ResearchPad - Food Science https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Production of cupcake-like dessert containing microbial biosurfactant as an emulsifier]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Ndb8b4f0b-d8e6-44c5-9c72-5ecf61e7d52a

This work describes the application of the biosurfactant from Candida bombicola URM 3718 as a meal additive like cupcake. The biosurfactant was produced in a culture medium containing 5% sugar cane molasses, 5% residual soybean oil and 3% corn steep liquor. The surface and interfacial tension of the biosurfactant were 30.790 ± 0.04 mN/m and 0.730 ± 0.05 mN/m, respectively. The yield in isolated biosurfactant was 25 ± 1.02 g/L and the CMC was 0.5 g/L. The emulsions of the isolated biosurfactant with vegetable oils showed satisfactory results. The microphotographs of the emulsions showed that increasing the concentration of biosurfactant decreased the oil droplets, increasing the stability of the emulsions. The biosurfactant was incorporated into the cupcake dessert formulation, replacing 50%, 75% and 100% of the vegetable fat in the standard formulation. Thermal analysis showed that the biosurfactant is stable for cooking cupcakes (180 °C). The biosurfactant proved to be promising for application in foods low in antioxidants and did not show cytotoxic potential in the tested cell lines. Cupcakes with biosurfactant incorporated in their dough did not show significant differences in physical and physical–chemical properties after baking when compared to the standard formulation. In this way, the biosurfactant has potential for application in the food industry as an emulsifier for flour dessert.

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<![CDATA[The biochemical and metabolic profiles of dairy cows with mycotoxins-contaminated diets]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N22e82420-dbfc-489c-86c7-6f9a6d57617d

Background

Previous studies on the effects of mycotoxins have solely focused on their biochemical profiles or products in dairy ruminants. Changes in metabolism that occur after exposure to mycotoxins, as well as biochemical changes, have not been explored.

Methods

We measured the biochemical and metabolic changes in dairy cows after exposure to mycotoxins using biochemical analyses and nuclear magnetic resonance. Twenty-four dairy cows were randomly assigned to three different treatment groups. Control cows received diets with 2 kg uncontaminated cottonseed. Cows in the 50% replacement group received the same diet as the control group, but with 1 kg of uncontaminated cottonseed and 1 kg of cottonseed contaminated with mycotoxins. Cows in the 100% replacement group received the same diet as the control, but with 2 kg contaminated cottonseed.

Results

The results showed that serum γ-glutamyl transpeptidase and total antioxidant capacities were significantly affected by cottonseed contaminated with mycotoxins. There were also significant differences in isovalerate and NH3-N levels, and significant differences in the eight plasma metabolites among the three groups. These metabolites are mainly involved in amino acid metabolism pathways. Therefore, the results suggest that amino acid metabolism pathways may be affected by mycotoxins exposure.

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<![CDATA[Proximate composition, functional properties and quantitative analysis of benzoyl peroxide and benzoic acid in wheat flour samples: effect on wheat flour quality]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N0736ec7d-e38f-4e4c-ab71-fcfab2852b5d

Background

Extensive milling processes have deprived wheat flour from essential nutrients. The objective of the current study was to assess the nutritive quality of commercial wheat flour (soft flour (SF)) through analyses of proximate composition and functional properties as well as quantification of benzoyl peroxide (BPO; added as bleaching agent in the SF) by comparing the results with whole wheat flour (WF; never received any additives).

Methods

The samples included commercial SF purchased from the local supplier of different flour mills (who use BPO as additive) and a control sample without additives was prepared by grinding the seeds harvested from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.; Inqulab 91) crop grown in the experimental field of University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, under optimized field conditions without any fertilizers and insecticides. Functional properties (including bulk density, water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity, emulsifying activity, foaming capacity, least gelatinization concentration and gelatinization temperature) and proximate composition (including moisture content, ash contents, crude protein, gluten and starch contents) were determined and compared for all the samples. Benzoyl peroxide (BPO) and Benzoic Acid (BA) quantification was performed through High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Finally dietary intake was estimated for BPO and BA.

Results

Results showed that SF had lesser fiber, protein and ash contents, whereas, higher damaged starch, fat, gluten and bulk density. A parallel experiment under selected conditions (temperature, time and solute concentration) showed dissociation of BPO into BA soon after the exposure. Observed BA range (13.77 mg/g after 16 h) in SF and exposure level assessment (44.3 ± 1.36 mg/kg/BW) showed higher intake of BA on the consumption of SF. The results revealed the superiority of WF over SF in nutritive qualities as well as free of toxicants such as BA.

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<![CDATA[The use of XLSTAT in conducting principal component analysis (PCA) when evaluating the relationships between sensory and quality attributes in grilled foods]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Ncd42f7a8-44a2-4735-88b5-900e7fa7779b

Multivariate statistics is a tool for examining the relationship of multiple variables simultaneously. Principal component analysis (PCA) is an unsupervised multivariate analysis technique that simplifies the complexity of data by transforming them in a few dimensions showing their trends and correlations. Interests in XLSTAT as statistical software program of choice for routine multivariate statistics has been growing due in part to its compatibility with Microsoft Excel data format. As a case of study, multivariate analysis is used to study the effects of unfiltered beer-based marination on the volatile terpenes and thiols, and sensory attributes of grilled ruminant meats. PCA was conducted to determine the correlations between the abundances of volatile terpenes and thiols and sensory attribute scores in marinated grilled meats, as well as to analyze if there was any clustering based on the type of meat and marination treatments employed.

  • XLSTAT PCA output successfully reduced the number of variables into 2 components that explained 90.47% of the total variation of the data set.

  • PCA clustered marinated and unmarinated meats based on the presence and abundances of volatile terpenes, thiols and consumer sensory attribute scores.

  • PCA could be applied to explore relationships between volatile compounds and sensory attributes in different food systems.

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<![CDATA[Organic acids and 2,4-Di-tert-butylphenol: major compounds of Weissella confusa WM36 cell-free supernatant against growth, survival and virulence of Salmonella Typhi]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nd70b0e37-f8bc-4897-b89f-9641bc00a944

Background

Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi), the causative agent of typhoid fever, causes serious systemic disease in humans. Antibiotic treatment is required for the S. Typhi infection, while the inappropriate use of antibiotics causes increased drug-resistant S. Typhi. Hence, alternative therapies through non-antibiotic approaches are urgently needed. The use of beneficial lactic acid bacterium and/or its metabolites to control typhoid fever represent a promising approach, as it may exert protective actions through various mechanisms.

Method

In this study, the cell-free culture supernatant (CFCS) of Weissella confusa WM36 was evaluated via the antibacterial activity, and its metabolites were identified. In addition, the effects of CFCS on Salmonella virulence behaviors were also investigated.

Result

Based on strong inhibition the growth of S. Typhi DMST 22842, organic acids (lactic acid and acetic acid) and 2,4-Di-tert-butylphenol (2,4 DTBP), were the main antibacterial metabolites presented in CFCS of strain WM36. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) at 40% WM36–CFCS dramatically reduced the S. Typhi population to more than 99.99% at 4 h and completely inhibited biofilm formation, while sub-MIC at 20% (v/v) and MIC could reduce 100% of motility. Additionally, sub-MIC at only 10% (v/v) WM36–CFCS did down-regulate the expression of virulence genes which are responsible for the type-III secretion system, effector proteins, and quorum sensing system in this pathogen.

Conclusion

W. confusa WM36 and its metabolites are shown to be a promising candidates, and an effective approach against typhoid Salmonella burden.

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<![CDATA[Flavonoids from Epimedium pubescens: extraction and mechanism, antioxidant capacity and effects on CAT and GSH-Px of Drosophila melanogaster]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nfab81785-8dab-4ab0-b2a4-b819198a0321

Background

Epimedium is a famous medicinal plant in China, Southeast Asian and some other regions. Flavonoids are regarded as its supremely important active constituents used in phytomedicines and/or functional foods. It is of theoretical and applied significance to optimize the procedure for extraction of flavonoids with high bioactivity from Epimedium, to unveil extraction mechanism, to identify chemical composition of flavonoids, to analyze free radical-scavenging ability of flavonoids, and to investigate their effects on the model organism Drosophila melanogaster.

Methods

Box-Behnken design was applied to optimization of extraction procedure. Laser diffraction particle size analysis was used to clarify extraction mechanism. Chemical composition of flavonoids was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. Antiradical capacities of flavonoids were determined by chemical-based assay. Then, effects of flavonoids on catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in D. melanogaster were investigated for the first time.

Results

The optimal condition for ultrasonic extraction of antioxidant flavonoids from Epimedium pubescens was achieved and extraction mechanism was discussed. Epimedium flavonoids contained icariin, epimedin A, epimedin B and epimedin C. Epimedium flavonoids exhibited the ability to scavenge ABTS+ and DPPH radicals with EC50 values of 55.8 and 52.1 µg/ml, respectively. Moreover, Epimedium flavonoids were able to increase activities of CAT and GSH-Px in D. melanogaster. For females, oral administration of flavonoids improved CAT and GSH-Px activities by 13.58% and 5.18%, respectively. For males, oral administration of flavonoids increased CAT and GSH-Px activities by 13.90% and 5.65%, respectively.

Conclusion

Flavonoids ultrasonically extracted from E. pubescens considerably affected antioxidant defense system in D. melanogaster. Flavonoids of E. pubescens showed great potential for becoming a natural antioxidant because of their antiradical ability and effects on CAT and GSH-Px of the model organism.

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<![CDATA[Salmonella Brandenburg in the pork chain in Italy: Genetic comparison with the human isolates]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b593334463d7e589c54b6b0

Salmonella Brandenburg ranked 16th among the serovars responsible for human infections in EU in 2015 and it was found to be associated with swine. In Emilia- Romagna and Lombardy regions of northern Italy, S. Brandenburg was isolated from mesenteric lymph nodes, fecal matter, carcasses and conveyor belts at pig slaughterhouses in 2014 and 2015. In the same area, S. Brandenburg was detected in pork salami in 2015. In the present study, 12 isolates of S. Brandenburg recovered from the pork food-chain were typed by XbaI PFGE and their three profiles were compared to all human S. Brandenburg isolates processed by the Surveillance System of Emilia- Romagna region from 2012 to 2017 (105 isolates). The most frequent pulsotype of porcine origin (6/12) was the second most frequent in humans (16/105). Of the other two pulsotypes of porcine origine (3/12 each), one was the most frequent in humans (41/105), the other was undetected among human isolates.

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<![CDATA[Suppressive Effects of Vaccinium angustifolium Root Extract via Down-Regulation of Activation of Syk, Lyn, and NF-κB in FcεRI-Mediated Allergic Reactions]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b589054463d7e4bbcb756e1

Vaccinium angustifolium, reported as the lowbush blueberry, has a rich polyphenolic content with which biological activities have been closely associated. In this study, the effects of V. angustifolium root extract (VAE) on the anti-FcɛRI α chain antibody (CRA-1)-induced FcɛRI-mediated signaling factors, protein tyrosine kinases (PTK), Lyn, Syk, and nuclear factor kappa-B cells (NF-κB) in KU812F cells were investigated. The total phenolic content of VAE was found to be 170±1.9 mg gallic acid equivalents/g. Western blot analysis revealed that VAE dose-dependently inhibited FcɛRI-mediated phosphorylation of PTK involving Lyn and Syk. Evaluation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) by spectrofluorometric analysis using 2′7′-dichlorofluorescin-diacetate revealed that they were reduced by VAE in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, VAE reduced the levels of β-hexosaminidase released from CRA-1-stimulated KU812F cells. It was identified that VAE suppressed CRA-1-induced activation of NF-κB by Western blot analysis. Our results show that VAE may contribute to the inhibition of allergic actions via inactivation of basophils through the inhibition of β-hexosaminidase release and ROS production, which occurs as a result of inhibition of PTK, Syk, Lyn, and NF-κB.

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<![CDATA[Egg White Ovotransferrin-Derived ACE Inhibitory Peptide Ameliorates Angiotensin II-Stimulated Insulin Resistance in Skeletal Muscle Cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bfb99ded5eed0c484b172f7

Scope

The renin‐angiotensin system (RAS) is a major contributor to the development of insulin resistance and its related complications. Egg white ovotransferrin‐derived tripeptides, IRW (Ile‐Arg‐Trp), IQW (Ile‐Gln‐Trp), or LKP (Leu‐Lys‐Pro) are previously identified as the inhibitors of angiotensin‐converting enzyme (ACE), a key enzyme in the RAS. This study aims at determining whether these peptides are effective in improving insulin resistance, and their mechanisms of action, in a rat derived skeletal muscle cell line (L6 cells).

Methods and results

Insulin resistance is induced by treating L6 cells with 1 μm angiotensin II (Ang II) for 24 h. Effects of peptides on glucose uptake are determined using glucose uptake assay, glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation by immunofluorescence, reactive oxygen species (ROS) by dihydroethidium (DHE) staining, while insulin signaling pathway, Ang II receptor (AT1R or AT2R) levels, and NADPH oxidase activation are measured using Western Blot. Only IRW treatment significantly improves insulin resistance in L6 cells via stimulation of insulin signaling. IRW decreases Ang II‐stimulated AT1R expression, ROS formation, and NADPH oxidase activation.

Conclusions

Of three ACE inhibitory peptides studied, only IRW improves insulin resistance in L6 cells, at least partially via reduced AT1R expression and its anti‐oxidative activity.

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<![CDATA[Intensified Sampling in Response to a Salmonella Heidelberg Outbreak Associated with Multiple Establishments Within a Single Poultry Corporation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b4c5a3c463d7e09f8ec4a81

Abstract

On June 28, 2013, the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) was notified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) of an investigation of a multistate cluster of illnesses of Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg. Since case-patients in the cluster reported consumption of a variety of chicken products, FSIS used a simple likelihood-based approach using traceback information to focus on intensified sampling efforts. This article describes the multiphased product sampling approach taken by FSIS when epidemiologic evidence implicated chicken products from multiple establishments operating under one corporation. The objectives of sampling were to (1) assess process control of chicken slaughter and further processing and (2) determine whether outbreak strains were present in products from these implicated establishments. As part of the sample collection process, data collected by FSIS personnel to characterize product included category (whole chicken and type of chicken parts), brand, organic or conventional product, injection with salt solutions or flavorings, and whether product was skinless or skin-on. From the period September 9, 2013, through October 31, 2014, 3164 samples were taken as part of this effort. Salmonella percent positive declined from 19.7% to 5.3% during this timeframe as a result of regulatory and company efforts. The results of intensified sampling for this outbreak investigation informed an FSIS regulatory response and corrective actions taken by the implicated establishments. The company noted that a multihurdle approach to reduce Salmonella in products was taken, including on-farm efforts such as environmental testing, depopulation of affected flocks, disinfection of affected houses, vaccination, and use of various interventions within the establishments over the course of several months.

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<![CDATA[Broccoli (Brassica oleracea) Reduces Oxidative Damage to Pancreatic Tissue and Combats Hyperglycaemia in Diabetic Rats]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b4784c4463d7e71e4ceaa79

Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the development of diabetes and hyperglycaemia. The protective effects of natural extracts against diabetes are mainly dependent on their antioxidant and hypoglycaemic properties. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea) exerts beneficial health effects in several diseases including diabetes; however, the mechanism has not been elucidated yet. The present study was carried out to evaluate the potential hypoglycaemic and antioxidant properties of aqueous broccoli extracts (BEs) in diabetic rats. Streptozotocin (STZ) drug was used as a diabetogenic agent in a single intraperitoneal injection dose of 50 mg/kg body weight. The blood glucose level for each rat was measured twice a week. After 8 weeks, all animals were fasted overnight and sacrificed; pancreatic tissues were homogenized and used for measuring oxidative DNA damage, biochemical assessment of glutathione (GSH), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) as well as histopathological examination for pancreatic tissues was examined. Diabetic rats showed significantly higher levels of DNA damage, GSH depletion, and impaired TAC levels in comparison to non-diabetics (P<0.05). The treatment of diabetic rats with BE significantly reduced DNA damage and conserved GSH and TAC values (P<0.01). BE attenuated pancreatic histopathological changes in diabetic rats. The results of this study indicated that BE reduced the STZ mediated hyperglycaemia and the STZ-induced oxidative injury to pancreas tissue. The used in vivo model confirmed the efficacy of BE as an anti-diabetic herbal medicine and provided insights into the capacity of BE to be used for phytoremediation purposes for human type 2 diabetes.

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<![CDATA[Feeling ‘too fat’ rather than being ‘too fat’ increases unhealthy eating habits among adolescents – even in boys]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bc7dbd340307c631822d4b2

Background

Adolescence is a period of gender-specific physical changes, during which eating habits develop. To better understand what factors determine unhealthy eating habits such as dieting to lose weight, skipping meals, and consumption of unhealthy foods, we studied how physical measurements and body perception relate to eating habits in boys and girls, before and during adolescence.

Methods

For this cross-sectional study, we obtained data from both written questionnaires and physical measurements of height, weight, and waist circumference (WC).

Results

Dieting to lose weight and skipping breakfast were more common among adolescents than among younger boys and girls (p<0.05). The strongest risk factor for dieting in both boys and girls was perception of overweight, which persisted after adjusting for age and for being overweight (p<0.01). Another independent risk factor for dieting behaviour was overweight, as defined by body mass index (BMI) among boys (p<0.01) and WC among girls (p<0.05). In both boys and girls, skipping breakfast was associated with both a more negative body perception and higher BMI (p<0.05). Skipping breakfast was also associated with age- and gender-specific unhealthy eating habits such as skipping other meals, lower consumption of fruits and vegetables, and higher consumption of sweets and sugary drinks (p<0.05).

Conclusion

Body perception among adolescents is an important factor relating to unhealthy eating habits, not only in girls, but even in boys. Focus on body perception and eating breakfast daily is crucial for the development of healthy food consumption behaviours during adolescence and tracking into adulthood.

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<![CDATA[Effect of High Pressure on the Porcine Placenral Hydrolyzing Activity of Pepsin, Trypsin and Chymotrypsin]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bc5e54140307c779a27bf90

This study investigated the effects of protease treatments (trypsin, chymotrypsin, and pepsin) under various pressure levels (0.1-300 MPa) for the characteristics of porcine placenta hydrolysates. According to gel electrophoretic patterns, the trypsin showed the best placental hydrolyzing activity followed by chymotrypsin, regardless of the pressure levels. In particular, the peptide bands of tryptic-digested hydrolysate were not shown regardless of applied pressure levels. The peptide bands of hydrolysate treated chymotrypsin showed gradual decreases in molecular weights (Mw) with increasing pressure levels. However, the pepsin did not show any evidences of placental hydrolysis even though the pressure levels were increased to 300 MPa. The gel permeation chromatography (GPC) profiles showed that the trypsin and pepsin had better placental hydrolyzing activities under high pressure (particularly at 200 MPa), with lower Mw distributions of the hydrolysates. Pepsin also tend to lower the Mw of peptides, while the major bands of hydrolysates being treated at 300 MPa were observed at more than 7,000 Da. There were some differences in amino acid compositions of the hydrolysates, nevertheless, the peptides were mainly composed of glycine (Gly), alanine (Ala), hydroxyproline (Hyp) and proline (Pro). Consequently, the results indicate that high pressure could enhance the placental hydrolyzing activities of the selected proteases and the optimum pressure levels at which the maximum protease activity is around 200 MPa.

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<![CDATA[Physiological Characteristics and Production of Folic Acid of Lactobacillus plantarum JA71 Isolated from Jeotgal, a Traditional Korean Fermented Seafood]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bc5e53940307c779a27bf8d

Folic acid, one of the B group of vitamins, is an essential substance for maintaining the functions of the nervous system, and is also known to decrease the level of homocysteine in plasma. Homocysteine influences the lowering of the cognitive function in humans, and especially in elderly people. In order to determine the strains with a strong capacity to produce folic acid, 190 bacteria were isolated from various kinds of jeotgal and chungkuk-jang. In our test experiment, JA71 was found to contain 9.03μg/mL of folic acid after 24 h of incubation in an MRS broth. This showed that JA71 has the highest folic acid production ability compared to the other lactic acid bacteria that were isolated. JA71 was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum by the result of API carbohydrate fermentation pattern and 16s rDNA sequence. JA71 was investigated for its physiological characteristics. The optimum growth temperature of JA71 was 37℃, and the cultures took 12 h to reach pH 4.4. JA71 proved more sensitive to bacitracin when compared with fifteen different antibiotics, and showed most resistance to neomycin and vancomycin. Moreover, it was comparatively tolerant of bile juice and acid, and displayed resistance to Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus with restraint rates of 60.4%, 96.7%, and 76.2%, respectively. These results demonstrate that JA71 could be an excellent strain for application to functional products.

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<![CDATA[Goat Milk Yoghurt by Using Lacto-B Culture Modulates the Production of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha and Interleukin-10 in Malnourished Rats]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bc5e54940307c779a27bf93

Total spleen lymphocytes, lymphocyte proliferation, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-10 (IL-10) in spleen lymphocyte culture were studied in malnourished Wistar rats fed with goat milk yoghurt. Malnourished rats were created by using standard feed restriction as much as 50% of normal rats for 21 d. Goat milk yoghurt containing three types of microorganism e.g., Lactobacillus acidophilus, Sterptococcus thermophilus and Bifidobacterium longum derived from Lacto-B culture in powder form. After 21 d, the rats continued to receive restricted feeding and supplemented with goat milk yoghurt for 7 d. Total splenocytes were counted by hemocytometer. Splenocytes proliferation was expressed as stimulation index, whereas the TNF-α and IL-10 of spleen lymphocyte culture were measured by ELISA technique. The total number of splenocytes and stimulation index of splenocytes in moderate malnourished and normal rats supplemented with goat milk yoghurt was not significantly different. The level of TNF-α in the rat supplemented with goat milk yoghurt was lower (p<0.05) than the control group, whereas the level of IL-10 in the rat supplemented with goat milk yoghurt was higher (p<0.05) than the control group. In conclusion, goat milk yoghurt supplementation in malnourished rats could decrease TNF-α as a representation of the proinflammatory cytokine, while it increases IL-10 as a representation of the anti-inflammatory cytokine.

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<![CDATA[Effects of Egg Shell Membrane Hydrolysates on Anti-Inflammatory, Anti-Wrinkle, Anti-Microbial Activity and Moisture-Protection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bc5e54340307c779a27bf91

This study was conducted to examine the effects of eggshell membrane hydrolysates (ESMH) on the anti-inflammatory, anti-wrinkle, anti-microbial activity, and moisture-protection for cosmetic use. Whole ESMH (before fractionation), and fraction I (>10 kDa), fraction II (3-10 kDa), and fraction III (<3 kDa) of the hydrolysates were assessed in this experiment. As lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and IFN-γ caused the inflammation on Raw264.7 cell, whole ESMH and fraction I showed to be effective in inhibiting the induction of cell inflammation depending on the concentration, and also showed outstanding effect to suppress the skin inflammation. Fraction I inhibited collagenase and elastase activities to a greater extent than the other fractions, while all fractions had antibiotic effects at concentrations of 10 mg/disc and 20 mg/disc. In addition, it showed the moisture protection effects of skin on the holding amount and losing amount of moisture in upper-inner arm of the human body with a relatively low loss rate in skin, which confirmed that the hydrolyzed fractions of ESM helps to form the superior protective layer of moisture. It was concluded that ESMH fractions with different molecular weights, especially the 10 kDa fraction, have anti-lipopolysaccharide, anti-IFN-γ-induced inflammation, anti- collagenase and elastase activities, and thus can be used as a cosmetic agent to protect skin.

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<![CDATA[Physicochemical Characteristics of Beef Jerky Cured with Salted-fermented Anchovy and Shrimp]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bc5e54e40307c779a27bf95

The aim of this study is to evaluate the availability of salted and fermented fish (SFF) including salted and fermented anchovy (SFA) and shrimp (SFS) as a marinade of beef jerky. In curing solutions, half (SFA 1 and SFS 1) or whole (SFA 2 and SFS 2) salt-water was replaced with SFF juices. Higher water activity (aw) was found in the beef jerky cured with SFFs than the control (C) (p< 0.05). The SFFs had the effect of causing a decrease in hardness and an increase in cohesiveness (p<0.05). Among the treatment samples, springiness was the highest in SFA2 and SFS2 (p<0.05) and the lowest values of Warner-Bratzler shear force were found in SFA1 and SFA2 (p<0.05). The SFFs also had the effect of increasing the flavor of the sensory properties; however, color measurements from both the instrumental surface color (L*, a*, b*, chroma, and hue angle) and color of sensory evaluation were decreased by addition of SFFs (p<0.05). Therefore, we conclude the SFFs can improve the texture and sensory properties of the beef jerky. In particular, the SFS is a good ingredient for the curing solution. However, studies are still needed on improving the aw, pH, and surface color of the beef jerky to apply the SFFs for making beef jerky.

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<![CDATA[The Preventive Effects of Nanopowdered Peanut Sprout-added Caciocavallo Cheese on Collagen-induced Arthritic Mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bc5e54b40307c779a27bf94

The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of nanopowdered peanut sprout-added Caciocavallo cheese (NPCC) on the prevention and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in DBA/IJ mice immunized with type II collagen. After the induction of arthritis, the mice were being divided into five groups: (1) normal, no immunization; (2) CIA, collagen-induced arthritis; (3) MTX, collagen-induced arthritis treated with methotrexate (0.3 mg/kg body weight); (4) CC, collagen-induced arthritis treated with Caciocavallo cheese (0.6 g/d); (5) NPCC, collagen-induced arthritis treated with nanopowdered peanut sprout-added Caciocavallo cheese (0.6 g/d). Nanopowdered peanut sprout was ranged from 300 to 350 nm, while regular powdered peanut sprouts were ranged from 50 to 150 μm. The NPCC group had considerable reductions of clinical scores and paw thicknesses at the end of experiment as compared to the CIA group. In the serum analysis, the TNF-α, IL-1β, IL- 6 and IgG1 levels in the NPCC group have decreased by 69.4, 75.9, 66.6, and 61.9%, respectively, when compared to the CIA group. The histological score and spleen index of the NPCC group were significantly lower than the CIA group. In conclusion, the feeding NPCC method could delay and/or prevent the rheumatoid arthritis in the collagen-induced arthritis mouse model. Based on this study, nanopowdered peanut sprouts could be applied to various functional cheeses.

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<![CDATA[Effects of Temperature and Packaging on the Growth Kinetics of Clostridium perfringens in Ready-to-eat Jokbal (Pig's Trotters)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bc5e53e40307c779a27bf8f

Ready-to-eat (RTE) Jokbal (Pig's trotter), which consists of pig's feet cooked in soy sauce and various spices, is a very popular and widely sold in Korean retail markets. Commercially, the anaerobically packed Jokbal have also become a popular RTE food in several convenience stores. This study evaluates the effects of storage temperature and packaging methods for the growth of C. perfringens in Jokbal. Growth kinetic parameters of C. perfringens in aerobically and anaerobically packed Jokbals are determined at each temperature by the modified Gompertz equation. The lag time, specific growth rate, and maximum population density of C. perfringens are being analyzed as a function of temperature and packaging method. The minimum growth temperature of C. perfringens in aerobically and anaerobically packed Jokbal is 24℃ and 18℃, respectively. The C. perfringens in Jokbal did not grow under conditions of over 50℃ regardless of the packaging methods, indicating that the holding temperature of Jokbal in markets must be maintained at above 50℃ or below 18℃. Growth of C. perfringens in anaerobically packed Jokbal is faster than in aerobically packed Jokbal when stored under the same conditions. This indicates that there are a higher risks associated with C. perfringens for anaerobically packed meat products.

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<![CDATA[Effects of Pressure-shift Freezing on the Structural and Physical Properties of Gelatin Hydrogel Matrices]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bc5e55340307c779a27bf97

This study investigates the effects of the gelatin concentration (10-40%, w/v), freezing temperatures (from -20℃ to -50℃) and freezing methods on the structural and physical properties of gelatin matrices. To freeze gelatin, the pressure-shift freezing (PSF) is being applied at 0.1 (under atmospheric control), 50 and 100 MPa, respectively. The freezing point of gelatin solutions decrease with increasing gelatin concentrations, from -0.2℃ (10% gelatin) to -6.7℃ (40% gelatin), while the extent of supercooling did not show any specific trends. The rheological properties of the gelatin indicate that both the storage (G') and loss (G") moduli were steady in the strain amplitude range of 0.1-10%. To characterize gelatin matrices formed by the various freezing methods, the ice crystal sizes which were being determined by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are affected by the gelatin concentrations. The ice crystal sizes are affected by gelatin concentrations and freezing temperature, while the size distributions of ice crystals depend on the freezing methods. Smaller ice crystals are being formed with PSF rather than under the atmospheric control where the freezing temperature is above -40℃. Thus, the results of this study indicate that the PSF processing at a very low freezing temperature (-50℃) offers a potential advantage over commercial atmospheric freezing points for the formation of small ice crystals.

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