ResearchPad - Food Science https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Proximate composition, functional properties and quantitative analysis of benzoyl peroxide and benzoic acid in wheat flour samples: effect on wheat flour quality]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N0736ec7d-e38f-4e4c-ab71-fcfab2852b5d

Background

Extensive milling processes have deprived wheat flour from essential nutrients. The objective of the current study was to assess the nutritive quality of commercial wheat flour (soft flour (SF)) through analyses of proximate composition and functional properties as well as quantification of benzoyl peroxide (BPO; added as bleaching agent in the SF) by comparing the results with whole wheat flour (WF; never received any additives).

Methods

The samples included commercial SF purchased from the local supplier of different flour mills (who use BPO as additive) and a control sample without additives was prepared by grinding the seeds harvested from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.; Inqulab 91) crop grown in the experimental field of University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, under optimized field conditions without any fertilizers and insecticides. Functional properties (including bulk density, water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity, emulsifying activity, foaming capacity, least gelatinization concentration and gelatinization temperature) and proximate composition (including moisture content, ash contents, crude protein, gluten and starch contents) were determined and compared for all the samples. Benzoyl peroxide (BPO) and Benzoic Acid (BA) quantification was performed through High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Finally dietary intake was estimated for BPO and BA.

Results

Results showed that SF had lesser fiber, protein and ash contents, whereas, higher damaged starch, fat, gluten and bulk density. A parallel experiment under selected conditions (temperature, time and solute concentration) showed dissociation of BPO into BA soon after the exposure. Observed BA range (13.77 mg/g after 16 h) in SF and exposure level assessment (44.3 ± 1.36 mg/kg/BW) showed higher intake of BA on the consumption of SF. The results revealed the superiority of WF over SF in nutritive qualities as well as free of toxicants such as BA.

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<![CDATA[The biochemical and metabolic profiles of dairy cows with mycotoxins-contaminated diets]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N22e82420-dbfc-489c-86c7-6f9a6d57617d

Background

Previous studies on the effects of mycotoxins have solely focused on their biochemical profiles or products in dairy ruminants. Changes in metabolism that occur after exposure to mycotoxins, as well as biochemical changes, have not been explored.

Methods

We measured the biochemical and metabolic changes in dairy cows after exposure to mycotoxins using biochemical analyses and nuclear magnetic resonance. Twenty-four dairy cows were randomly assigned to three different treatment groups. Control cows received diets with 2 kg uncontaminated cottonseed. Cows in the 50% replacement group received the same diet as the control group, but with 1 kg of uncontaminated cottonseed and 1 kg of cottonseed contaminated with mycotoxins. Cows in the 100% replacement group received the same diet as the control, but with 2 kg contaminated cottonseed.

Results

The results showed that serum γ-glutamyl transpeptidase and total antioxidant capacities were significantly affected by cottonseed contaminated with mycotoxins. There were also significant differences in isovalerate and NH3-N levels, and significant differences in the eight plasma metabolites among the three groups. These metabolites are mainly involved in amino acid metabolism pathways. Therefore, the results suggest that amino acid metabolism pathways may be affected by mycotoxins exposure.

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<![CDATA[The use of XLSTAT in conducting principal component analysis (PCA) when evaluating the relationships between sensory and quality attributes in grilled foods]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ncd42f7a8-44a2-4735-88b5-900e7fa7779b

Multivariate statistics is a tool for examining the relationship of multiple variables simultaneously. Principal component analysis (PCA) is an unsupervised multivariate analysis technique that simplifies the complexity of data by transforming them in a few dimensions showing their trends and correlations. Interests in XLSTAT as statistical software program of choice for routine multivariate statistics has been growing due in part to its compatibility with Microsoft Excel data format. As a case of study, multivariate analysis is used to study the effects of unfiltered beer-based marination on the volatile terpenes and thiols, and sensory attributes of grilled ruminant meats. PCA was conducted to determine the correlations between the abundances of volatile terpenes and thiols and sensory attribute scores in marinated grilled meats, as well as to analyze if there was any clustering based on the type of meat and marination treatments employed.

  • XLSTAT PCA output successfully reduced the number of variables into 2 components that explained 90.47% of the total variation of the data set.

  • PCA clustered marinated and unmarinated meats based on the presence and abundances of volatile terpenes, thiols and consumer sensory attribute scores.

  • PCA could be applied to explore relationships between volatile compounds and sensory attributes in different food systems.

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<![CDATA[Flavonoids from Epimedium pubescens: extraction and mechanism, antioxidant capacity and effects on CAT and GSH-Px of Drosophila melanogaster]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nfab81785-8dab-4ab0-b2a4-b819198a0321

Background

Epimedium is a famous medicinal plant in China, Southeast Asian and some other regions. Flavonoids are regarded as its supremely important active constituents used in phytomedicines and/or functional foods. It is of theoretical and applied significance to optimize the procedure for extraction of flavonoids with high bioactivity from Epimedium, to unveil extraction mechanism, to identify chemical composition of flavonoids, to analyze free radical-scavenging ability of flavonoids, and to investigate their effects on the model organism Drosophila melanogaster.

Methods

Box-Behnken design was applied to optimization of extraction procedure. Laser diffraction particle size analysis was used to clarify extraction mechanism. Chemical composition of flavonoids was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. Antiradical capacities of flavonoids were determined by chemical-based assay. Then, effects of flavonoids on catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in D. melanogaster were investigated for the first time.

Results

The optimal condition for ultrasonic extraction of antioxidant flavonoids from Epimedium pubescens was achieved and extraction mechanism was discussed. Epimedium flavonoids contained icariin, epimedin A, epimedin B and epimedin C. Epimedium flavonoids exhibited the ability to scavenge ABTS+ and DPPH radicals with EC50 values of 55.8 and 52.1 µg/ml, respectively. Moreover, Epimedium flavonoids were able to increase activities of CAT and GSH-Px in D. melanogaster. For females, oral administration of flavonoids improved CAT and GSH-Px activities by 13.58% and 5.18%, respectively. For males, oral administration of flavonoids increased CAT and GSH-Px activities by 13.90% and 5.65%, respectively.

Conclusion

Flavonoids ultrasonically extracted from E. pubescens considerably affected antioxidant defense system in D. melanogaster. Flavonoids of E. pubescens showed great potential for becoming a natural antioxidant because of their antiradical ability and effects on CAT and GSH-Px of the model organism.

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<![CDATA[Organic acids and 2,4-Di-tert-butylphenol: major compounds of Weissella confusa WM36 cell-free supernatant against growth, survival and virulence of Salmonella Typhi]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd70b0e37-f8bc-4897-b89f-9641bc00a944

Background

Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi), the causative agent of typhoid fever, causes serious systemic disease in humans. Antibiotic treatment is required for the S. Typhi infection, while the inappropriate use of antibiotics causes increased drug-resistant S. Typhi. Hence, alternative therapies through non-antibiotic approaches are urgently needed. The use of beneficial lactic acid bacterium and/or its metabolites to control typhoid fever represent a promising approach, as it may exert protective actions through various mechanisms.

Method

In this study, the cell-free culture supernatant (CFCS) of Weissella confusa WM36 was evaluated via the antibacterial activity, and its metabolites were identified. In addition, the effects of CFCS on Salmonella virulence behaviors were also investigated.

Result

Based on strong inhibition the growth of S. Typhi DMST 22842, organic acids (lactic acid and acetic acid) and 2,4-Di-tert-butylphenol (2,4 DTBP), were the main antibacterial metabolites presented in CFCS of strain WM36. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) at 40% WM36–CFCS dramatically reduced the S. Typhi population to more than 99.99% at 4 h and completely inhibited biofilm formation, while sub-MIC at 20% (v/v) and MIC could reduce 100% of motility. Additionally, sub-MIC at only 10% (v/v) WM36–CFCS did down-regulate the expression of virulence genes which are responsible for the type-III secretion system, effector proteins, and quorum sensing system in this pathogen.

Conclusion

W. confusa WM36 and its metabolites are shown to be a promising candidates, and an effective approach against typhoid Salmonella burden.

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<![CDATA[Salmonella Brandenburg in the pork chain in Italy: Genetic comparison with the human isolates]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b593334463d7e589c54b6b0

Salmonella Brandenburg ranked 16th among the serovars responsible for human infections in EU in 2015 and it was found to be associated with swine. In Emilia- Romagna and Lombardy regions of northern Italy, S. Brandenburg was isolated from mesenteric lymph nodes, fecal matter, carcasses and conveyor belts at pig slaughterhouses in 2014 and 2015. In the same area, S. Brandenburg was detected in pork salami in 2015. In the present study, 12 isolates of S. Brandenburg recovered from the pork food-chain were typed by XbaI PFGE and their three profiles were compared to all human S. Brandenburg isolates processed by the Surveillance System of Emilia- Romagna region from 2012 to 2017 (105 isolates). The most frequent pulsotype of porcine origin (6/12) was the second most frequent in humans (16/105). Of the other two pulsotypes of porcine origine (3/12 each), one was the most frequent in humans (41/105), the other was undetected among human isolates.

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<![CDATA[Suppressive Effects of Vaccinium angustifolium Root Extract via Down-Regulation of Activation of Syk, Lyn, and NF-κB in FcεRI-Mediated Allergic Reactions]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b589054463d7e4bbcb756e1

Vaccinium angustifolium, reported as the lowbush blueberry, has a rich polyphenolic content with which biological activities have been closely associated. In this study, the effects of V. angustifolium root extract (VAE) on the anti-FcɛRI α chain antibody (CRA-1)-induced FcɛRI-mediated signaling factors, protein tyrosine kinases (PTK), Lyn, Syk, and nuclear factor kappa-B cells (NF-κB) in KU812F cells were investigated. The total phenolic content of VAE was found to be 170±1.9 mg gallic acid equivalents/g. Western blot analysis revealed that VAE dose-dependently inhibited FcɛRI-mediated phosphorylation of PTK involving Lyn and Syk. Evaluation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) by spectrofluorometric analysis using 2′7′-dichlorofluorescin-diacetate revealed that they were reduced by VAE in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, VAE reduced the levels of β-hexosaminidase released from CRA-1-stimulated KU812F cells. It was identified that VAE suppressed CRA-1-induced activation of NF-κB by Western blot analysis. Our results show that VAE may contribute to the inhibition of allergic actions via inactivation of basophils through the inhibition of β-hexosaminidase release and ROS production, which occurs as a result of inhibition of PTK, Syk, Lyn, and NF-κB.

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<![CDATA[Egg White Ovotransferrin-Derived ACE Inhibitory Peptide Ameliorates Angiotensin II-Stimulated Insulin Resistance in Skeletal Muscle Cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bfb99ded5eed0c484b172f7

Scope

The renin‐angiotensin system (RAS) is a major contributor to the development of insulin resistance and its related complications. Egg white ovotransferrin‐derived tripeptides, IRW (Ile‐Arg‐Trp), IQW (Ile‐Gln‐Trp), or LKP (Leu‐Lys‐Pro) are previously identified as the inhibitors of angiotensin‐converting enzyme (ACE), a key enzyme in the RAS. This study aims at determining whether these peptides are effective in improving insulin resistance, and their mechanisms of action, in a rat derived skeletal muscle cell line (L6 cells).

Methods and results

Insulin resistance is induced by treating L6 cells with 1 μm angiotensin II (Ang II) for 24 h. Effects of peptides on glucose uptake are determined using glucose uptake assay, glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation by immunofluorescence, reactive oxygen species (ROS) by dihydroethidium (DHE) staining, while insulin signaling pathway, Ang II receptor (AT1R or AT2R) levels, and NADPH oxidase activation are measured using Western Blot. Only IRW treatment significantly improves insulin resistance in L6 cells via stimulation of insulin signaling. IRW decreases Ang II‐stimulated AT1R expression, ROS formation, and NADPH oxidase activation.

Conclusions

Of three ACE inhibitory peptides studied, only IRW improves insulin resistance in L6 cells, at least partially via reduced AT1R expression and its anti‐oxidative activity.

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<![CDATA[Intensified Sampling in Response to a Salmonella Heidelberg Outbreak Associated with Multiple Establishments Within a Single Poultry Corporation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b4c5a3c463d7e09f8ec4a81

Abstract

On June 28, 2013, the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) was notified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) of an investigation of a multistate cluster of illnesses of Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg. Since case-patients in the cluster reported consumption of a variety of chicken products, FSIS used a simple likelihood-based approach using traceback information to focus on intensified sampling efforts. This article describes the multiphased product sampling approach taken by FSIS when epidemiologic evidence implicated chicken products from multiple establishments operating under one corporation. The objectives of sampling were to (1) assess process control of chicken slaughter and further processing and (2) determine whether outbreak strains were present in products from these implicated establishments. As part of the sample collection process, data collected by FSIS personnel to characterize product included category (whole chicken and type of chicken parts), brand, organic or conventional product, injection with salt solutions or flavorings, and whether product was skinless or skin-on. From the period September 9, 2013, through October 31, 2014, 3164 samples were taken as part of this effort. Salmonella percent positive declined from 19.7% to 5.3% during this timeframe as a result of regulatory and company efforts. The results of intensified sampling for this outbreak investigation informed an FSIS regulatory response and corrective actions taken by the implicated establishments. The company noted that a multihurdle approach to reduce Salmonella in products was taken, including on-farm efforts such as environmental testing, depopulation of affected flocks, disinfection of affected houses, vaccination, and use of various interventions within the establishments over the course of several months.

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<![CDATA[Broccoli (Brassica oleracea) Reduces Oxidative Damage to Pancreatic Tissue and Combats Hyperglycaemia in Diabetic Rats]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b4784c4463d7e71e4ceaa79

Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the development of diabetes and hyperglycaemia. The protective effects of natural extracts against diabetes are mainly dependent on their antioxidant and hypoglycaemic properties. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea) exerts beneficial health effects in several diseases including diabetes; however, the mechanism has not been elucidated yet. The present study was carried out to evaluate the potential hypoglycaemic and antioxidant properties of aqueous broccoli extracts (BEs) in diabetic rats. Streptozotocin (STZ) drug was used as a diabetogenic agent in a single intraperitoneal injection dose of 50 mg/kg body weight. The blood glucose level for each rat was measured twice a week. After 8 weeks, all animals were fasted overnight and sacrificed; pancreatic tissues were homogenized and used for measuring oxidative DNA damage, biochemical assessment of glutathione (GSH), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) as well as histopathological examination for pancreatic tissues was examined. Diabetic rats showed significantly higher levels of DNA damage, GSH depletion, and impaired TAC levels in comparison to non-diabetics (P<0.05). The treatment of diabetic rats with BE significantly reduced DNA damage and conserved GSH and TAC values (P<0.01). BE attenuated pancreatic histopathological changes in diabetic rats. The results of this study indicated that BE reduced the STZ mediated hyperglycaemia and the STZ-induced oxidative injury to pancreas tissue. The used in vivo model confirmed the efficacy of BE as an anti-diabetic herbal medicine and provided insights into the capacity of BE to be used for phytoremediation purposes for human type 2 diabetes.

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<![CDATA[Feeling ‘too fat’ rather than being ‘too fat’ increases unhealthy eating habits among adolescents – even in boys]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bc7dbd340307c631822d4b2

Background

Adolescence is a period of gender-specific physical changes, during which eating habits develop. To better understand what factors determine unhealthy eating habits such as dieting to lose weight, skipping meals, and consumption of unhealthy foods, we studied how physical measurements and body perception relate to eating habits in boys and girls, before and during adolescence.

Methods

For this cross-sectional study, we obtained data from both written questionnaires and physical measurements of height, weight, and waist circumference (WC).

Results

Dieting to lose weight and skipping breakfast were more common among adolescents than among younger boys and girls (p<0.05). The strongest risk factor for dieting in both boys and girls was perception of overweight, which persisted after adjusting for age and for being overweight (p<0.01). Another independent risk factor for dieting behaviour was overweight, as defined by body mass index (BMI) among boys (p<0.01) and WC among girls (p<0.05). In both boys and girls, skipping breakfast was associated with both a more negative body perception and higher BMI (p<0.05). Skipping breakfast was also associated with age- and gender-specific unhealthy eating habits such as skipping other meals, lower consumption of fruits and vegetables, and higher consumption of sweets and sugary drinks (p<0.05).

Conclusion

Body perception among adolescents is an important factor relating to unhealthy eating habits, not only in girls, but even in boys. Focus on body perception and eating breakfast daily is crucial for the development of healthy food consumption behaviours during adolescence and tracking into adulthood.

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<![CDATA[Quality Comparison of Pork Loin and Belly from Three-way Crossbred Pigs during Postmortem Storage]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bc5e57440307c779a27bfa3

This study was performed to determine the meat quality characteristics of pork loin and belly from 3 different three-way crossbred pigs: Yorkshire × Landrace × Duroc (YLD), Yorkshire × Chester White × Yorkshire (YCY), and Yorkshire × Berkshire × Duroc (YBD). Each of the twenty crossed pigs were randomly selected with their live weights at the range of 110-120 kg. After being slaughtered and cooled at 0℃ for 24 h in a chilling room, the parts of loin and belly on the left side of the cooled carcasses were cut and prepared for analysis. The intramuscular fat contents of the loins from YLD were higher than those of the other crossbreds (p<0.05), and the YCY bellies had the highest moisture contents (p<0.05). Water holding capacity (WHC) of the loins from YCY were higher than the other crossbreds (p<0.05). Shear force values of the YBD loins were higher than the others (p<0.05). The TBARS values of YCY loins were significantly lower than the others at 0 d, but the difference disappeared after 14 d of storage. Sensory scores of YLD were ranked higher than the YCY or YBD in both the loins and bellies (p<0.05). The relatively high sensory values of YLD crossbred pork could be explained by the better WHC, the low shear forces, and the higher fat contents. The results indicated that the meat qualities could be altered by three-way crossbreeding.

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<![CDATA[Application of Ganghwa Mugwort in Combination with Ascorbic Acid for the Reduction of Residual Nitrite in Pork Sausage during Refrigerated Storage]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bc5e58740307c779a27bfaa

The application of ganghwa mugwort (GM), ascorbic acid (AC), and their combinations for reduction of residual nitrite contents was analyzed in pork sausages during storage of 28 d. Six treatments of pork sausages contained the following: Control (no antioxidant added), AC (0.05% AC), GM 0.1 (0.1% GM), GM 0.2 (0.2% GM), AC+GM 0.1 (0.05% AC + 0.1% GM) and AC+GM 0.2 (0.05% AC + 0.2% GM). Results showed that the mixture of 0.05% AC and 0.2% GM was most effective for reducing thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and residual nitrite contents than the control and GM added sausages alone (p<0.05). The color values of all treatments were significantly affected by adding GM (either alone or with AC). Additionally, the total color difference (ΔE) and hue angle (H°) values of treatments added with GM were higher than those of the control as the amount of GM increased (p<0.05). However, there were no significant differences in the pH values between the control and all treatments during the storage period (p>0.05). Our results showed possible applications of antioxidant combination, for preventing the lipid oxidation and decreasing the residual nitrite levels of meat products.

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<![CDATA[Effect of Grape Pomace Powder Addition on TBARS and Color of Cooked Pork Sausages during Storage]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bc5e57740307c779a27bfa4

To determine the effects of grape skin and seed pomace (GSP) additions on the lipid oxidation susceptibility and the color change of cooked pork sausages, the chemical characteristics of GSP itself and the addition for two different levels of GSP (0.5 and 1.0% GSP, respectively) to sausages were examined. Both the redness and blueness of the GSP were significantly reduced as the pH level was increased from 5 to 7, but a reverse result was determined in the color tint and yellowness (p<0.05). The GSP polyphenol and flavonoid contents were influenced by the percentages of methanol solvents, and more flavonoids were established when 100% of methanol was applied as a solvent to the GSP. But, similar results were not observed in the polyphenol of GSP. In cooked pork sausages, significant decreases in the lightness and redness were found in both the 0.5% and 1.0% of GSP sausages during the storage period (p<0.05). However, an incompatible effect was observed in terms of yellowness, which increased as compared to the control sausage after 6 days of storage. The 0.5% addition of GSP decreased the levels of TBARS (p<0.05), but the ability of GSP to minimize lipid oxidation was not dose dependent. Therefore, the results indicated that the GSP is an efficient suppressor of lipid oxidation and has latent effects as a natural antioxidant when 0.5% of GSP is added to the cooked pork sausages.

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<![CDATA[Effects of Concentration and Reaction Time of Trypsin, Pepsin, and Chymotrypsin on the Hydrolysis Efficiency of Porcine Placenta]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bc5e58440307c779a27bfa9

This study investigated the effects of three proteases (trypsin, pepsin and chymotrypsin) on the hydrolysis efficiency of porcine placenta and the molecular weight (Mw) distributions of the placental hydrolysates. Because placenta was made up of insoluble collagen, the placenta was gelatinized by applying thermal treatment at 90 ℃ for 1 h and used as the sample. The placental hydrolyzing activities of the enzymes at varying concentrations and incubation times were determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Based on the SDS-PAGE, the best placental hydrolysis efficiency was observed in trypsin treatments where all peptide bands disappeared after 1 h of incubation as compared to 6 h of chymotrypsin. Pepsin hardly hydrolyzed the placenta as compared to the other two enzymes. The Mw distribution revealed that the trypsin produced placental peptides with Mw of 106 and 500 Da. Peptides produced by chymotrypsin exhibited broad ranges of Mw distribution (1-20 kDa), while the pepsin treatment showed Mw greater than 7 kDa. For comparisons of pre-treatments, the subcritical water processing (37.5 MPa and 200 ℃ of raw placenta improved the efficiency of tryptic digestions to a greater level than that of a preheating treatment (90 ℃ for 1 h). Consequently, subcritical water processing followed by enzymatic digestions has the potential of an advanced collagen hydrolysis technique.

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<![CDATA[Effects of pH-Shift Processing and Microbial Transglutaminase on the Gel and Emulsion Characteristics of Porcine Myofibrillar System]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bc5e57f40307c779a27bfa7

This study investigated the effects of microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) and pH-shift processing on the functional properties of porcine myofibrillar proteins (MP). The pH-shift processing was carried out by decreasing the pH of MP suspension to 3.0, followed by re-adjustment to pH 6.2. The native (CM) and pH-shifted MP (PM) was reacted with and without MTGase, and the gelling and emulsion characteristics were compared. To compare the pH-shifted MTGase-treated MP (PT), deamidation (DM) was conducted by reacting MTGase with MP at pH 3.0. Rigid thermal gel was produced by MTGase-treated native MP (CT) and PT. PM and DM showed the lowest storage modulus (G') at the end of thermal scanning. Both MTGase and pH-shifting produced harder MP gel, and the highest gel strength was obtained in PT. All treatments yielded lower than CM, and CT showed significantly higher yield than PM and DM treatments. For emulsion characteristics, pH-shifting improved the emulsifying ability of MP-stabilized emulsion, while the treatments had lower emulsion stability. PM-stabilized emulsion exhibited the lowest creaming stability among all treatments. The emulsion stability could be improved by the usage of MTGase. The results indicated that pH-shifting combined with MTGase had a potential application to modify or improve functional properties of MP in manufacturing of meat products.

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<![CDATA[Effect of Coating Method on the Survival Rate of L. plantarum for Chicken Feed]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bc5e58240307c779a27bfa8

This study was designed to find the most suitable method and wall material for microencapsulation of the Lactobacillus plantarum to maintain cell viability in different environmental conditions. To improve the stability of L. plantarum, we developed an encapsulation system of L. plantarum, using water-in-oil emulsion system. For the encapsulation of L. plantarum, corn starch and glyceryl monostearate were selected to form gel beads. Then 10% (w/v) of starch was gelatinized by autoclaving to transit gel state, and cooled down at 60ºC and mixed with L. plantarum to encapsulate it. The encapsulated L. plantarum was tested for the tolerance of acidic conditions at different temperatures to investigate the encapsulation ability. The study indicated that the survival rate of the microencapsulated cells in starch matrix was significantly higher than that of free cells in low pH conditions with relatively higher temperature. The results showed that corn starch as a wall material and glycerol monostearate as a gelling agent in encapsulation could play a role in the viability of lactic acid bacteria in extreme conditions. Using the current study, it would be possible to formulate a new water-in-oil system as applied in the protection of L. plantarum from the gastric conditions for the encapsulation system used in chicken feed industry.

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<![CDATA[The Influence of Spices on the Volatile Compounds of Cooked Beef Patty]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bc5e57240307c779a27bfa2

The aim of this study is to examine the influences of spices on the amounts and compositions of volatile compounds released from cooked beef patty. Beef patty with 0.5% of spice (nutmeg, onion, garlic, or ginger powder, w/w) was cooked by electronic pan until they reached an internal temperature of 75℃. A total of 46 volatile compounds (6 alcohols, 6 aldehydes, 5 hydrocarbons, 6 ketones, 9 sulfur compounds, and 14 terpenes) from cooked beef patties were detected by using purgeand- trap GC/MS. The addition of nutmeg, onion, or ginger powder significantly reduced the production of the volatile compounds via lipid oxidation in cooked beef patty when compared to those from the control. Also, the addition of nutmeg and garlic powder to beef patty generated a lot of trepans or sulfur volatile compounds, respectively. From these results, the major proportion by chemical classes such as alcohols, aldehydes, hydrocarbons, ketones, sulfur compounds, and terpenes was different depending on the spice variations. The results indicate that addition of spices to the beef patty meaningfully changes the volatile compounds released from within. Therefore, it can be concluded that spices can interact with meat aroma significantly, and thus, the character of each spice should be considered before adding to the beef patty.

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<![CDATA[Comparison of Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality between Duroc and Crossbred Pigs]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bc5e57c40307c779a27bfa6

This study was conducted to compare the carcass characteristics and meat quality characteristics of Duroc breed and crossbred pigs (Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc, LYD). Duroc and crossbred pigs did not show differences in carcass characteristics. Crossbred pigs had higher moisture and protein content than Duroc breeds. However, Duroc breeds had a higher fat content than the crossbred pigs. In meat quality characteristics, crossbred pigs showed higher values of drip loss and cooking loss over Duroc breeds, while Duroc breeds showed higher ultimate pH value compared to that of crossbred pigs. However, there were no differences in water holding capacity and shear force value. In myoglobin content, crossbred pigs had higher content compared to that in the Duroc population. In subjective evaluation and sensory characteristics, Duroc breeds showed significantly higher scores in all categories except for tenderness over the crossbred pigs. However, in storage characteristics, Duroc breeds showed reduced tendency relative to crossbred pigs. Crossbred pigs had higher unsaturated fatty acid content than Duroc breeds did. In these results, Duroc breeds showed excellent meat quality characteristics with its higher intramuscular fat content and pH value, lower drip loss and cooking loss and higher juiciness and flavor, compared to the crossbred pigs.

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<![CDATA[Selection and Characteristics of Fermented Salted Seafood (jeotgal)-Originated Strains with Excellent S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) Production and Probiotics Efficacy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bc5e52940307c779a27bf87

This study is executed to develop probiotics which produce S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM), a methyl group donor of the 5-methyltetrahydrofolate methylation reaction within the animal cell. SAM is an essential substance for the synthesis, activation, and metabolism of hormones, neurotransmitters, nucleic acids, phospholipids, and cell membranes of animals. The SAM is also known as a nutritional supplement to improve brain functions of the human. In this study, the SAM-producing strains are identified in 18 types of salted fish, and then, the strains with excellent SAM productions are being identified, with 1 strain in the Enterococcus genus and 9 strains in the Bacillus genus. Strains with a large amount of SAM production include the lactic acid bacteria such as En. faecium and En. durans, En. sanguinicola, as well as various strains in the Bacil-lus genus. The SAM-overproducing strains show antibacterial activities with certain harmful microbes in addition to the weak acid resistances and strong bile resistances, indicating characteristics of probiotics. It is possible that the jeotgal-originated beneficial strains with overproducing SAM can be commercially utilized in order to manufacture SAM enriched foods.

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