ResearchPad - Forestry https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[The applicability of recreation-grade GNSS receiver (GPS watch, Suunto Ambit Peak 3) in a forested and an open area compared to a mapping-grade receiver (Trimble Juno T41)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N8984bd8b-66a6-4b6e-8af7-92a53859b107

Due to developments in global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) and the miniaturization of their components, the usage of Global Positioning System (GPS) is no longer restricted to professional applications, but has become available in various consumer type devices, such as wristwatches. These commercial devices, however, were primarily designed for tracking activities in predominately urban settings and their accuracy has not been tested in forested areas. In this study, we present an assessment of the positional accuracy of a GPS watch (Ambit Peak 3, Suunto, Finland) under different forest cover types, seasons and meteorological conditions within the Whitehall Forest GPS Test Site located in Athens, Georgia, USA. As a standard of comparison, the performance of the GPS watch measurements was juxtaposed to that of a mapping-grade receiver (Juno T41, Trimble Inc., USA). In this study, we analyzed the differences between the determined and control positions using root-mean-square-error (RMSE), along with the distribution of observed positions through the standard deviational ellipse. The results suggest that the seasonal variations contributed to a statistically significant impact on the RMSE values for the GPS watch. However, there were no statistically significant differences in horizontal position accuracy by forest cover-type when using the GPS watch. Furthermore, no significant differences were found in horizontal position accuracy during the leaf-off period between the RMSE values for the GPS watch and those of the mapping-grade receiver. Lastly, the positional accuracies for both types of receivers were found to be weakly, but significantly correlated with fluctuations in air temperature and absolute humidity.

]]>
<![CDATA[Effects of afforestation with Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica plantations combined with enclosure management on soil microbial community]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nba4b71fe-5f5c-446a-aee1-4b9a413be5a3

Grazing and litter removal can alter understory structure and composition after afforestation, posing a serious threat to sustainable forest development. Enclosure is considered to be an effective measure to restore degraded forest restoration. However, little is known about the dynamics of soil nutrients and microbial communities during the forest restoration process. In the present study, the effects of Arachis hypogaea (AH), Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica (PSM) and Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica with enclosure (PSME) on soil chemical properties and soil microbial communities were studied in Zhanggutai, Liaoning Province, China. The results showed that PSME could remarkably contribute to improve soil total C, total N and total P compared to PSM and AH. Additionally, PSM could clearly increase the soil bacterial community diversity and fungal Chao1 index and ACE index. Additionally, PSME could further increase soil Chao1 index and ACE index of soil bacteria. Soil total C, total N and available N were the main factors related to soil microbial diversity. Actinobacteria and Ascomycota were the predominant bacterial and fungal phyla, respectively. Specifically, PSME could increase the relative abundances of Actinobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Ascomycota and Mortierellomycota and decreased the relative abundances of Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi and Basidiomycota than PSM. PSM and PSME could clearly change soil microbial communities compared with AH and PSME could remarkably shift soil fungal communities than PSM. What’s more, the soil microbial community structure were affected by multiple edaphic chemical parameters. It can be seen that afforestation combined with enclosed management potentially regulate microbial properties through shifting the soil properties. This study can provide new ideas for further understanding the impact of enclosure on PSM and provide theoretical support for the management of PSM.

]]>
<![CDATA[A new species of Glyptapanteles Ashmead (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae) within Macrobrochis gigas (Lepidoptera, Arctiidae, Lithosiidae) in Fujian, China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N3bc60d67-ce78-4008-94e9-ba4c9fd971f2
Abstract

The south-east coastal area of Fujian, China, belongs to the Oriental Realm, and is characterized by a high insect species richness. In this work, a new species of Hymenopteran parasitoid, Glyptapanteles gigas Liang & Song, sp. nov. found in Jinjiang within hosts of caterpillars Macrobrochis gigas (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae), is described and illustrated, with differences from similar species. Additionally, we presumed that both parasitoid and host species play very important role in the coevolution and tritrophic interaction between plants, phytophagous insects, and their parasitoids, because these insects probably broke the sporangia and made contributions to their colonization, or some spores were spread for long distances by adult moths after their emergence, or some parasitoids were attracted by the eggs and larvae of these caterpillars, which was also thought to be helpful to spread of spores.

]]>
<![CDATA[­Complete plastid genome sequences of two species of the Neotropical genus Brunellia (Brunelliaceae)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf8cdeb10-df2a-4ac2-af9a-4e3be8426864

Here we present the first two complete plastid genomes for Brunelliaceae, a Neotropical family with a single genus, Brunellia. We surveyed the entire plastid genome in order to find variable cpDNA regions for further phylogenetic analyses across the family. We sampled morphologically different species, B. antioquensis and B. trianae, and found that the plastid genomes are 157,685 and 157,775 bp in length and display the typical quadripartite structure found in angiosperms. Despite the clear morphological distinction between both species, the molecular data show a very low level of divergence. The amount of nucleotide substitutions per site is one of the lowest reported to date among published congeneric studies (π = 0.00025). The plastid genomes have gene order and content coincident with other COM (Celastrales, Oxalidales, Malpighiales) relatives. Phylogenetic analyses of selected superrosid representatives show high bootstrap support for the ((C,M)O) topology. The N-fixing clade appears as the sister group of the COM clade and Zygophyllales as the sister to the rest of the fabids group.

]]>
<![CDATA[Soil temperatures and active carbon components as key drivers of C stock dynamics between two different stand ages of Larix principis-rupprechtii plantation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nddab9581-5e4e-4a9f-a4eb-c2578afdd38c

Forest soils sequester a large amount of carbon (C) and have a significant effect on the global C balance. Forests are commonly managed to maintain certain age structures but the effects of this management on soil C pools (kg C m−2) is still uncertain. We compared 40-year-old (1GF) and 24-year-old (2GF) plantations of Larix principis-rupprechtii in North China. Specifically, we measured environmental factors (e.g., soil temperature, moisture, and pH), the active C and nitrogen (N) pools (e.g., soil organic C, soil total N, dissolved organic C and N, microbial biomass C and N), and soil processes (e.g., C mineralization and microbial activity in different seasons) in five soil layers (0–50 cm, 10 cm for each soil layer) across the growing seasons in three 25 m × 25 m plots in each age class (1GF and 2GF). Findings indicated that the soil organic C pool in the older 1GF forest (12.43 kg C m−2) was significantly higher than 2GF forests (9.56 kg C m−2), and that soil temperature in 1GF forests was 9.8 °C, on average, 2.9% warmer than temperature in 2GF forests. The C lost as carbon dioxide (CO2) as a result of mineralization in the 2GF plots may partly explain the lower soil organic C pool in these younger forests; microorganisms likely drive this process.

]]>
<![CDATA[Variability of soil carbon and nitrogen stocks after conversion of natural forest to plantations in Eastern China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne54f86f9-d426-4cc8-86fd-ae9c8ac10467

Forest plantation, either through afforestation or reforestation, has been suggested to reverse and mitigate the process of deforestation. However, uncertainties remain in the potential of plantation forest (PF) to sequestrate carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) compared to natural forest (NF). Soil C and N stocks require a critical and updated look at what is happening especially in the context of increasing rate of land use change and climate change. The current study was conducted in China’s Eastern forest to estimate soil C and N stocks in six depth layers (0–10, 10–20, 20–40, 40–60, 60–80 and 80–100 cm) and two forest types (NF and PF) at four sites along climate factors gradient. The results showed that the overall mean soil C and N amounts to a depth of 20 cm ranged from 2.6 ± 1.1 Mg ha−1 to 38.6 ± 23.1 Mg ha−1, and soil nitrogen stock ranged from 0.2 ± 0.1 Mg ha−1 to 3.3 ± 1.5 Mg ha−1. Moreover, a loss of C stock was observed at Qingyuan (QY) by −7%, Dinghushan (DH) by −26%, Jianfengling (JF) by −13% while that of N stock was observed at QY (−8%), DH (−19%) and JF (−12%) at both depth layers. These results indicate that NFs have a better capacity to accumulate soil C and N. The soil C and N decreased from the southeast to the northeast and increased from tropical to temperate mixed forests zone in the eastern part of the study area. The C and N stock mainly occurred in the topsoil and decreased significantly with depth. Moreover, soil C and N stocks increased with age of plantation. This study provides an overview of the current spatial distribution and soil stocks of C and N, as well as the effects of environmental factors on soil C and N stocks. It also indicated that, although mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation are the key factors affecting the variations in soil C and N, their vertical and horizontal distribution differed in various aspects.

]]>
<![CDATA[First report and molecular characterization of the dagger nematode, Xiphinema oxycaudatum (Nematoda, Dorylaimidae) from South Africa]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N1fed0564-2a9a-40a8-a010-f74c4e6b8aff
Abstract

Plant-parasitic nematodes of the genus Xiphinema Cobb, 1913 comprise a complex group of nematode species, some of which are important vectors of plant viruses. During a field survey to determine the soil health of an abandoned honeybush (Cyclopia genistoides) monoculture, a high density of the dagger nematode, Xiphinema oxycaudatum Lamberti & Bleve-Zacheo, 1979 (Nematoda, Dorylaimidae), was observed in soil around the roots of honeybush plants in an abandoned farmland at Bereaville, an old mission station in the Western Cape province of South Africa. Soil samples were taken from the rhizosphere of plants and nematodes were extracted from the soil using a modified extraction tray method. Specimen of the dagger nematodes were processed for scanning electron microscopy, morphological and molecular analysis. Molecular profiling of the nematode species was done in order to give an accurate diagnosis and to effectively discriminate the nematode from other species within the Xiphinema americanum group. Phylogenetic analysis based on the D2D3 expansion segment of the 28S gene supported a close relationship of species within the americanum group, however, the protein-coding cytochrome oxidase (coxI) of the mitochondrial gene provided a useful tool for distinguishing the nematode from other species within the group. This study represents the first report of X. oxycaudatum from South Africa.

]]>
<![CDATA[Culturally modified trees or wasted timber: Different approaches to marked trees in Poland’s Białowieża Forest]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c52182ed5eed0c4847976a4

Studies of past forest use traditions are crucial in both understanding the present state of the oldest European forests, and in guiding decisions on future forest conservation and management. Current management of Poland’s Białowieża Forest (BF), one of the best-preserved forests of the European lowlands, is heavily influenced by anecdotal knowledge on forest history. Therefore, it is important to gain knowledge of the forest’s past in order to answer questions about its historical administration, utilisation, and associated anthropogenic changes. Such understanding can then inform future management. This study, based on surveys in Belarussian and Russian archives and a preliminary field survey in ten forest compartments of Białowieża National Park, focuses on culturally-modified trees (CMTs), which in this case are by-products of different forms of traditional forest use. Information about the formation of the CMTs can then be used to provide insight into former forest usage. Two types of CMTs were discovered to be still present in the contemporary BF. One type found in two forms was of 1) pine trees scorched and chopped in the bottom part of the trunk and 2) pine trees with carved beehives. A second type based on written accounts, and therefore known to be present in the past (what we call a ‘ghost CMT’), was of 3) lime-trees with strips of bark peeled from the trunk. Written accounts cover the period of transition between the traditional forest management (BF as a Polish royal hunting ground, until the end of the eighteenth century) and modern, “scientific” forestry (in most European countries introduced in the second half of the nineteenth century). These accounts document that both types of CMTs and the traditional forest uses responsible for their creation were considered harmful to “rational forestry” by the nineteenth-century forest administration. Thus the practices which created CMTs were banned and the trees gradually removed from the forest. Indeed, these activities drew the attention of forest administrators for several decades, and in our view delayed the introduction of new, timber-oriented, forest management in the BF.

]]>
<![CDATA[Tree diversity and its ecological importance value in organic and conventional cocoa agroforests in Ghana]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c42439cd5eed0c4845e080d

Cocoa agroforestry systems have the potential to conserve biodiversity and provide environmental or ecological benefits at various nested scales ranging from the plot to ecoregion. While integrating organic practices into cocoa agroforestry may further enhance these potentials, empirical and robust data to support this claim is lacking, and mechanisms for biodiversity conservation and the provision of environmental and ecological benefits are poorly understood. A field study was conducted in the Eastern Region of Ghana to evaluate the potential of organic cocoa agroforests to conserve native floristic diversity in comparison with conventional cocoa agroforests. Shade tree species richness, Shannon, Simpson’s reciprocal and Margalef diversity indices were estimated from 84 organic and conventional cocoa agroforestry plots. Species importance value index, a measure of how dominant a species is in a given ecosystem, and conservation status were used to evaluate the conservation potential of shade trees on studied cocoa farms. Organic farms recorded higher mean shade tree species richness (5.10 ± 0.38) compared to conventional farms (3.48 ± 0.39). Similarly, mean Shannon diversity index, Simpson’s reciprocal diversity index and Margalef diversity index were significantly higher on organic farms compared to conventional farms. According to the importance value index, fruit and native shade tree species were the most important on both organic and conventional farms for all the cocoa age groups but more so on organic farms. Organic farms maintained 14 native tree species facing a conservation issue compared to 10 on conventional cocoa farms. The results suggest that diversified organic cocoa farms can serve as reservoirs of native tree species, including those currently facing conservation concerns thereby providing support and contributing to the conservation of tree species in the landscape.

]]>
<![CDATA[Rubber and plantain intercropping: Effects of different planting densities on soil characteristics]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3fa550d5eed0c484ca2efd

Two field experiments were conducted at Ellembelle and Jomoro districts in the Western region of Ghana where rubber cultivation is a predominant farming activity. The objective of the study was to assess the effect of rubber and plantain intercropping systems on selected soil properties. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with 3 replications. The treatments were the sole crop rubber (R), sole crop plantain (P) and three intercrop systems comprising an additive series of plantain: one row of plantain to one row of rubber (PR), two rows of plantain to one row of rubber (PPR) and three rows of plantain to one row of rubber (PPPR). Generally, agroforestry systems improved the soil hydraulic properties considerably, with the highest cumulative infiltration rates of 5.16 and 8.68 cm/min observed under the PPPR systems at the Ellembelle and Jomoro sites, respectively. Microbial biomass C (Cmic), N (Nmic) and P (Pmic) was significantly improved (P < 0.05) under the agroforestry than the monocrop systems. The Cmic, Nmic and Pmic values were highest under the PPPR system at both Ellembelle (Cmic, = 139.9 mg/kg; Nmic = 36.26 mg/kg and Pmic = 87.6 mg/kg) and Jomoro (Cmic = 78.7 mg/kg; Nmic = 80.3 mg/kg and Pmic = 3.45 mg/kg) sites.

]]>
<![CDATA[Three new “caecate” earthworm species from Sulawesi, Indonesia (Oligochaeta, Megascolecidae)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c2a795ed5eed0c48422e1d0
Abstract

Three new earthworm species are described from Sulawesi, Indonesia. Two belong to the genus Pithemera Sims & Easton, 1972, namely P.suwastikai Fahri, Amaliah & Atmowidi, sp. n. and P.tadulako Fahri, Amaliah & Atmowidi, sp. n. The new species, P.suwastikaisp. n. is distinguished by a medium size (135–165 mm long, 4.5–6.5 mm diameter), four pairs of spermathecal pores in 5/6/7/8/9, 7–12 setae between male pores, no genital markings, holandry, and simple intestinal caeca. Pithemeratadulakosp. n. is recognized by a large size (217–340 mm long, 13–15 mm diameter), two pairs of spermathecal pores in 7/8/9, no setae between male pores, no genital markings, holandry, and simple intestinal caeca. Another new species, Metaphirerusydii Fahri, Amaliah & Nguyen, sp. n., is diagnosed by its large size (250–280 mm long,12–16 mm diameter), two pairs of spermathecal pores in 7/8/9, no setae between male porophores, presence of genital markings in the male region, holandry, and complex intestinal caeca. Additionally, an identification key to “caecate” species is provided to the Sulawesi’s fauna.

]]>
<![CDATA[Effect of neem-derived plant protection products on the isopod species Porcellionidespruinosus (Brandt, 1833)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c22c847d5eed0c484aaaa46
Abstract

Neem-based products have gained major attention over the last few years due to their wide range of applications in pest management, and have been in the focus of biological plant protection research in the past decade. Yet, there is limited information available to understand the side effects of these neem-derived pesticides on non-target species in soil. Therefore, Porcellionidespruinosus, a terrestrial isopod, was chosen as a non-target species to investigate such possible effects. Two different experiments were conducted to study two different neem-derived plant protection products, i.e., NeemAzal T/S (1% azadirachtin) which is a commercial product registered in the EU, and neem leaf extract from dried neem leaves (1%).The latter simulates the plant protection product, is domestically produced, and widely used by farmers in India and other tropical and subtropical countries. Findings are consistent with previous results obtained with other non-target organisms, i.e., neither of the tested neem products have adverse effects on the mortality of P.pruinosus. However, further research on a wider range of soil organisms is needed to prove the safety of neem-based products as biological control agents and to be part of integrated pest management.

]]>
<![CDATA[Straw use and availability for second generation biofuels in England]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bcf6ae140307c74ebb862af <![CDATA[Selection of Reliable Reference Genes for Gene Expression Studies Using Real-Time PCR in Tung Tree during Seed Development]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da29ab0ee8fa60b81e69

Quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) has become an accurate and widely used technique to analyze expression levels of selected genes. It is very necessary to select appropriate reference genes for gene expression normalization. In the present study, we assessed the expression stability of 11 reference genes including eight traditional housekeeping genes and three novel genes in different tissues/organs and developing seeds from four cultivars of tung tree. All 11 reference genes showed a wide range of Ct values in all samples, indicating that they differently expressed. Three softwares – geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper – were used to determine the stability of these references except for ALB (2S albumin), which presented a little divergence. The results from the three softwares showed that ACT7 (Actin7a), UBQ (Ubiquitin), GAPDH (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) and EF1α (elongation factor 1-α) were the most stable reference genes across all of the tested tung samples and tung developing seeds, while ALB (2S albumin) was unsuitable as internal controls. ACT7, EF1β (elongation factor1-beta), GAPDH and TEF1 (transcription elongation factor 1) were the top four choices for different tissues/organs whereas LCR69 did not favor normalization of RT-qPCR in these tissues/organs. Meanwhile, the expression profiles of FAD2 and FADX were realized using stable reference genes. The relative quantification of the FAD2 and FADX genes varied according to the internal controls and the number of internal controls. The results further proved the importance of the choice of reference genes in the tung tree. These stable reference genes will be employed in normalization and quantification of transcript levels in future expression studies of tung genes.

]]>
<![CDATA[Post-Disturbance Plant Community Dynamics following a Rare Natural-Origin Fire in a Tsuga canadensis Forest]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da88ab0ee8fa60b9ce1f

Opportunities to directly study infrequent forest disturbance events often lead to valuable information about vegetation dynamics. In mesic temperate forests of North America, stand-replacing crown fire occurs infrequently, with a return interval of 2000–3000 years. Rare chance events, however, may have profound impacts on the developmental trajectories of forest ecosystems. For example, it has been postulated that stand-replacing fire may have been an important factor in the establishment of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) stands in the northern Great Lakes region. Nevertheless, experimental evidence linking hemlock regeneration to non-anthropogenic fire is limited. To clarify this potential relationship, we monitored vegetation dynamics following a rare lightning-origin crown fire in a Wisconsin hemlock-hardwood forest. We also studied vegetation in bulldozer-created fire breaks and adjacent undisturbed forest. Our results indicate that hemlock establishment was rare in the burned area but moderately common in the scarified bulldozer lines compared to the reference area. Early-successional, non-arboreal species including Rubus spp., Vaccinium angustifolium, sedges (Carex spp.), grasses, Epilobium ciliatum, and Pteridium aquilinium were the most abundant post-fire species. Collectively, our results suggest that competing vegetation and moisture stress resulting from drought may reduce the efficacy of scarification treatments as well as the usefulness of fire for preparing a suitable seedbed for hemlock. The increasing prevalence of growing-season drought suggests that silvicultural strategies based on historic disturbance regimes may need to be reevaluated for mesic species.

]]>
<![CDATA[Pervasive Growth Reduction in Norway Spruce Forests following Wind Disturbance]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da04ab0ee8fa60b75356

Background

In recent decades the frequency and severity of natural disturbances by e.g., strong winds and insect outbreaks has increased considerably in many forest ecosystems around the world. Future climate change is expected to further intensify disturbance regimes, which makes addressing disturbances in ecosystem management a top priority. As a prerequisite a broader understanding of disturbance impacts and ecosystem responses is needed. With regard to the effects of strong winds – the most detrimental disturbance agent in Europe – monitoring and management has focused on structural damage, i.e., tree mortality from uprooting and stem breakage. Effects on the functioning of trees surviving the storm (e.g., their productivity and allocation) have been rarely accounted for to date.

Methodology/Principal Findings

Here we show that growth reduction was significant and pervasive in a 6.79·million hectare forest landscape in southern Sweden following the storm Gudrun (January 2005). Wind-related growth reduction in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) forests surviving the storm exceeded 10% in the worst hit regions, and was closely related to maximum gust wind speed (R2 = 0.849) and structural wind damage (R2 = 0.782). At the landscape scale, wind-related growth reduction amounted to 3.0 million m3 in the three years following Gudrun. It thus exceeds secondary damage from bark beetles after Gudrun as well as the long-term average storm damage from uprooting and stem breakage in Sweden.

Conclusions/Significance

We conclude that the impact of strong winds on forest ecosystems is not limited to the immediately visible area of structural damage, and call for a broader consideration of disturbance effects on ecosystem structure and functioning in the context of forest management and climate change mitigation.

]]>
<![CDATA[Mapping Current and Potential Distribution of Non-Native Prosopis juliflora in the Afar Region of Ethiopia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da04ab0ee8fa60b75267

We used correlative models with species occurrence points, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation indices, and topo-climatic predictors to map the current distribution and potential habitat of invasive Prosopis juliflora in Afar, Ethiopia. Time-series of MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Indices (EVI) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Indices (NDVI) with 250 m2 spatial resolution were selected as remote sensing predictors for mapping distributions, while WorldClim bioclimatic products and generated topographic variables from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission product (SRTM) were used to predict potential infestations. We ran Maxent models using non-correlated variables and the 143 species- occurrence points. Maxent generated probability surfaces were converted into binary maps using the 10-percentile logistic threshold values. Performances of models were evaluated using area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC). Our results indicate that the extent of P. juliflora invasion is approximately 3,605 km2 in the Afar region (AUC  = 0.94), while the potential habitat for future infestations is 5,024 km2 (AUC  = 0.95). Our analyses demonstrate that time-series of MODIS vegetation indices and species occurrence points can be used with Maxent modeling software to map the current distribution of P. juliflora, while topo-climatic variables are good predictors of potential habitat in Ethiopia. Our results can quantify current and future infestations, and inform management and policy decisions for containing P. juliflora. Our methods can also be replicated for managing invasive species in other East African countries.

]]>
<![CDATA[Temporal-Spatial Variation and Controls of Soil Respiration in Different Primary Succession Stages on Glacier Forehead in Gongga Mountain, China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da06ab0ee8fa60b75e72

Soil respiration (SR) is an important process in the global carbon cycle. It is difficult to estimate SR emission accurately because of its temporal and spatial variability. Primary forest succession on Glacier forehead provides the ideal environment for examining the temporal-spatial variation and controlling factors of SR. However, relevant studies on SR are relatively scarce, and variations, as well as controlling factors, remain uncertain in this kind of region. In this study, we used a static chamber system to measure SR in six sites which represent different stages of forest succession on forehead of a temperate glacier in Gongga Mountain, China. Our results showed that there was substantial temporal (coefficient of variation (CV) ranged from 39.3% to 73.9%) and spatial (CV ranged from 12.3% to 88.6%) variation in SR. Soil temperature (ST) at 5 cm depth was the major controlling factor of temporal variation in all six sites. Spatial variation in SR was mainly caused by differences in plant biomass and Total N among the six sites. Moreover, soil moisture (SM), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), soil organic carbon (SOC), pH and bulk density could influence SR by directly or indirectly affecting plant biomass and Total N. Q10 values (ranged from 2.1 to 4.7) increased along the forest succession, and the mean value (3.3) was larger than that of temperate ecosystems, which indicated a general tendency towards higher-Q10 in colder ecosystems than in warmer ecosystems. Our findings provided valuable information for understanding temporal-spatial variation and controlling factors of SR.

]]>
<![CDATA[Micro and Macro-Habitat Associations in Saproxylic Beetles: Implications for Biodiversity Management]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dabeab0ee8fa60bafa4b

Restoration of habitats is critically important in preventing full realization of the extinction debt owed as a result of anthropogenic habitat destruction. Although much emphasis has been placed on macrohabitats, suitable microhabitats are also vital for the survival of most species. The aim of this large-scale field experiment was to evaluate the relative importance of manipulated microhabitats, i.e., dead wood substrates of spruce (snags, and logs that were burned, inoculated with wood fungi or shaded) and macrohabitats, i.e., stand types (clear-cuts, mature managed forests, and forest reserves) for species richness, abundance and assemblage composition of all saproxylic and red-listed saproxylic beetles. Beetles were collected in emergence traps in 30 forest stands in 2001, 2003, 2004 and 2006. More individuals emerged from snags and untreated logs than from burned and shaded logs, but species richness did not differ among substrates. Assemblage composition differed among substrates for both all saproxylics and red-listed saproxylic species, mainly attributed to different assemblage composition on snags. This suggests that the practise of leaving snags for conservation purposes should be complemented with log supplementation. Clear-cuts supported fewer species and different assemblages from mature managed forests and reserves. Neither abundance, nor species richness or assemblage composition differed between reserves and mature managed forests. This suggests that managed stands subjected to selective cutting, not clear-felling, maintain sufficient old growth characteristics and continuity to maintain more or less intact assemblages of saproxylic beetles. Thus, alternative management methods, e.g., continuity forestry should be considered for some of these stands to maintain continuity and conservation values. Furthermore, the significantly higher estimated abundance per ha of red-listed beetles in reserves underlines the importance of reserves for maintaining viable populations of rare red-listed species and as source areas for saproxylic species in boreal forest landscapes.

]]>
<![CDATA[Soil Does Not Explain Monodominance in a Central African Tropical Forest]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da1cab0ee8fa60b7d606

Background

Soil characteristics have been hypothesised as one of the possible mechanisms leading to monodominance of Gilbertiodendron dewerei in some areas of Central Africa where higher-diversity forest would be expected. However, the differences in soil characteristics between the G. dewevrei-dominated forest and its adjacent mixed forest are still poorly understood. Here we present the soil characteristics of the G. dewevrei forest and quantify whether soil physical and chemical properties in this monodominant forest are significantly different from the adjacent mixed forest.

Methodology/Principal Findings

We sampled top soil (0–5, 5–10, 10–20, 20–30 cm) and subsoil (150–200 cm) using an augur in 6 × 1 ha areas of intact central Africa forest in SE Cameroon, three independent patches of G. dewevrei-dominated forest and three adjacent areas (450–800 m apart), all chosen to be topographically homogeneous. Analysis – subjected to Bonferroni correction procedure – revealed no significant differences between the monodominant and mixed forests in terms of soil texture, median particle size, bulk density, pH, carbon (C) content, nitrogen (N) content, C:N ratio, C:total NaOH-extractable P ratio and concentrations of labile phosphorous (P), inorganic NaOH-extractable P, total NaOH-extractable P, aluminium, barium, calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, potassium, selenium, silicon, sodium and zinc. Prior to Bonferroni correction procedure, there was a significant lower level of silicon concentration found in the monodominant than mixed forest deep soil; and a significant lower level of nickel concentration in the monodominant than mixed forest top soil. Nevertheless, these were likely to be the results of multiple tests of significance.

Conclusions/Significance

Our results do not provide clear evidence of soil mediation for the location of monodominant forests in relation to adjacent mixed forests. It is also likely that G. dewevrei does not influence soil chemistry in the monodominant forests.

]]>