ResearchPad - Epidemiology https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[An Analytical Comparison of Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Regarding HIV/AIDS Among Medical and Non-Medical Students in Iran]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N7f4ea961-ce5d-4f5c-93ff-7d9409dd85ea

Background and Objectives

Young people are the main group at risk of HIV/AIDS due to factors such as curiosity, peer pressure, lack of knowledge and skills, unsafe sexual behaviors, and drug abuse. The present study was conducted to compare the knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding HIV/AIDS among medical and non-medical students in Iran.

Methods

This cross-sectional descriptive-analytical study was conducted on a population consisting of the students of Shahid Beheshti University (SBU) and Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences (SBMU). A total of 303 students were randomly selected from the two universities. Data were collected using a researcher-made HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitude, and practice questionnaire. Data were then analyzed using the independent t-test, Mann–Whitney’s U-test, the ANOVA, and the Kruskal–Wallis test in SPSS-18. P<0.05 was set as the level of significance for all the tests.

Findings

The frequencies of marital status, education, smoking, alcohol and psychotropic substance use, employment status, and source of information differed significantly between the medical and non-medical students. There was a significant difference between the two groups regarding knowledge (P<0.001) and practice (P=0.019) regarding HIV/AIDS. Meanwhile, there was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of their attitude toward HIV/AIDS (P=0.503). The results of the ANOVA revealed a significant correlation between marital status and practice (P=0.022), education and attitude (P=0.004), and smoking and knowledge (P=0.008) among the medical students. Meanwhile, there was no significant difference between the demographic variables and knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding HIV/AIDS among the non-medical students (P>0.005).

Conclusion

The present findings showed that designing and developing appropriate educational programs, offered through group media, scientific seminars, courses, lectures, and group discussions, can be effective in enhancing the students’ knowledge and changing their attitudes and should be incorporated into healthcare programs.

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<![CDATA[Using Baidu search index to monitor and predict newly diagnosed cases of HIV/AIDS, syphilis and gonorrhea in China: estimates from a vector autoregressive (VAR) model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N50e06a2f-46c1-4c2e-a0b9-133fc117c990

Objectives

Internet search engine data have been widely used to monitor and predict infectious diseases. Existing studies have found correlations between search data and HIV/AIDS epidemics. We aimed to extend the literature through exploring the feasibility of using search data to monitor and predict the number of newly diagnosed cases of HIV/AIDS, syphilis and gonorrhoea in China.

Methods

This paper used vector autoregressive model to combine the number of newly diagnosed cases with Baidu search index to predict monthly newly diagnosed cases of HIV/AIDS, syphilis and gonorrhoea in China. The procedures included: (1) keywords selection and filtering; (2) construction of composite search index; (3) modelling with training data from January 2011 to October 2016 and calculating the prediction performance with validation data from November 2016 to October 2017.

Results

The analysis showed that there was a close correlation between the monthly number of newly diagnosed cases and the composite search index (the Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients were 0.777 for HIV/AIDS, 0.590 for syphilis and 0.633 for gonorrhoea, p<0.05 for all). The R2 were all more than 85% and the mean absolute percentage errors were less than 11%, showing the good fitting effect and prediction performance of vector autoregressive model in this field.

Conclusions

Our study indicated the potential feasibility of using Baidu search data to monitor and predict the number of newly diagnosed cases of HIV/AIDS, syphilis and gonorrhoea in China.

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<![CDATA[FINDRISC in Latin America: a systematic review of diagnosis and prognosis models]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nbecf47cd-c413-44c6-95c7-afc46042ae58

This review aimed to assess whether the FINDRISC, a risk score for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), has been externally validated in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). We conducted a systematic review following the CHARMS (CHecklist for critical Appraisal and data extraction for systematic Reviews of prediction Modelling Studies) framework. Reports were included if they validated or re-estimated the FINDRISC in population-based samples, health facilities or administrative data. Reports were excluded if they only studied patients or at-risk individuals. The search was conducted in Medline, Embase, Global Health, Scopus and LILACS. Risk of bias was assessed with the PROBAST (Prediction model Risk of Bias ASsessment Tool) tool. From 1582 titles and abstracts, 4 (n=7502) reports were included for qualitative summary. All reports were from South America; there were slightly more women, and the mean age ranged from 29.5 to 49.7 years. Undiagnosed T2DM prevalence ranged from 2.6% to 5.1%. None of the studies conducted an independent external validation of the FINDRISC; conversely, they used the same (or very similar) predictors to fit a new model. None of the studies reported calibration metrics. The area under the receiver operating curve was consistently above 65.0%. All studies had high risk of bias. There has not been any external validation of the FINDRISC model in LAC. Selected reports re-estimated the FINDRISC, although they have several methodological limitations. There is a need for big data to develop—or improve—T2DM diagnostic and prognostic models in LAC. This could benefit T2DM screening and early diagnosis.

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<![CDATA[International Mind, Activities and Urban Places (iMAP) study: methods of a cohort study on environmental and lifestyle influences on brain and cognitive health]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N0e8aafbf-65c3-4abc-af7b-d85942ae0281

Introduction

Numerous studies have found associations between characteristics of urban environments and risk factors for dementia and cognitive decline, such as physical inactivity and obesity. However, the contribution of urban environments to brain and cognitive health has been seldom examined directly. This cohort study investigates the extent to which and how a wide range of characteristics of urban environments influence brain and cognitive health via lifestyle behaviours in mid-aged and older adults in three cities across three continents.

Methods and analysis

Participants aged 50–79 years and living in preselected areas stratified by walkability, air pollution and socioeconomic status are being recruited in Melbourne (Australia), Barcelona (Spain) and Hong Kong (China) (n=1800 total; 600 per site). Two assessments taken 24 months apart will capture changes in brain and cognitive health. Cognitive function is gauged with a battery of eight standardised tests. Brain health is assessed using MRI scans in a subset of participants. Information on participants’ visited locations is collected via an interactive web-based mapping application and smartphone geolocation data. Environmental characteristics of visited locations, including the built and natural environments and their by-products (e.g., air pollution), are assessed using geographical information systems, online environmental audits and self-reports. Data on travel and lifestyle behaviours (e.g., physical and social activities) and participants’ characteristics (e.g., sociodemographics) are collected using objective and/or self-report measures.

Ethics and dissemination

The study has been approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the Australian Catholic University, the Institutional Review Board of the University of Hong Kong and the Parc de Salut Mar Clinical Research Ethics Committee of the Government of Catalonia. Results will be communicated through standard scientific channels. Methods will be made freely available via a study-dedicated website.

Trial registration number

ACTRN12619000817145.

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<![CDATA[Shared genetic architecture and casual relationship between leptin levels and type 2 diabetes: large-scale cross-trait meta-analysis and Mendelian randomization analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Na841e0b2-5715-4287-b952-f4408ce949f1

Objective

We aimed to estimate genetic correlation, identify shared loci and test causality between leptin levels and type 2 diabetes (T2D).

Research design and methods

Our study consists of three parts. First, we calculated the genetic correlation of leptin levels and T2D or glycemic traits by using linkage disequilibrium score regression analysis. Second, we conducted a large-scale genome-wide cross-trait meta-analysis using cross-phenotype association to identify shared loci between trait pairs that showed significant genetic correlations in the first part. In the end, we carried out a bidirectional MR analysis to find out whether there is a causal relationship between leptin levels and T2D or glycemic traits.

Results

We found positive genetic correlations between leptin levels and T2D (Rg=0.3165, p=0.0227), fasting insulin (FI) (Rg=0.517, p=0.0076), homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (Rg=0.4785, p=0.0196), as well as surrogate estimates of β-cell function (HOMA-β) (Rg=0.4456, p=0.0214). We identified 12 shared loci between leptin levels and T2D, 1 locus between leptin levels and FI, 1 locus between leptin levels and HOMA-IR, and 1 locus between leptin levels and HOMA-β. We newly identified eight loci that did not achieve genome-wide significance in trait-specific genome-wide association studies. These shared genes were enriched in pancreas, thyroid gland, skeletal muscle, placenta, liver and cerebral cortex. In addition, we found that 1-SD increase in HOMA-IR was causally associated with a 0.329 ng/mL increase in leptin levels (β=0.329, p=0.001).

Conclusions

Our results have shown the shared genetic architecture between leptin levels and T2D and found causality of HOMA-IR on leptin levels, shedding light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the association between leptin levels and T2D.

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<![CDATA[Association between pre-diabetes and microvascular and macrovascular disease in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N9cfd540e-03ba-48a5-a59f-ed42e90bb29a

Objective

The associated risk of vascular disease following diagnosis of type 2 diabetes in people previously identified as having pre-diabetes in real-world settings is unknown. We examined the presence of microvascular and macrovascular disease in individuals with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes by glycemic status within 3 years before diagnosis.

Research design and methods

We identified 159 736 individuals with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink database in England between 2004 and 2017. We used logistic regression models to compare presence of microvascular (retinopathy and nephropathy) and macrovascular (acute coronary syndrome, cerebrovascular and peripheral arterial disease) disease at the time of type 2 diabetes diagnosis by prior glycemic status.

Results

Half of the study population (49.9%) had at least one vascular disease, over one-third (37.4%) had microvascular disease, and almost a quarter (23.5%) had a diagnosed macrovascular disease at the time of type 2 diabetes diagnosis.

Compared with individuals with glycemic values within the normal range, those detected with pre-diabetes before the diagnosis had 76% and 14% increased odds of retinopathy and nephropathy (retinopathy: adjusted OR (AOR) 1.76, 95% CI 1.69 to 1.85; nephropathy: AOR 1.14, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.19), and 7% higher odds of the diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.12) in fully adjusted models at time of diabetes diagnosis.

Conclusions

Microvascular and macrovascular diseases are detected in 37%–24% of people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Pre-diabetes before diagnosis of type 2 diabetes is associated with increased odds of microvascular disease and acute coronary syndrome. Detection of pre-diabetes might represent an opportunity for reducing the burden of microvascular and macrovascular disease through heightened attention to screening for vascular complications.

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<![CDATA[Association of fasting plasma glucose variability with gestational diabetes mellitus: a nationwide population-based cohort study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N24482d83-7f6b-4c33-8937-872fbfb46e89

Objective

Long-term glycemic variability has recently been recognized as another risk factor for future adverse health outcomes. We aimed to evaluate the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) according to the prepregnancy long-term fasting plasma glucose (FPG) variability.

Research design and methods

A total of 164 053 women who delivered their first baby between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2015, were selected from the Korean National Health Insurance data. All women underwent at least three national health screening examinations, and the last examination should be conducted within 2 years before their first delivery. GDM was defined as the presence of more than four times of claim of GDM (International Classification of Disease, 10th Revision (ICD-10) O24.4 and O24.9) or prescription of insulin under the ICD-code of GDM. FPG variability was assessed by variability independent of the mean (FPG-VIM), coefficient of variation, SD, and average successive variability.

Results

Among the 164 053 women, GDM developed in 6627 (4.04%). Those in the higher quartiles of FPG-VIM showed a stepwise increased risk of GDM. In fully adjusted model, the ORs for GDM was 1.22 (95% CI 1.14 to 1.31) in women with the highest FPG-VIM quartile compared with those in the lowest quartile. The risk for GDM requiring insulin therapy was 48% increase in women in the highest quartile of FPG-VIM compared with those in the lowest quartile, while that for GDM not requiring insulin therapy was 19% increase. The association between high FPG variability and the risk of GDM was intensified in the obese and aged more than 35 years women.

Conclusions

Increased FPG variability in the prepregnancy state is associated with the risk of GDM independent of confounding factors. Therefore, prepregnancy FPG variability might be a surrogate marker of the risk of GDM.

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<![CDATA[Variability in estimated glomerular filtration rate and the incidence of type 2 diabetes: a nationwide population-based study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N56a990ef-88a2-4392-acad-1201a9ad1295

Objective

Variability in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) has been associated with adverse outcomes in patients with diabetes or chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, no previous study has explored the relationship between eGFR variability and type 2 diabetes incidence.

Research design and methods

In this nationwide, longitudinal, cohort study, we investigated the association between eGFR variability and type 2 diabetes risk using the Korean National Health Insurance Service datasets from 2002 to 2017. eGFR variability was calculated using the variability independent of the mean (eGFR-VIM), coefficient of variation (eGFR-CV), standard deviation (eGFR-SD) and average real variability (eGFR-ARV).

Results

Within 7 673 905.58 person-years of follow-up (mean follow-up: 3.19 years; n=2 402 668), 11 981 cases of incident type 2 diabetes were reported. The HRs and 95% CIs for incident type 2 diabetes increased according to advance in quartiles of eGFR-VIM (HR (95% CI): Q2, 1.068 (1.009 to 1.130); Q3, 1.077 (1.018 to 1.138); Q4, 1.203 (1.139 to 1.270)) even after adjusting for confounding factors including mean eGFR and mean fasting plasma glucose levels. The subgroup analyses according to risk factors as well as analyses using eGFR-CV, eGFR-SD and eGFR-ARV showed consistent results. The association between increased eGFR variability and type 2 diabetes risk was more prominent in men, individuals with dyslipidemia and those with CKD as shown in the subgroup analysis (p for interaction <0.001).

Conclusions

Increased eGFR variability may be an independent predictor of type 2 diabetes and might be useful for risk stratification of individuals without diabetes.

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<![CDATA[The associations of longitudinal changes in consumption of total and types of dairy products and markers of metabolic risk and adiposity: findings from the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)–Norfolk study, United Kingdom]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nc5cc96cc-4861-4bbe-9e48-1cbfff4c23a8

ABSTRACT

Background

The consumption of some types of dairy products has been associated with lower cardiometabolic disease incidence. Knowledge remains limited about habitual dairy consumption and the pathways to cardiometabolic risk.

Objective

We aimed to investigate associations of habitual consumption of total and types of dairy products with markers of metabolic risk and adiposity among adults in the United Kingdom.

Methods

We examined associations of changes in dairy consumption (assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire) with parallel changes in cardiometabolic markers using multiple linear regression among 15,612 adults aged 40–78 y at baseline (1993–1997) and followed up over 1998–2000 (mean ± SD: 3.7±0.7 y) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)–Norfolk study.

Results

For adiposity, an increase in fermented dairy products [yogurt (total or low-fat) or low-fat cheese] consumption was associated with a lower increase in body weight and body mass index (BMI). For example, over 3.7 y, increasing yogurt consumption by 1 serving/d was associated with a smaller increase in body weight by 0.23 kg (95% CI: −0.46, −0.01 kg). An increase in full-fat milk, high-fat cheese, and total high-fat dairy was associated with greater increases in body weight and BMI [e.g., for high-fat dairy: β = 0.13 (0.05, 0.21) kg and 0.04 (0.01, 0.07) kg/m2, respectively]. For lipids, an increase in milk (total and low-fat) or yogurt consumption was positively associated with HDL cholesterol. An increase in total low-fat dairy was negatively associated with LDL cholesterol (−0.03 mmol/L; −0.05, −0.01 mmol/L), whereas high-fat dairy (total, butter, and high-fat cheese) consumption was positively associated [e.g., 0.04 (0.02, 0.06) mmol/L for total high-fat dairy]. For glycemia, increasing full-fat milk consumption was associated with a higher increase in glycated hemoglobin (P = 0.027).

Conclusions

The habitual consumption of different dairy subtypes may differently influence cardiometabolic risk through adiposity and lipid pathways.

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<![CDATA[Quantifying antibiotic impact on within-patient dynamics of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase resistance]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N7ecc8fa1-20b8-4271-9018-7ac9004c16bc

Antibiotic-induced perturbation of the human gut flora is expected to play an important role in mediating the relationship between antibiotic use and the population prevalence of antibiotic resistance in bacteria, but little is known about how antibiotics affect within-host resistance dynamics. Here we develop a data-driven model of the within-host dynamics of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae. We use blaCTX-M (the most widespread ESBL gene family) and 16S rRNA (a proxy for bacterial load) abundance data from 833 rectal swabs from 133 ESBL-positive patients followed up in a prospective cohort study in three European hospitals. We find that cefuroxime and ceftriaxone are associated with increased blaCTX-M abundance during treatment (21% and 10% daily increase, respectively), while treatment with meropenem, piperacillin-tazobactam, and oral ciprofloxacin is associated with decreased blaCTX-M (8% daily decrease for all). The model predicts that typical antibiotic exposures can have substantial long-term effects on blaCTX-M carriage duration.

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<![CDATA[Effective diabetes complication management is a step toward a carbon-efficient planet: an economic modeling study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N920e36a7-f37a-4bcc-8234-03f81d7f3047

Background

The management of diabetes-related complications accounts for a large share of total carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) emissions. We assessed whether improving diabetes control in people with type 2 diabetes reduces CO2e emissions, compared with those with unchanging glycemic control.

Methods

Using the IQVIA Core Diabetes Model, we estimated the impact of maintaining glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) at 7% (53 mmol/mol) or reducing it by 1% (11 mmol/mol) on total CO2e/patient and CO2e/life-year (LY). Two different cohorts were investigated: those on first-line medical therapy (cohort 1) and those on third-line therapy (cohort 2). CO2e was estimated using cost inputs converted to carbon inputs using the UK National Health Service’s carbon intensity factor. The model was run over a 50-year time horizon, discounting total costs and quality adjusted life years (QALYs) up to 5% and CO2e at 0%.

Results

Maintaining HbA1c at 7% (53 mmol/mol) reduced total CO2e/patient by 18% (1546 kgCO2e/patient) vs 13% (937 kgCO2e/patient) in cohorts 1 and 2, respectively, and led to a reduction in CO2e/LY gain of 15%–20%. Reducing HbA1c by 1% (11 mmol/mol) caused a 12% (cohort 1) and 9% (cohort 2) reduction in CO2e/patient with a CO2e/LY gain reduction of 11%–14%.

Conclusions

When comparing people with untreated diabetes, maintaining glycemic control at 7% (53 mmol/mol) on a single agent or improving HbA1c by 1% (11 mmol/mol) by the addition of more glucose-lowering treatment was associated with a reduction in carbon emissions.

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<![CDATA[Tissue inhibitor matrix metalloproteinase 1 and risk of type 2 diabetes in a Chinese population]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N4633802c-6d58-4c45-a057-84c717a1961a

Introduction

The non-invasive enhanced liver fibrosis (ELF) score—comprising tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP1), hyaluronic acid (HA) and amino-terminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP)—has been shown to accurately predict fibrosis stages among patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, no study has examined whether the ELF score or its components would also be predictive of type 2 diabetes, which commonly coexists and shares the same pathogenic abnormalities with NAFLD. Therefore, we prospectively investigated their associations with type 2 diabetes risks for the first time.

Research design and methods

The ELF score was measured among 254 type 2 diabetes cases and 254 age-matched and sex-matched controls nested within the prospective Singapore Chinese Health Study. Cases had hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels <6.5% at blood collection (1999–2004) and reported to have diabetes during follow-up II (2006–2010). Controls had HbA1c levels <6.0% at blood-taking and remained free of diabetes at follow-up II. Multivariable conditional logistic regression models were used to assess the ELF-diabetes association.

Results

Higher TIMP1 levels were associated with increased type 2 diabetes risk, and the OR comparing the highest versus lowest quartiles was 2.56 (95% CI 1.23 to 5.34; p trend=0.035). However, ELF score, PIIINP and HA were not significantly associated with type 2 diabetes risks.

Conclusions

Higher TIMP1 levels, but not ELF score, PIIIMP and HA, were associated with increased type 2 diabetes risk in Chinese adults. Our results suggested that elevated TIMP1 levels may contribute to the type 2 diabetes development through pathways other than liver fibrosis.

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<![CDATA[Changes in contact patterns shape the dynamics of the COVID-19 outbreak in China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Na7f1b4c0-c921-4c97-ad40-d2a406943002

Intense non-pharmaceutical interventions were put in place in China to stop transmission of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). As transmission intensifies in other countries, the interplay between age, contact patterns, social distancing, susceptibility to infection, and COVID-19 dynamics remains unclear. To answer these questions, we analyze contact surveys data for Wuhan and Shanghai before and during the outbreak and contact tracing information from Hunan Province. Daily contacts were reduced 7-8-fold during the COVID-19 social distancing period, with most interactions restricted to the household. We find that children 0-14 years are less susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection than adults 15-64 years of age (odd ratio 0.34, 95%CI 0.24-0.49), while in contrast, individuals over 65 years are more susceptible to infection (odd ratio 1.47, 95%CI: 1.12-1.92). Based on these data, we build a transmission model to study the impact of social distancing and school closure on transmission. We find that social distancing alone, as implemented in China during the outbreak, is sufficient to control COVID-19. While proactive school closures cannot interrupt transmission on their own, they can reduce peak incidence by 40-60% and delay the epidemic.

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<![CDATA[Risk Factors for Early Childhood Caries in Toddlers: An Institution-based Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nfa1e43c8-5c60-43e8-97ac-2914c42d0205

Background

Tooth decay experience among toddlers and preschoolers is of epidemic proportions worldwide and dental caries still remains an important childhood disease affecting a considerable part of this population. Though the prevalence of Early Childhood Caries (ECC) is associated with several risk factors such as feeding and oral hygiene practices, Streptococcus mutans levels, socioeconomic status (SES), etc., it is suggested that these factors should be studied adequately to aid in the early prevention and management of ECC.

Objective

The objectives of the study were to: a) evaluate the distribution of ECC, b) study the role of SES in the occurrence of ECC, c) record the variations in feeding and dietary practices along with oral hygiene practices and d) Correlate the sweet score with ECC.

Materials and Methods

This cross-sectional observational study was conducted over a period of 6 months among 100 toddlers (12-36 months) attending the Pediatric outpatient department of a single medical institution in Chennai, India. The study consisted of an intra-oral examination followed by a face to face interview of the mothers of the children using a validated structured oral health questionnaire.

Results

SES and ECC were negatively correlated with statistically significant association. Majority of the subjects did not follow any oral hygiene practices before teeth erupted; few subjects used tooth brush and tooth paste after teeth erupted and followed oral hygiene practices once a day. Statistically significant positive correlation with ICDAS scores was noted in relation to the sweet score and the frequency of intake of sweet foods, candy, etc. Cavitated lesions were more common than non-cavitated lesions and majority of the posterior teeth had ICDAS score 4.

Conclusion

Healthcare providers for children must be well informed on the etiology and risk factors of ECC and guide children for their first dental visit within one year of age.

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<![CDATA[Prevalence of diagnosed diabetes in American Indian and Alaska Native adults, 2006–2017]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N8edf5d8d-32e0-4da4-8799-d846bda79dd6

Introduction

The objective of this study was to examine recent trends in diagnosed diabetes prevalence for American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) adults aged 18 years and older in the Indian Health Service (IHS) active clinical population.

Research design and methods

Data were extracted from the IHS National Data Warehouse for AI/AN adults for each fiscal year from 2006 (n=729 470) through 2017 (n=1 034 814). The prevalence of diagnosed diabetes for each year and the annual percentage change were estimated for adults overall, as well as by sex, age group, and geographic region.

Results

After increasing significantly from 2006 to 2013, diabetes prevalence for AI/AN adults in the IHS active clinical population decreased significantly from 2013 to 2017. Prevalence was 14.4% (95% CI 13.9% to 15.0%) in 2006; 15.4% (95% CI 14.8% to 16.0%) in 2013; and 14.6% (95% CI 14.1% to 15.2%) in 2017. Trends for men and women were similar to the overall population, as were those for all age groups. For all geographic regions, prevalence either decreased significantly or leveled off in recent years.

Conclusions

Diabetes prevalence in AI/AN adults in the IHS active clinical population has decreased significantly since 2013. While these results cannot be generalized to all AI/AN adults in the USA, this study documents the first known decrease in diabetes prevalence for AI/AN people.

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<![CDATA[Results from NEXT-D: the association of a pre-diabetes-specific health plan and rates of incident diabetes among a national sample of working-age adults]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nd62b3be3-2b72-4ae0-a0bb-fe32c24158cf

Background

Pre-diabetes affects one-third of adults in the USA and a subset will progress to type 2 diabetes. Our objective was to determine whether a disease-specific health plan, known as the Diabetes Health Plan (DHP), designed to improve care for persons with pre-diabetes and diabetes also led to lower rates of incident diabetes among adults with pre-diabetes.

Methods

We examined eligibility and claims data from a large payer who offered the DHP to a national sample of employers. We included adult employees and dependents who were continuously covered by the DHP over a 4-year study window. The primary outcome was incident diabetes. We conducted propensity score matching at the employer level to find comparable control employer groups offering standard plans. Using an adjusted logistic regression model at the individual level, we tested the association between DHP employer group status and incident diabetes diagnosis during the 3 years of postbaseline follow-up.

Findings

Our analysis included data from 11 965 continuously enrolled adults with pre-diabetes (n=1538 from nine employers offering DHP; n=10 427 from 105 control employers offering standard plans). DHP employees and covered dependents with pre-diabetes had an 8% lower absolute predicted probability of incident diabetes compared with individuals from employer groups offering standard benefit plans (29% predicted probability of incident diabetes for DHP vs 37% for controls, p<0.001).

Conclusions

A pre-diabetes-specific health benefit design was associated with lower rates of incident diabetes and represents an area of needed future study.

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<![CDATA[School self-efficacy is affected by gender and motor skills: findings from an Italian study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Ndea71b36-f312-4814-b64f-69bbddd6048c

Background

Perceived school self-efficacy (SE) is an important variable in students’ activities as it affects their motivation and learning. Further, self-efficacy might represent a good predictor of performance, persistence and perseverance. Motor skills and other physical health determinants are extensively debated and linked to cognitive function in children of developmental age. However, inconclusive evidence supports a definitive relationship between perceived school SE and motor skills among schoolchildren. We conducted a cross-sectional study on 6–11-year-old schoolchildren to evaluate the extent by which perceived school SE and physical health determinants were related.

Methods

A SE questionnaire and motor performance battery tests were administered to primary school pupils recruited from 154 sampled schools of northwest Italy. Perceived SE at school was assessed via 12 items from the Caprara’s questionnaire. Motor performance scores were obtained from motor skill tests: 4 × 10 m shuttle run test, SRT; standing broad jump, SBJ; six-minute walking test, 6MWT.

Results

A total of 3,962 children (M = 2,019; F = 1943) were studied and 68% were normal weight. Overall, a 58% of the sample perceived a high SE, while, as to gender differences, a greater percentage of females perceived high levels of school SE with respect to any other level (χ2 = 38.93, p < 0.0001). Results from multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed that: (i) females perceived higher SE compared to males; (ii) children who performed better in SRT and 6MWT showed higher levels of perceived school SE; (iii) no significant effect was registered for the body weight. Alternative strategies are encouraged to enhance SE through physical education: structured interventions might enhance both complex motor skills and high-order cognitive skills, like SE, in young children.

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<![CDATA[Epidemiology of Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever in Endemic Area, Spain]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N08a04346-bee9-4f53-897a-0858de92df2d

Incidence of this disease increased over time; peak incidences were observed in 2011, 2014, and 2015.

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<![CDATA[Glucose Effectiveness from Short Insulin-Modified IVGTT and Its Application to the Study of Women with Previous Gestational Diabetes Mellitus]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N611a1566-4845-434e-930f-00918b590086

Background

This study aimed to design a simple surrogate marker (i.e., predictor) of the minimal model glucose effectiveness (SG), namely calculated SG (CSG), from a short insulin-modified intravenous glucose tolerance test (IM-IVGTT), and then to apply it to study women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (pGDM).

Methods

CSG was designed using the stepwise model selection approach on a population of subjects (n=181) ranging from normal tolerance to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). CSG was then tested on a population of women with pGDM (n=57). Each subject underwent a 3-hour IM-IVGTT; women with pGDM were observed early postpartum and after a follow-up period of up to 7 years and classified as progressors (PROG) or non-progressors (NONPROG) to T2DM. The minimal model analysis provided a reference SG.

Results

CSG was described as CSG=1.06×10−2+5.71×10−2×KG/Gpeak, KG being the mean slope (absolute value) of loge glucose in 10–25- and 25–50-minute intervals, and Gpeak being the maximum of the glucose curve. Good agreement between CSG and SG in the general population and in the pGDM group, both at baseline and follow-up (even in PROG and NONPROG subgroups), was shown by the Bland-Altman plots (<5% observations outside limits of agreement), and by the test for equivalence (equivalence margin not higher than one standard deviation). At baseline, the PROG subgroup showed significantly lower SG and CSG values compared to the NONPROG subgroup (P<0.03).

Conclusion

CSG is a valid SG predictor. In the pGDM group, glucose effectiveness appeared to be impaired in women progressing to T2DM.

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<![CDATA[Differential Health Care Use, Diabetes-Related Complications, and Mortality Among Five Unique Classes of Patients With Type 2 Diabetes in Singapore: A Latent Class Analysis of 71,125 Patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nc38133b7-afa5-474d-86ec-153e1341c6e5

OBJECTIVE

With rising health care costs and finite health care resources, understanding the population needs of different type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patient subgroups is important. Sparse data exist for the application of population segmentation on health care needs among Asian T2DM patients. We aimed to segment T2DM patients into distinct classes and evaluate their differential health care use, diabetes-related complications, and mortality patterns.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS

Latent class analysis was conducted on a retrospective cohort of 71,125 T2DM patients. Latent class indicators included patient’s age, ethnicity, comorbidities, and duration of T2DM. Outcomes evaluated included health care use, diabetes-related complications, and 4-year all-cause mortality. The relationship between class membership and outcomes was evaluated with the appropriate regression models.

RESULTS

Five classes of T2DM patients were identified. The prevalence of depression was high among patients in class 3 (younger females with short-to-moderate T2DM duration and high psychiatric and neurological disease burden) and class 5 (older patients with moderate-to-long T2DM duration and high disease burden with end-organ complications). They were the highest tertiary health care users. Class 5 patients had the highest risk of myocardial infarction (hazard ratio [HR] 12.05, 95% CI 10.82–13.42]), end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis initiation (HR 25.81, 95% CI 21.75–30.63), stroke (HR 19.37, 95% CI 16.92–22.17), lower-extremity amputation (HR 12.94, 95% CI 10.90–15.36), and mortality (HR 3.47, 95% CI 3.17–3.80).

CONCLUSIONS

T2DM patients can be segmented into classes with differential health care use and outcomes. Depression screening should be considered for the two identified classes of patients.

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