90

The Dublin SURGE (Soil Urban Geochemistry) Project is Dublin’s first baseline survey of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants in topsoils and is part of a Europe-wide initiative to map urban geochemical baselines in ten cities. 1,058 samples were collected as part of a stratified random sampling programme in the greater Dublin area to give an overview of baseline conditions in the city. Samples were analysed for 31 inorganic elements including heavy metals. Analysis of results indicates that the concentrations of lead, copper, zinc and mercury are strongly influenced by human activities, with elevated concentrations in the city docklands, inner city and heavy industry areas. Sources of heavy metals in these areas may include historical industry, coal burning, re-use of contaminated soil, modern traffic and leaded paint and petrol. Concentrations of other inorganic elements in topsoil show patterns which are strongly related to regional bedrock parent material. The spatial distributions of heavy metals, in particular Pb and As, are explored in detail with respect to regional geology and the influence of historical industry on soil quality. Exploratory data, geostatistical and correlation analyses suggest that the concentrations of heavy metals tend to increase as the intensity of historical industrial activity increases. In particular, drinks production, power generation, oil/gas/coal, metals and textile historical industries appear to be the contamination source for several heavy metals. The data provide a geochemical baseline relevant to the protection of human health, compliance with environmental legislation, land use planning and urban regeneration.

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<![CDATA[A retrospective approach to assess human health risks associated with growing air pollution in urbanized area of Thar Desert, western Rajasthan, India]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989db06ab0ee8fa60bc8806

Air pollution has been a matter of great concern globally because of the associated health risks to individuals. The situation is getting worse in developing countries with more urbanization, industrialization and more importantly the rapidly growing population posing a threat to human life in the form of pulmonary, cardiovascular, carcinogenic or asthmatic diseases by accumulating toxic pollutants, harmful gases, metals, hydrocarbons etc.

Objective

The present study was undertaken to assess the magnitude of ambient air pollutants and their human health risks like respiratory ailments, infectious diseases, cardiovascular diseases and cancer using a Retrospective Approach of Bart Ostra.

Methodology

The parameters PM2.5, PM10, NOx, SO2, NH3 and O3 were monitored at all selected study sites monitored through a high volume sampler (APM 451 Envirotech, Envirotech Instruments Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, India). Retrospective Approach was used for assessment of risk factors and disease burden of respiratory and cardiopulmonary health problems.

Results

Environmental burden of disease showed that the problem of health related to air pollution is a main concern particularly in the growing cities of India. High to critical level of air pollution including PM10, PM2.5, NOx, SO2, NH3 and O3 was observed in all seasons at traffic intersections and commercial sites. The respiratory infections (25% incidence in population exposed to indoor smoke problems) and a prevalence of asthma/COPD (4.4%) in households exposed to high vehicular pollution along with signs of coronary artery/heart disease and/or hypertension and cancers (37.9-52.2%), were reported requiring preventive measures.

Conclusion

The study reflects a great concern for the mankind with the need of having streamline ways to limit air pollution and emphasize upon efficiently determining the risk of illness upon exposure to air pollution.

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