ResearchPad - General Agricultural and Biological Sciences Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Different chromatin and DNA sequence characteristics define glucocorticoid receptor binding sites that are blocked or not blocked by coregulator Hic-5]]>

The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) regulates genes in many physiological pathways by binding to enhancer and silencer elements of target genes, where it recruits coregulator proteins that remodel chromatin and regulate the assembly of transcription complexes. The coregulator Hydrogen peroxide-inducible clone 5 (Hic-5) is necessary for glucocorticoid (GC) regulation of one group of GR target genes, is irrelevant for a second group, and inhibits GR binding to a third gene set, thereby blocking their regulation by GC. Gene-specific characteristics that distinguish GR binding regions (GBR) at Hic-5 blocked genes from GBR at other GC-regulated genes are unknown. Here we show genome-wide that blocked GBR generally require CHD9 and BRM for GR occupancy in contrast to GBR that are not blocked by Hic-5. Hic-5 blocked GBR are enriched near Hic-5 blocked GR target genes but not near GR target genes that are not blocked by Hic-5. Furthermore blocked GBR are in a closed conformation prior to Hic-5 depletion, and require Hic-5 depletion and glucocorticoid treatment to create an open conformation necessary for GR occupancy. A transcription factor binding motif characteristic of the ETS family was enriched near blocked GBR and blocked genes but not near non-blocked GBR or non-blocked GR target genes. Thus, we identify specific differences in chromatin conformation, chromatin remodeler requirements, and local DNA sequence motifs that contribute to gene-specific actions of transcription factors and coregulators. These findings shed light on mechanisms that contribute to binding site selection by transcription factors, which vary in a cell type-specific manner.

<![CDATA[Effect of combining glucocorticoids with Compound A on glucocorticoid receptor responsiveness in lymphoid malignancies]]>

Glucocorticoids (GCs) are a cornerstone in the treatment of lymphoid malignancies such as multiple myeloma (MM) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Yet, prolonged GC use is hampered by deleterious GC-related side effects and the emergence of GC resistance. To tackle and overcome these GC-related problems, the applicability of selective glucocorticoid receptor agonists and modulators was studied, in search of fewer side-effects and at least equal therapeutic efficacy as classic GCs. Compound A (CpdA) is a prototypical example of such a selective glucocorticoid receptor modulator and does not support GR-mediated transactivation. Here, we examined whether the combination of CpdA with the classic GC dexamethasone (Dex) may improve GC responsiveness of MM and ALL cell lines. We find that the combination of Dex and CpdA does not substantially enhance GC-mediated cell killing. In line, several apoptosis hallmarks, such as caspase 3/7 activity, PARP cleavage and the levels of cleaved-caspase 3 remain unchanged upon combining Dex with CpdA. Moreover, we monitor no additional inhibition of cell proliferation and the homologous downregulation of GR is not counteracted by the combination of Dex and CpdA. In addition, CpdA is unable to modulate Dex-liganded GR transactivation and transrepression, yet, Dex-mediated transrepression is also aberrant in these lymphoid cell lines. Together, transrepression-favoring compounds, alone or combined with GCs, do not seem a valid strategy in the treatment of lymphoid malignancies.

<![CDATA[ClueNet: Clustering a temporal network based on topological similarity rather than denseness]]>

Network clustering is a very popular topic in the network science field. Its goal is to divide (partition) the network into groups (clusters or communities) of “topologically related” nodes, where the resulting topology-based clusters are expected to “correlate” well with node label information, i.e., metadata, such as cellular functions of genes/proteins in biological networks, or age or gender of people in social networks. Even for static data, the problem of network clustering is complex. For dynamic data, the problem is even more complex, due to an additional dimension of the data—their temporal (evolving) nature. Since the problem is computationally intractable, heuristic approaches need to be sought. Existing approaches for dynamic network clustering (DNC) have drawbacks. First, they assume that nodes should be in the same cluster if they are densely interconnected within the network. We hypothesize that in some applications, it might be of interest to cluster nodes that are topologically similar to each other instead of or in addition to requiring the nodes to be densely interconnected. Second, they ignore temporal information in their early steps, and when they do consider this information later on, they do so implicitly. We hypothesize that capturing temporal information earlier in the clustering process and doing so explicitly will improve results. We test these two hypotheses via our new approach called ClueNet. We evaluate ClueNet against six existing DNC methods on both social networks capturing evolving interactions between individuals (such as interactions between students in a high school) and biological networks capturing interactions between biomolecules in the cell at different ages. We find that ClueNet is superior in over 83% of all evaluation tests. As more real-world dynamic data are becoming available, DNC and thus ClueNet will only continue to gain importance.

<![CDATA[Molecular structures of cdc2-like kinases in complex with a new inhibitor chemotype]]>

Cdc2-like kinases (CLKs) represent a family of serine-threonine kinases involved in the regulation of splicing by phosphorylation of SR-proteins and other splicing factors. Although compounds acting against CLKs have been described, only a few show selectivity against dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation regulated-kinases (DYRKs). We here report a novel CLK inhibitor family based on a 6,7-dihydropyrrolo[3,4-g]indol-8(1H)-one core scaffold. Within the series, 3-(3-chlorophenyl)-6,7-dihydropyrrolo[3,4-g]indol-8(1H)-one (KuWal151) was identified as inhibitor of CLK1, CLK2 and CLK4 with a high selectivity margin towards DYRK kinases. The compound displayed a potent antiproliferative activity in an array of cultured cancer cell lines. The X-ray structure analyses of three members of the new compound class co-crystallized with CLK proteins corroborated a molecular binding mode predicted by docking studies.

<![CDATA[Cultural background, gender, and institutional status have an effect on the evaluation of multi-disciplinary participatory action research]]>

Research and development increasingly apply participatory approaches that involve both stakeholders and scientists. This article presents an evaluation of German and Tanzanian researchers’ perceptions during their activities as part of a large interdisciplinary research project in Tanzania. The project focused on prioritizing and implementing food-securing upgrading strategies across the components of rural food value chains. The participants involved during the course of the project were asked to provide feedback on 10 different research steps and to evaluate eight core features related to the functioning and potential shortcomings of the project. The study discriminated among evaluation differences linked to culture, gender, and institutional status. Perceptions differed between Tanzanian and German participants depending on the type and complexity of the participatory research steps undertaken and the intensity of stakeholder participation. There were differences in perception linked to gender and hierarchical status; however, those differences were not as concise and significant as those linked to nationality. These findings indicate that participatory action research of this nature requires more targeted strategies and planning tailored to the type of activity. Such planning would result in more efficient and satisfactory communication, close collaboration, and mutual feedback to avoid conflicts and other problems. We further conclude that it would be advisable to carefully incorporate training on these aspects into future project designs.

<![CDATA[Selection and evaluation of housekeeping genes as endogenous controls for quantification of mRNA transcripts in Theileria parva using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)]]>

The reliability of any quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) experiment can be seriously compromised by variations between samples as well as between PCR runs. This usually result from errors in sample quantification, especially with samples that are obtained from different individuals and tissues and have been collected at various time intervals. Errors also arise from differences in qPCR efficiency between assays performed simultaneously to target multiple genes on the same plate. Consequently, the derived quantitative data for the target genes become distorted. To avoid this grievous error, an endogenous control, with relatively constant transcription levels in the target individual or tissue, is included in the qPCR assay to normalize target gene expression levels in the analysis. Several housekeeping genes (HKGs) have been used as endogenous controls in quantification studies of mRNA transcripts; however, there is no record in the literature of the evaluation of these genes for the tick-borne protozoan parasite, Theileria parva. Importantly, the expression of these genes should be invariable between different T. parva stocks, ideally under different experimental conditions, to gain extensive application in gene expression studies of this parasite. Thus, the expression of several widely used HKGs was evaluated in this study, including the genes encoding β-actin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), 28S rRNA, cytochrome b and fructose-2.6-biphosphate aldolase (F6P) proteins. The qPCR analysis revealed that the expression of genes encoding cytochrome b, F6P and GAPDH varied considerably between the two T. parva stocks investigated, the cattle-derived T. parva Muguga and the buffalo-derived T. parva 7014. 28S rRNA and β-actin gene expression was the most stable; thus, these genes were considered suitable candidates to be used as endogenous control genes for mRNA quantification studies in T. parva.

<![CDATA[The neural system of metacognition accompanying decision-making in the prefrontal cortex]]>

Decision-making is usually accompanied by metacognition, through which a decision maker monitors uncertainty regarding a decision and may then consequently revise the decision. These metacognitive processes can occur prior to or in the absence of feedback. However, the neural mechanisms of metacognition remain controversial. One theory proposes an independent neural system for metacognition in the prefrontal cortex (PFC); the other, that metacognitive processes coincide and overlap with the systems used for the decision-making process per se. In this study, we devised a novel “decision–redecision” paradigm to investigate the neural metacognitive processes involved in redecision as compared to the initial decision-making process. The participants underwent a perceptual decision-making task and a rule-based decision-making task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We found that the anterior PFC, including the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and lateral frontopolar cortex (lFPC), were more extensively activated after the initial decision. The dACC activity in redecision positively scaled with decision uncertainty and correlated with individual metacognitive uncertainty monitoring abilities—commonly occurring in both tasks—indicating that the dACC was specifically involved in decision uncertainty monitoring. In contrast, the lFPC activity seen in redecision processing was scaled with decision uncertainty reduction and correlated with individual accuracy changes—positively in the rule-based decision-making task and negatively in the perceptual decision-making task. Our results show that the lFPC was specifically involved in metacognitive control of decision adjustment and was subject to different control demands of the tasks. Therefore, our findings support that a separate neural system in the PFC is essentially involved in metacognition and further, that functions of the PFC in metacognition are dissociable.

<![CDATA[In vivo clonal analysis reveals spatiotemporal regulation of thalamic nucleogenesis]]>

The thalamus, a crucial regulator of cortical functions, is composed of many nuclei arranged in a spatially complex pattern. Thalamic neurogenesis occurs over a short period during mammalian embryonic development. These features have hampered the effort to understand how regionalization, cell divisions, and fate specification are coordinated and produce a wide array of nuclei that exhibit distinct patterns of gene expression and functions. Here, we performed in vivo clonal analysis to track the divisions of individual progenitor cells and spatial allocation of their progeny in the developing mouse thalamus. Quantitative analysis of clone compositions revealed evidence for sequential generation of distinct sets of thalamic nuclei based on the location of the founder progenitor cells. Furthermore, we identified intermediate progenitor cells that produced neurons populating more than one thalamic nuclei, indicating a prolonged specification of nuclear fate. Our study reveals an organizational principle that governs the spatial and temporal progression of cell divisions and fate specification and provides a framework for studying cellular heterogeneity and connectivity in the mammalian thalamus.

<![CDATA[How measurement science can improve confidence in research results]]>

The current push for rigor and reproducibility is driven by a desire for confidence in research results. Here, we suggest a framework for a systematic process, based on consensus principles of measurement science, to guide researchers and reviewers in assessing, documenting, and mitigating the sources of uncertainty in a study. All study results have associated ambiguities that are not always clarified by simply establishing reproducibility. By explicitly considering sources of uncertainty, noting aspects of the experimental system that are difficult to characterize quantitatively, and proposing alternative interpretations, the researcher provides information that enhances comparability and reproducibility.

<![CDATA[Identifying novel strategies for treating human hair loss disorders: Cyclosporine A suppresses the Wnt inhibitor, SFRP1, in the dermal papilla of human scalp hair follicles]]>

Hair growth disorders often carry a major psychological burden. Therefore, more effective human hair growth–modulatory agents urgently need to be developed. Here, we used the hypertrichosis-inducing immunosuppressant, Cyclosporine A (CsA), as a lead compound to identify new hair growth–promoting molecular targets. Through microarray analysis we identified the Wnt inhibitor, secreted frizzled related protein 1 (SFRP1), as being down-regulated in the dermal papilla (DP) of CsA-treated human scalp hair follicles (HFs) ex vivo. Therefore, we further investigated the function of SFRP1 using a pharmacological approach and found that SFRP1 regulates intrafollicular canonical Wnt/β-catenin activity through inhibition of Wnt ligands in the human hair bulb. Conversely, inhibiting SFRP1 activity through the SFRP1 antagonist, WAY-316606, enhanced hair shaft production, hair shaft keratin expression, and inhibited spontaneous HF regression (catagen) ex vivo. Collectively, these data (a) identify Wnt signalling as a novel, non–immune-inhibitory CsA target; (b) introduce SFRP1 as a physiologically important regulator of canonical β-catenin activity in a human (mini-)organ; and (c) demonstrate WAY-316606 to be a promising new promoter of human hair growth. Since inhibiting SFRP1 only facilitates Wnt signalling through ligands that are already present, this ‘ligand-limited’ therapeutic strategy for promoting human hair growth may circumvent potential oncological risks associated with chronic Wnt over-activation.

<![CDATA[First record of in vitro formation of ectomycorrhizae in Psidium cattleianum Sabine, a native Myrtaceae of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest]]>

Like many other species of trees native to the Brazilian Mata Atlântica (Atlantic Forest), the Myrtaceae, such as the Red Araza (Psidium cattleianum Sabine), are widely cited as arbuscular mycorrhizal formers. Nevertheless, recent studies show evidence that Myrtaceae from different tropical, subtropical and neotropical ecosystems can also prompt the formation of ectomycorrhizae, indicating that this species' ectomycorrhizal status should be further explored. Because of this, this research effort studied the in vitro interaction between the Red Araza and two ectomycorrhizal fungi isolates, belonging to the Pisolithus microcarpus (D17) and Scleroderma citrinum (UFSC-Sc133) species. An analysis was performed to determine the formation of ectomycorrhizal structures, or lack thereof, and the developmental differences between the in vitro mycorrhized and non-mycorrhized plants. The analysis proved that indeed an ectomycorrhizal association was developed between the Red Araza, and the D17 and UFSC-Sc133 isolates, a fact never before registered in the existing literature. After an in vitro period of 110 days, it was confirmed that the D17 and UFSC-Sc133 isolates formed mycorrhizal colonization of 91.6% and 15.7%, respectively. Furthermore, both isolates also promoted root thickening, and the formation of a fungal mantle and a Hartig net. However, when compared to the Control plants, the fungal isolates did not contribute to an increase in the development of the subject plants, possibly due to the specific experimental conditions used, such as a high humidity environment and high availability of nutrients in the symbiotic substrate.

<![CDATA[Predicting potential drug-drug interactions on topological and semantic similarity features using statistical learning]]>

Drug-drug interaction (DDI) is a change in the effect of a drug when patient takes another drug. Characterizing DDIs is extremely important to avoid potential adverse drug reactions. We represent DDIs as a complex network in which nodes refer to drugs and links refer to their potential interactions. Recently, the problem of link prediction has attracted much consideration in scientific community. We represent the process of link prediction as a binary classification task on networks of potential DDIs. We use link prediction techniques for predicting unknown interactions between drugs in five arbitrary chosen large-scale DDI databases, namely DrugBank, KEGG, NDF-RT, SemMedDB, and Twosides. We estimated the performance of link prediction using a series of experiments on DDI networks. We performed link prediction using unsupervised and supervised approach including classification tree, k-nearest neighbors, support vector machine, random forest, and gradient boosting machine classifiers based on topological and semantic similarity features. Supervised approach clearly outperforms unsupervised approach. The Twosides network gained the best prediction performance regarding the area under the precision-recall curve (0.93 for both random forests and gradient boosting machine). The applied methodology can be used as a tool to help researchers to identify potential DDIs. The supervised link prediction approach proved to be promising for potential DDIs prediction and may facilitate the identification of potential DDIs in clinical research.

<![CDATA[Proteomic analysis of watery saliva secreted by white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera]]>

The white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera, is a phloem sap feeder that secretes watery and gelling saliva during feeding. In this study, we identified the major proteins in watery saliva of S. furcifera by shotgun LC-MS/MS analysis combined with transcriptomic analysis. A total of 161 proteins were identified, which were divided into 8 function categories, including enzymes, transporter, calcium ion binding protein, salivary sheath protein, cytoskeleton protein, DNA-, RNA-, and protein-binding or regulating proteins, other non-enzyme proteins and unknown proteins. Gene expression pattern of 11 secretory proteins were analyzed by real time quantitative-PCR. We detected the mucin-like protein, which had a unique expression level in salivary gland, most likely to be a candidate effector involved in regulation of plant defense. This study identified the watery saliva component of S. furcifera and it provided a list of proteins which may play a role in interaction between S. furcifera and rice.

<![CDATA[An improved advertising CTR prediction approach based on the fuzzy deep neural network]]>

Combining a deep neural network with fuzzy theory, this paper proposes an advertising click-through rate (CTR) prediction approach based on a fuzzy deep neural network (FDNN). In this approach, fuzzy Gaussian-Bernoulli restricted Boltzmann machine (FGBRBM) is first applied to input raw data from advertising datasets. Next, fuzzy restricted Boltzmann machine (FRBM) is used to construct the fuzzy deep belief network (FDBN) with the unsupervised method layer by layer. Finally, fuzzy logistic regression (FLR) is utilized for modeling the CTR. The experimental results show that the proposed FDNN model outperforms several baseline models in terms of both data representation capability and robustness in advertising click log datasets with noise.

<![CDATA[A Chinese version of the Language Screening Test (CLAST) for early-stage stroke patients]]>

There is a severe lack of aphasia screening tools for bedside use in Chinese. A number of aphasia assessment tools have recently been developed abroad, but some of these scales were not suitable for patients with acute stroke. The Language Screening Test (which includes two parallel versions [a/b]) in French has been proven to be an effective and time-saving aphasia screening scale for early-stage stroke patients. Therefore, we worked out a Chinese version of the LAST taking into consideration Chinese language and culture. Two preliminary parallel versions (a/b) were tested on 154 patients with stroke at acute phase and 107 patients with stroke at non-acute phase, with the Western Aphasia Battery serving as a gold standard. The equivalence between the two parallel versions and the reliability/validity of each version were assessed. The median time to complete one preliminary Chinese version (each had some item redundancy) was 98 seconds. Two final parallel versions were established after adjustment/elimination of the redundant items and were found to be equivalent (intra-class correlation coefficient: 0.991). Internal consistency is(Cronbach α for each version [a/b] was 0.956 and 0.965, respectively) good. Internal validity was fine: (a) no floor or ceiling effect/item redundancy; (b) construct validity revealed a 1-dimension structure, just like the French version. The higher educated subjects scored higher than their lower educated counterparts (p<0.01). The external validity: at the optimum cut-off point where the score of version a/b <14 in higher educated group(<13 in lower): the specificity of each version was 0.878/0.902(1/1 in lower) and sensitivity was 0.972/0.944(0.944/0.944 in lower). Inter-rater equivalence (intra-class correlation coefficient) was 1. The Chinese version of the Language Screening Test was proved to be an efficient and time-saving bedside aphasia screening tool for stroke patients at acute phase and can be used by an average medical physician.

<![CDATA[ENTPRISE-X: Predicting disease-associated frameshift and nonsense mutations]]>

To exploit the plethora of information provided by Next Generation Sequencing, the identification of the genetic mutations responsible for disease in general or cancer in particular, among the thousands of neutral germline or somatic variations is a crucial task. Genome-wide association studies for the detection of disease-associated genes or cancer drivers can only identify common variations or driver genes in a cohort of patients. Thus, they cannot discover unique disease-associated mutations or cancer driver genes on a personal basis. Moreover, even when there are such common variations, their significance is unknown. Here, we extend the machine learning based approach ENTPRISE developed for predicting the disease association of missense mutations to frameshift and nonsense mutations. The new approach, ENTPRISE-X, is shown to outperform the state-of-the-art methods VEST-indel and DDIG-in for predicting the disease association of germline frameshift mutations in terms of balanced measure Matthew’s correlation coefficient, MCC, with a MCC of 0.586 for ENTPRISE-X, versus 0.412 by VEST-indel and 0.321 by DDIG-in, respectively. Large scale testing on the ExAC dataset shows ENTPRISE-X has a much lower fraction of 16% of variations classified as disease causing, as compared to VEST-indel’s 26% and DDIG-in’s 65% of predictions as being disease-associated. A web server for ENTPRISE-X is freely available for academic users at

<![CDATA[Changes in the amino acid profiles and free radical scavenging activities of Tenebrio molitor larvae following enzymatic hydrolysis]]>

Tenebrio molitor (T. molitor) larvae provide food at low environmental cost and contribute positively to livelihoods. In this research, we compared the amino acids compositions and antioxidant activities of various extracts of T. molitor to enhance their quality as food. For the comparison, distilled water extracts, enzymatic hydrolysates, and condensed enzymatic hydrolysates of T. molitor larvae were prepared. Their amino acids (AAs) profiles and antioxidant activities, including ferric-reducing antioxidant power, oxygen radical absorption capacity, and DPPH, hydroxyl radical, and hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging properties assay were analyzed. DW extracts had the lowest AAs contents and antioxidant activity compared with enzymatic extracts. Condensed hydrolysates with a combination of alcalase and flavourzyme (C-A+F) exhibited the highest levels of total free AAs (11.1759 g/100 g). C-A+F produced higher total hydrolyzed AAs (32.5292 g/100 g) compared with the other groups. The C-A+F possessed the strongest antioxidant activity. Notably, the antioxidant activities of the hydrolysates and the total hydrolyzed AAs amount were correlated. Taken together, our findings showed that C-A+F was a promising technique for obtaining extracts of T. molitor larvae with antioxidant activity as potential nutritious functional food.

<![CDATA[Tilapia-waste flour as a natural nutritional replacer for bread: A consumer perspective]]>

Six bread formulations with different levels of tilapia-waste flour (BTF0%, BTF2.5%, BTF5%, BTF10%, BTF15%, and BTF20%) were analyzed for nutritional composition and sensory characterization. Tilapia-waste flour (TF) increased (P < 0.05) the lipid, protein and ash contents, and decreased (P < 0.05) the levels of carbohydrates and total dietary fiber. BTF0%, BTF2.5% and BTF5% received the highest (P < 0.05) scores for acceptance and preference. Despite this apparent consumer preference for low or no levels, TF can be added to bread at levels below 12.17% (P < 0.05) without triggering consumer rejection. TF changed (P < 0.05) the sensory characterization of bread because of a disagreeable flavor, aroma, and texture; however, airy appearance, sticky in the teeth and cream color did not influence the overall liking. TF at 5% enhanced the nutritional value while maintaining acceptable sensory scores for bread, constituting a potential strategy to satisfy consumer and industry requirements.

<![CDATA[CircR2Disease: a manually curated database for experimentally supported circular RNAs associated with various diseases]]>


CircR2Disease is a manually curated database, which provides a comprehensive resource for circRNA deregulation in various diseases. Increasing evidences have shown that circRNAs play critical roles in transcriptional, post-transcriptional and translational regulation. Therefore, the aberrant expression of circRNAs has been associated with a group of diseases. It is significant to develop a high-quality database to deposit the deregulated circRNAs in diseases. The current version of CircR2Disease contains 725 associations between 661 circRNAs and 100 diseases by reviewing existing literatures. Each entry in the CircR2Disease contains detailed information for the circRNA–disease relationship, including circRNA name, coordinates and gene symbol, disease name, expression patterns of circRNA, experimental techniques, a brief description of the circRNA–disease relationship, year of publication and the PubMed ID. CircR2Disease provides a user-friendly interface to browse, search and download as well as to submit novel disease-related circRNAs. CircR2Disease could be very beneficial for researches to investigate the mechanism of disease-related circRNAs and explore the appropriate algorithms for predicting novel associations.

Database URL:

<![CDATA[Community health worker interventions to promote psychosocial outcomes among people living with HIV—A systematic review]]>


Community health worker (CHW) interventions are a successful strategy to promote health among HIV-negative and persons living with HIV (PLWH). Psychosocial factors are critical dimensions of HIV/AIDS care contributing to prognosis of the disease, yet it is unclear how CHW interventions improve psychosocial outcomes in PLWH. The purpose of this study was to critically appraise the types, scope, and nature of CHW interventions designed to address psychosocial outcomes in PLWH.


We performed database searches—PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Cochrane—to identify randomized controlled trials published in English before April 2017. Fourteen articles met the eligibility criteria.


Half of the studies were conducted in the United States. Social cognitive theory was used more than once in nine theory-guided studies. CHW interventions were largely focused on reducing depression (n = 6) or stigma related to HIV (n = 4), or promoting quality of life (n = 4), social support (n = 4), and self-efficacy (n = 4). Didactic methods and role-playing were used to train CHWs. CHWs played multiple roles in delivering intervention, including a counselor and a supporter (n = 10), educator (n = 5), or a navigator (n = 3). CHW intervention fidelity was assessed in 4 studies. Five studies found positive changes in six psychosocial outcomes including quality of life (2 of 4) and self-efficacy (2 of 4). CHW interventions had no effect on social support in 2 of 4 studies, and stigma in 3 of 4 studies. None of the CHW interventions were successful in reducing depressive symptoms among PLWH.


Evidence partially supported the use of CHWs in promoting psychosocial outcomes in PLWH. Future CHW intervention should be expanded in scope to address key psychosocial determinants of HIV/AIDS outcomes such as health literacy. Further, fidelity measures should be incorporated into intervention delivery.