ResearchPad - Forestry https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Direct measurement forest carbon protocol: a commercial system-of-systems to incentivize forest restoration and management]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N1f4a6423-4084-4eef-9e83-dd6ef6b9d76c

Forest carbon sequestration offsets are methodologically uncertain, comprise a minor component of carbon markets and do not effectively slow deforestation. The objective of this study is to describe a commercial scale in situ measurement approach for determination of net forest carbon sequestration projects, the Direct Measurement Forest Carbon Protocol™, to address forest carbon market uncertainties. In contrast to protocols that rely on limited forest mensuration, growth simulation and exclusion of CO2 data, the Direct Measurement Forest Carbon Protocol™ is based on standardized methods for direct determination of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 employing eddy covariance, a meteorological approach integrating forest carbon fluxes. NEE is used here as the basis for quantifying the first of its kind carbon financial products. The DMFCP differentiates physical, project and financial carbon within a System-of-Systems™ (SoS) network architecture. SoS sensor nodes, the Global Monitoring Platform™ (GMP), housing analyzers for CO2 isotopologues (e.g., 12CO2,13CO2, 14CO2) and greenhouse gases are deployed across the project landscape. The SoS standardizes and automates GMP measurement, uncertainty and reporting functions creating diverse forest carbon portfolios while reducing cost and investment risk in alignment with modern portfolio theory. To illustrate SoS field deployment and operation, published annual NEE data for a tropical (Ankasa Park, Ghana, Africa) and a deciduous forest (Harvard Forest, Petersham, MA, USA) are used to forecast carbon revenue. Carbon pricing scenarios are combined with historical in situ NEE annual time-series to extrapolate pre-tax revenue for each project applied to 100,000 acres (40,469 hectares) of surrounding land. Based on carbon pricing of $5 to $36 per ton CO2 equivalent (tCO2eq) and observed NEE sequestration rates of 0.48 to 15.60 tCO2eq acre−1 yr−1, pre-tax cash flows ranging from $230,000 to $16,380,000 across project time-series are calculated, up to 5×  revenue for contemporary voluntary offsets, demonstrating new economic incentives to reverse deforestation. The SoS concept of operation and architecture, with engineering development, can be extended to diverse gas species across terrestrial, aquatic and oceanic ecosystems, harmonizing voluntary and compliance market products worldwide to assist in the management of global warming. The Direct Measurement Forest Carbon Protocol reduces risk of invalidation intrinsic to estimation-based protocols such as the Climate Action Reserve and the Clean Development Mechanism that do not observe molecular CO2 to calibrate financial products. Multinational policy applications such as the Paris Agreement and the United Nations Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation, constrained by Kyoto Protocol era processes, will benefit from NEE measurement avoiding unsupported claims of emission reduction, fraud, and forest conservation policy failure.

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<![CDATA[Monitoring body condition score of reintroduced banteng (Bos javanicus D’Alton, 1923) into Salakphra Wildlife Sanctuary, Thailand]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nc8cb63f8-58d8-41ad-b3f5-af60a70e8f31

Background

Banteng (Bos javanicus d’Alton 1823) are an endangered species, highly sensitive to habitat structure and quality. In many areas, banteng were extinct and needed to be reintroduced to restore their population. Thus, understanding the responses of body condition of reintroduced banteng to their habitat was important for ensuring the sustainability of a reintroduction program. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the body condition of banteng after reintroduction into the Salakphra Wildlife Sanctuary in Thailand based on photographs from camera-traps carried out between July 2016 and November 2018.

Methods

Seven banteng were bred at the Khao Nampu Nature and Wildlife Education Center and systematically reintroduced into the Salakphra Wildlife Sanctuary in December 2015 (four) and July 2016 (three). The seven reintroduced adults and two newborns (from the 2015 group) were captured via camera traps in 2018. The body condition scoring (BCS) obtained from these photographs was used to identify the individual performance of all seven adults after their reintroduction.

Results

The BCS scores in reintroduced adult banteng, both males and females, (between 5 and 7 years old) increased significantly over time after reintroduction into a natural habitat (p < 0.05), although the BCS scores in females were not significantly different between the second and third years (p > 0.05).

Conclusions

The results from the present study suggest that camera traps are a practical tool to assess the BCS of reintroduced banteng, and can be used to monitor their condition post-release. These techniques may be appropriate for translocation programs elsewhere.

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<![CDATA[Multi-walled carbon nanotubes produced after forest fires improve germination and development of Eysenhardtia polystachya]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nffb858f2-555c-4aeb-9da9-9dea1974e198

Background

Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are nanoparticles with countless applications. MWCNTs are typically of synthetic origin. However, recently, the formation of MWCNTs in nature after forest fires has been documented. Previous reports have demonstrated the positive effects of synthetic MWCNTs on the germination and development of species of agronomic interest; nevertheless, there is practically no information on how synthetic or natural MWCNTs affect forest plant development. In this report, based on insights from dose-response assays, we elucidate the comparative effects of synthetic MWCNTs, amorphous carbon, and natural MWCNTs obtained after a forest fire on Eysenhardtia polystachya plant.

Methods

E. polystachya seeds were sown in peat moss-agrolite substrate and conserved in a shade house. Germination was recorded daily up to 17 days after sowing, and plant development (manifested in shoot and root length, stem diameter, foliar area, and root architecture parameters) was recorded 60 days after sowing.

Results

The treatments with natural MWCNTs accelerated the emergence and improved the germination of this plant, thus while untreated seeds achieve 100% of germination within 16th day, seeds supplemented with natural MWCNTs at doses of 20 µg/mL achieve the above percentage within the 4th day. Natural MWCNTs also promoted fresh and dry biomass in all applied treatments, specially at doses of 40 µg/mL where natural MWCNTs significantly promoted leaf number, root growth, and the dry and fresh weights of shoots and roots of seedlings. Seeds supplemented with doses between 20 and 40 µg/mL of amorphous carbon achieving 100% of germination within the 6th day; however, seeds supplemented either with doses of 60 µg/mL of the above carbon or with synthetic MWCNTs at all the tested concentrations could achieve at most 80 % and 70% of germination respectively within the 17 days. Finally, neither treatments added with amorphous carbon nor those added with synthetic MWCNTs, showed significant increases in the fresh and dry biomass of the tested plant. Likewise, the survival of seedlings was reduced between 10 and 20 % with 40 and 60 µg/mL of amorphous carbon, and with synthetic MWCNTs in all the doses applied was reduced at 30% of survival plants.

Conclusions

These findings indicate that MWCNTs produced by wildfire act as plant growth promoters, contributing to the germination and development of adapted to fire-prone conditions species such as E. polystachya.

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<![CDATA[Home range size and habitat use of the blue-crowned laughingthrush during the breeding season]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nfaf22003-cfa2-4da9-b029-b3f1d94eb3d6

The home range size and habitat use of the blue-crowned laughingthrush (Garrulax courtoisi, hereafter BCLT), a critically endangered, subtropical, cooperative-breeding bird species in southeast China, were studied during its breeding period using radio telemetry at different sites during 3 consecutive years (2016–18, from May to June of each year). A total of 17 birds (12 males, four females, and one of unknown sex) were tagged, and a total 1515 locations (mean ± se = 89.12 ± 11.42) were obtained over 54 days of tracking. The average 100% minimum convex polygon (MCP) home range size was 10.05 ± 1.17 ha, and the estimated KDE core area (fiexed kernel density estimator, KDE) size was 7.84 ± 1.18 ha. According to the Wilcoxon rank sum tests, both the 100% MCP and KDE core area size of males did not significantly differ from those of females. There were no significant differences in the 100% MCP or KDE core area sizes of the three breeding sites. The available habitats in the breeding sites included water areas, shrubs, grass plots, woodland, residential areas, vegetable field, farmland, and sandy beaches; among them, only woodland was significantly preferred by BCLTs. Woodland (average use ratio was 45.86 ± 1.74%) was strongly preferred by BCLTs for nesting, foraging and roosting. Shrubs/grass plots (24.72 ± 3.39%) and vegetable plots (11.80 ± 1.83%) were used relatively more often than the other habitats, except woodland, since shrubs were always used as perches, and vegetable plots were rich in food resources. Vertically, the canopy layer was used most often from April to June, but it was used most in May when the birds were hatching and brooding. This result indicates that BCLT is predominantly active in the upper strata during the breeding season. In addition, broadleaved trees within or adjacent to villages were important activity areas for the breeding birds; protection and management measures should be increased in these areas.

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<![CDATA[The applicability of recreation-grade GNSS receiver (GPS watch, Suunto Ambit Peak 3) in a forested and an open area compared to a mapping-grade receiver (Trimble Juno T41)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N8984bd8b-66a6-4b6e-8af7-92a53859b107

Due to developments in global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) and the miniaturization of their components, the usage of Global Positioning System (GPS) is no longer restricted to professional applications, but has become available in various consumer type devices, such as wristwatches. These commercial devices, however, were primarily designed for tracking activities in predominately urban settings and their accuracy has not been tested in forested areas. In this study, we present an assessment of the positional accuracy of a GPS watch (Ambit Peak 3, Suunto, Finland) under different forest cover types, seasons and meteorological conditions within the Whitehall Forest GPS Test Site located in Athens, Georgia, USA. As a standard of comparison, the performance of the GPS watch measurements was juxtaposed to that of a mapping-grade receiver (Juno T41, Trimble Inc., USA). In this study, we analyzed the differences between the determined and control positions using root-mean-square-error (RMSE), along with the distribution of observed positions through the standard deviational ellipse. The results suggest that the seasonal variations contributed to a statistically significant impact on the RMSE values for the GPS watch. However, there were no statistically significant differences in horizontal position accuracy by forest cover-type when using the GPS watch. Furthermore, no significant differences were found in horizontal position accuracy during the leaf-off period between the RMSE values for the GPS watch and those of the mapping-grade receiver. Lastly, the positional accuracies for both types of receivers were found to be weakly, but significantly correlated with fluctuations in air temperature and absolute humidity.

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<![CDATA[Effects of afforestation with Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica plantations combined with enclosure management on soil microbial community]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nba4b71fe-5f5c-446a-aee1-4b9a413be5a3

Grazing and litter removal can alter understory structure and composition after afforestation, posing a serious threat to sustainable forest development. Enclosure is considered to be an effective measure to restore degraded forest restoration. However, little is known about the dynamics of soil nutrients and microbial communities during the forest restoration process. In the present study, the effects of Arachis hypogaea (AH), Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica (PSM) and Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica with enclosure (PSME) on soil chemical properties and soil microbial communities were studied in Zhanggutai, Liaoning Province, China. The results showed that PSME could remarkably contribute to improve soil total C, total N and total P compared to PSM and AH. Additionally, PSM could clearly increase the soil bacterial community diversity and fungal Chao1 index and ACE index. Additionally, PSME could further increase soil Chao1 index and ACE index of soil bacteria. Soil total C, total N and available N were the main factors related to soil microbial diversity. Actinobacteria and Ascomycota were the predominant bacterial and fungal phyla, respectively. Specifically, PSME could increase the relative abundances of Actinobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Ascomycota and Mortierellomycota and decreased the relative abundances of Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi and Basidiomycota than PSM. PSM and PSME could clearly change soil microbial communities compared with AH and PSME could remarkably shift soil fungal communities than PSM. What’s more, the soil microbial community structure were affected by multiple edaphic chemical parameters. It can be seen that afforestation combined with enclosed management potentially regulate microbial properties through shifting the soil properties. This study can provide new ideas for further understanding the impact of enclosure on PSM and provide theoretical support for the management of PSM.

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<![CDATA[A new species of Glyptapanteles Ashmead (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae) within Macrobrochis gigas (Lepidoptera, Arctiidae, Lithosiidae) in Fujian, China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N3bc60d67-ce78-4008-94e9-ba4c9fd971f2
Abstract

The south-east coastal area of Fujian, China, belongs to the Oriental Realm, and is characterized by a high insect species richness. In this work, a new species of Hymenopteran parasitoid, Glyptapanteles gigas Liang & Song, sp. nov. found in Jinjiang within hosts of caterpillars Macrobrochis gigas (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae), is described and illustrated, with differences from similar species. Additionally, we presumed that both parasitoid and host species play very important role in the coevolution and tritrophic interaction between plants, phytophagous insects, and their parasitoids, because these insects probably broke the sporangia and made contributions to their colonization, or some spores were spread for long distances by adult moths after their emergence, or some parasitoids were attracted by the eggs and larvae of these caterpillars, which was also thought to be helpful to spread of spores.

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<![CDATA[­Complete plastid genome sequences of two species of the Neotropical genus Brunellia (Brunelliaceae)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nf8cdeb10-df2a-4ac2-af9a-4e3be8426864

Here we present the first two complete plastid genomes for Brunelliaceae, a Neotropical family with a single genus, Brunellia. We surveyed the entire plastid genome in order to find variable cpDNA regions for further phylogenetic analyses across the family. We sampled morphologically different species, B. antioquensis and B. trianae, and found that the plastid genomes are 157,685 and 157,775 bp in length and display the typical quadripartite structure found in angiosperms. Despite the clear morphological distinction between both species, the molecular data show a very low level of divergence. The amount of nucleotide substitutions per site is one of the lowest reported to date among published congeneric studies (π = 0.00025). The plastid genomes have gene order and content coincident with other COM (Celastrales, Oxalidales, Malpighiales) relatives. Phylogenetic analyses of selected superrosid representatives show high bootstrap support for the ((C,M)O) topology. The N-fixing clade appears as the sister group of the COM clade and Zygophyllales as the sister to the rest of the fabids group.

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<![CDATA[Soil temperatures and active carbon components as key drivers of C stock dynamics between two different stand ages of Larix principis-rupprechtii plantation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nddab9581-5e4e-4a9f-a4eb-c2578afdd38c

Forest soils sequester a large amount of carbon (C) and have a significant effect on the global C balance. Forests are commonly managed to maintain certain age structures but the effects of this management on soil C pools (kg C m−2) is still uncertain. We compared 40-year-old (1GF) and 24-year-old (2GF) plantations of Larix principis-rupprechtii in North China. Specifically, we measured environmental factors (e.g., soil temperature, moisture, and pH), the active C and nitrogen (N) pools (e.g., soil organic C, soil total N, dissolved organic C and N, microbial biomass C and N), and soil processes (e.g., C mineralization and microbial activity in different seasons) in five soil layers (0–50 cm, 10 cm for each soil layer) across the growing seasons in three 25 m × 25 m plots in each age class (1GF and 2GF). Findings indicated that the soil organic C pool in the older 1GF forest (12.43 kg C m−2) was significantly higher than 2GF forests (9.56 kg C m−2), and that soil temperature in 1GF forests was 9.8 °C, on average, 2.9% warmer than temperature in 2GF forests. The C lost as carbon dioxide (CO2) as a result of mineralization in the 2GF plots may partly explain the lower soil organic C pool in these younger forests; microorganisms likely drive this process.

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<![CDATA[Variability of soil carbon and nitrogen stocks after conversion of natural forest to plantations in Eastern China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Ne54f86f9-d426-4cc8-86fd-ae9c8ac10467

Forest plantation, either through afforestation or reforestation, has been suggested to reverse and mitigate the process of deforestation. However, uncertainties remain in the potential of plantation forest (PF) to sequestrate carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) compared to natural forest (NF). Soil C and N stocks require a critical and updated look at what is happening especially in the context of increasing rate of land use change and climate change. The current study was conducted in China’s Eastern forest to estimate soil C and N stocks in six depth layers (0–10, 10–20, 20–40, 40–60, 60–80 and 80–100 cm) and two forest types (NF and PF) at four sites along climate factors gradient. The results showed that the overall mean soil C and N amounts to a depth of 20 cm ranged from 2.6 ± 1.1 Mg ha−1 to 38.6 ± 23.1 Mg ha−1, and soil nitrogen stock ranged from 0.2 ± 0.1 Mg ha−1 to 3.3 ± 1.5 Mg ha−1. Moreover, a loss of C stock was observed at Qingyuan (QY) by −7%, Dinghushan (DH) by −26%, Jianfengling (JF) by −13% while that of N stock was observed at QY (−8%), DH (−19%) and JF (−12%) at both depth layers. These results indicate that NFs have a better capacity to accumulate soil C and N. The soil C and N decreased from the southeast to the northeast and increased from tropical to temperate mixed forests zone in the eastern part of the study area. The C and N stock mainly occurred in the topsoil and decreased significantly with depth. Moreover, soil C and N stocks increased with age of plantation. This study provides an overview of the current spatial distribution and soil stocks of C and N, as well as the effects of environmental factors on soil C and N stocks. It also indicated that, although mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation are the key factors affecting the variations in soil C and N, their vertical and horizontal distribution differed in various aspects.

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<![CDATA[First report and molecular characterization of the dagger nematode, Xiphinema oxycaudatum (Nematoda, Dorylaimidae) from South Africa]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N1fed0564-2a9a-40a8-a010-f74c4e6b8aff
Abstract

Plant-parasitic nematodes of the genus Xiphinema Cobb, 1913 comprise a complex group of nematode species, some of which are important vectors of plant viruses. During a field survey to determine the soil health of an abandoned honeybush (Cyclopia genistoides) monoculture, a high density of the dagger nematode, Xiphinema oxycaudatum Lamberti & Bleve-Zacheo, 1979 (Nematoda, Dorylaimidae), was observed in soil around the roots of honeybush plants in an abandoned farmland at Bereaville, an old mission station in the Western Cape province of South Africa. Soil samples were taken from the rhizosphere of plants and nematodes were extracted from the soil using a modified extraction tray method. Specimen of the dagger nematodes were processed for scanning electron microscopy, morphological and molecular analysis. Molecular profiling of the nematode species was done in order to give an accurate diagnosis and to effectively discriminate the nematode from other species within the Xiphinema americanum group. Phylogenetic analysis based on the D2D3 expansion segment of the 28S gene supported a close relationship of species within the americanum group, however, the protein-coding cytochrome oxidase (coxI) of the mitochondrial gene provided a useful tool for distinguishing the nematode from other species within the group. This study represents the first report of X. oxycaudatum from South Africa.

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<![CDATA[Culturally modified trees or wasted timber: Different approaches to marked trees in Poland’s Białowieża Forest]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c52182ed5eed0c4847976a4

Studies of past forest use traditions are crucial in both understanding the present state of the oldest European forests, and in guiding decisions on future forest conservation and management. Current management of Poland’s Białowieża Forest (BF), one of the best-preserved forests of the European lowlands, is heavily influenced by anecdotal knowledge on forest history. Therefore, it is important to gain knowledge of the forest’s past in order to answer questions about its historical administration, utilisation, and associated anthropogenic changes. Such understanding can then inform future management. This study, based on surveys in Belarussian and Russian archives and a preliminary field survey in ten forest compartments of Białowieża National Park, focuses on culturally-modified trees (CMTs), which in this case are by-products of different forms of traditional forest use. Information about the formation of the CMTs can then be used to provide insight into former forest usage. Two types of CMTs were discovered to be still present in the contemporary BF. One type found in two forms was of 1) pine trees scorched and chopped in the bottom part of the trunk and 2) pine trees with carved beehives. A second type based on written accounts, and therefore known to be present in the past (what we call a ‘ghost CMT’), was of 3) lime-trees with strips of bark peeled from the trunk. Written accounts cover the period of transition between the traditional forest management (BF as a Polish royal hunting ground, until the end of the eighteenth century) and modern, “scientific” forestry (in most European countries introduced in the second half of the nineteenth century). These accounts document that both types of CMTs and the traditional forest uses responsible for their creation were considered harmful to “rational forestry” by the nineteenth-century forest administration. Thus the practices which created CMTs were banned and the trees gradually removed from the forest. Indeed, these activities drew the attention of forest administrators for several decades, and in our view delayed the introduction of new, timber-oriented, forest management in the BF.

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<![CDATA[Tree diversity and its ecological importance value in organic and conventional cocoa agroforests in Ghana]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c42439cd5eed0c4845e080d

Cocoa agroforestry systems have the potential to conserve biodiversity and provide environmental or ecological benefits at various nested scales ranging from the plot to ecoregion. While integrating organic practices into cocoa agroforestry may further enhance these potentials, empirical and robust data to support this claim is lacking, and mechanisms for biodiversity conservation and the provision of environmental and ecological benefits are poorly understood. A field study was conducted in the Eastern Region of Ghana to evaluate the potential of organic cocoa agroforests to conserve native floristic diversity in comparison with conventional cocoa agroforests. Shade tree species richness, Shannon, Simpson’s reciprocal and Margalef diversity indices were estimated from 84 organic and conventional cocoa agroforestry plots. Species importance value index, a measure of how dominant a species is in a given ecosystem, and conservation status were used to evaluate the conservation potential of shade trees on studied cocoa farms. Organic farms recorded higher mean shade tree species richness (5.10 ± 0.38) compared to conventional farms (3.48 ± 0.39). Similarly, mean Shannon diversity index, Simpson’s reciprocal diversity index and Margalef diversity index were significantly higher on organic farms compared to conventional farms. According to the importance value index, fruit and native shade tree species were the most important on both organic and conventional farms for all the cocoa age groups but more so on organic farms. Organic farms maintained 14 native tree species facing a conservation issue compared to 10 on conventional cocoa farms. The results suggest that diversified organic cocoa farms can serve as reservoirs of native tree species, including those currently facing conservation concerns thereby providing support and contributing to the conservation of tree species in the landscape.

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<![CDATA[Rubber and plantain intercropping: Effects of different planting densities on soil characteristics]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c3fa550d5eed0c484ca2efd

Two field experiments were conducted at Ellembelle and Jomoro districts in the Western region of Ghana where rubber cultivation is a predominant farming activity. The objective of the study was to assess the effect of rubber and plantain intercropping systems on selected soil properties. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with 3 replications. The treatments were the sole crop rubber (R), sole crop plantain (P) and three intercrop systems comprising an additive series of plantain: one row of plantain to one row of rubber (PR), two rows of plantain to one row of rubber (PPR) and three rows of plantain to one row of rubber (PPPR). Generally, agroforestry systems improved the soil hydraulic properties considerably, with the highest cumulative infiltration rates of 5.16 and 8.68 cm/min observed under the PPPR systems at the Ellembelle and Jomoro sites, respectively. Microbial biomass C (Cmic), N (Nmic) and P (Pmic) was significantly improved (P < 0.05) under the agroforestry than the monocrop systems. The Cmic, Nmic and Pmic values were highest under the PPPR system at both Ellembelle (Cmic, = 139.9 mg/kg; Nmic = 36.26 mg/kg and Pmic = 87.6 mg/kg) and Jomoro (Cmic = 78.7 mg/kg; Nmic = 80.3 mg/kg and Pmic = 3.45 mg/kg) sites.

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<![CDATA[Three new “caecate” earthworm species from Sulawesi, Indonesia (Oligochaeta, Megascolecidae)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c2a795ed5eed0c48422e1d0
Abstract

Three new earthworm species are described from Sulawesi, Indonesia. Two belong to the genus Pithemera Sims & Easton, 1972, namely P.suwastikai Fahri, Amaliah & Atmowidi, sp. n. and P.tadulako Fahri, Amaliah & Atmowidi, sp. n. The new species, P.suwastikaisp. n. is distinguished by a medium size (135–165 mm long, 4.5–6.5 mm diameter), four pairs of spermathecal pores in 5/6/7/8/9, 7–12 setae between male pores, no genital markings, holandry, and simple intestinal caeca. Pithemeratadulakosp. n. is recognized by a large size (217–340 mm long, 13–15 mm diameter), two pairs of spermathecal pores in 7/8/9, no setae between male pores, no genital markings, holandry, and simple intestinal caeca. Another new species, Metaphirerusydii Fahri, Amaliah & Nguyen, sp. n., is diagnosed by its large size (250–280 mm long,12–16 mm diameter), two pairs of spermathecal pores in 7/8/9, no setae between male porophores, presence of genital markings in the male region, holandry, and complex intestinal caeca. Additionally, an identification key to “caecate” species is provided to the Sulawesi’s fauna.

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<![CDATA[Effect of neem-derived plant protection products on the isopod species Porcellionidespruinosus (Brandt, 1833)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c22c847d5eed0c484aaaa46
Abstract

Neem-based products have gained major attention over the last few years due to their wide range of applications in pest management, and have been in the focus of biological plant protection research in the past decade. Yet, there is limited information available to understand the side effects of these neem-derived pesticides on non-target species in soil. Therefore, Porcellionidespruinosus, a terrestrial isopod, was chosen as a non-target species to investigate such possible effects. Two different experiments were conducted to study two different neem-derived plant protection products, i.e., NeemAzal T/S (1% azadirachtin) which is a commercial product registered in the EU, and neem leaf extract from dried neem leaves (1%).The latter simulates the plant protection product, is domestically produced, and widely used by farmers in India and other tropical and subtropical countries. Findings are consistent with previous results obtained with other non-target organisms, i.e., neither of the tested neem products have adverse effects on the mortality of P.pruinosus. However, further research on a wider range of soil organisms is needed to prove the safety of neem-based products as biological control agents and to be part of integrated pest management.

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<![CDATA[Straw use and availability for second generation biofuels in England]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bcf6ae140307c74ebb862af