ResearchPad - General Medicine https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Amino Acid Management of Parkinson’s Disease: A Case Study [Expression of Concern]]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Na0916194-08d1-4e45-b484-5ca5c947b04a ]]> <![CDATA[Transferrin-Modified Osthole PEGylated Liposomes Travel the Blood-Brain Barrier and Mitigate Alzheimer’s Disease-Related Pathology in APP/PS-1 Mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N69d6ab98-bd8d-4010-844a-59b94990e522

Introduction

Osthole (Ost) is a coumarin compound that strengthens hippocampal neurons and neural stem cells against Aβ oligomer-induced neurotoxicity in mice, and is a potential drug for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the effectiveness of the drug is limited by its solubility and bioavailability, as well as by the low permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In this study, a kind of transferrin-modified Ost liposomes (Tf-Ost-Lip) was constructed, which could improve the bioavailability and enhance brain targeting.

Methods

Tf-Ost-Lip was prepared by thin-film hydration method. The ability of liposomal formulations to translocate across BBB was investigated using in vitro BBB model. And the protective effect of Tf-Ost-Lip was evaluated in APP-SH-SY5Y cells. In addition, we performed pharmacokinetics study and brain tissue distribution analysis of liposomal formulations in vivo. We also observed the neuroprotective effect of the varying formulations in APP/PS-1 mice.

Results

In vitro studies reveal that Tf-Ost-Lip could increase the intracellular uptake of hCMEC/D3 cells and APP-SH-SY5Y cells, and increase the drug concentration across the BBB. Additionally, Tf-Ost-Lip was found to exert a protective effect on APP-SH-SY5Y cells. In vivo studies of pharmacokinetics and the Ost distribution in brain tissue indicate that Tf-Ost-Lip prolonged the cycle time in mice and increased the accumulation of Ost in the brain. Furthermore, Tf-Ost-Lip was also found to enhance the effect of Ost on the alleviation of Alzheimer’s disease-related pathology.

Conclusion

Transferrin-modified liposomes for delivery of Ost has great potential for AD treatment.

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<![CDATA[Targeted Prodrug-Based Self-Assembled Nanoparticles for Cancer Therapy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N2b0f5f7d-d5ab-49b6-9010-39c3b297e587

Background

Targeted prodrug has various applications as drug formulation for tumor therapy. Therefore, amphoteric small-molecule prodrug combined with nanoscale characteristics for the self-assembly of the nano-drug delivery system (DDS) is a highly interesting research topic.

Methods and Results

In this study, we developed a prodrug self-assembled nanoplatform, 2-glucosamine-fluorescein-5(6)-isothiocyanate-glutamic acid-paclitaxel (2DA-FITC-PTX NPs) by integration of targeted small molecule and nano-DDS with regular structure and perfect targeting ability. 2-glucosamine (DA) and paclitaxel were conjugated as the targeted ligand and anti-tumor chemotherapy drug by amino acid group. 2-DA molecular structure can enhance the targeting ability of prodrug-based 2DA-FITC-PTX NPs and prolong retention time, thereby reducing the toxicity of normal cell/tissue. The fluorescent dye FITC or near-infrared fluorescent dye ICG in prodrug-based DDS was attractive for in vivo optical imaging to study the behavior of 2DA-FITC-PTX NPs. In vitro and in vivo results proved that 2DA-FITC-PTX NPs exhibited excellent targeting ability, anticancer activity, and weak side effects.

Conclusion

This work demonstrates a new combination of nanomaterials for chemotherapy and may promote prodrug-based DDS clinical applications in the future.

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<![CDATA[Easy to Perform Physical Performance Tests to Identify COPD Patients with Low Physical Activity in Clinical Practice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N7893c44a-0acb-4251-a3a1-e288d8f5fcd5

Background

The study investigates which physical performance or muscle function/mass tests significantly correlate with objectively measured physical activity (PA) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and could potentially serve to identify physically inactive COPD patients in routine clinical practice.

Methods

A cross-sectional, observational study was conducted in outpatients with moderate to very severe COPD. PA was measured during one week with the StepWatch Activity Monitor®, an ankle-worn accelerometer, and expressed in steps per day. Physical fitness and peripheral muscle function/mass were evaluated by the 4-meter gait speed (4MGS) test, the 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), the 30-second chair stand test (30sCST), the timed up and go test (TUGT), handgrip strength, arm muscle area, calf circumference, the fat-free mass index (FFMI), and ultrasound measurement of the quadriceps muscle. Spearman’s rank correlation analysis and ROC analysis were performed.

Results

The study population (N=111, 69% men, mean age 68 years) walked a mean of 8059 steps/day. The daily step count strongly correlated with the 6MWD (rho=0.684, p<0.001) and moderately with the 4MGS (rho=0.464, p<0.001), the TUGT (rho= −0.463, p<0.001), and the 30sCST (rho=0.402, p<0.001). The correlation with the FFMI was weak (rho=0.210, p=0.027), while the other parameters did not significantly correlate with the daily step count. The 6MWD had the best discriminative power to identify patients with very low PA defined as <5000 steps/day (AUC=0.802 [95% CI: 0.720–0.884], p<0.001), followed by the TUGT, the 4MGS, and the 30sCST.

Conclusion

The 6MWD, the 4MGS, the TUGT, and the 30sCST are easy to perform in any clinical setting and may be used by clinicians in the screening of physically inactive COPD patients.

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<![CDATA[Effect of subarachnoid anesthesia combined with propofol target-controlled infusion on blood loss and transfusion for posterior total hip arthroplasty in elderly patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Naf35e205-ba2d-4b09-a481-09a91a00e528

Supplemental Digital Content is available in the text

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<![CDATA[Clinical Significance of Bronchodilator Responsiveness Evaluated by Forced Vital Capacity in COPD: SPIROMICS Cohort Analysis [Corrigendum]]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Ne6aecc8c-6f9d-4300-bf6a-e574401cd20f ]]> <![CDATA[Enzymatic Synthesis of Ricinoleyl Hydroxamic Acid Based on Commercial Castor Oil, Cytotoxicity Properties and Application as a New Anticancer Agent]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N2ee31eb3-084a-41f9-bd1c-0b276d684b2d

Background

New anticancer agents that rely on natural/healthy, not synthetic/toxic, components are very much needed.

Methods

Ricinoleyl hydroxamic acid (RHA) was synthesized from castor oil and hydroxylamine using Lipozyme TL IM as a catalyst. To optimize the conversion, the effects of the following parameters were investigated: type of organic solvent, period of reaction, amount of enzyme, the molar ratio of reactants and temperature. The highest conversion was obtained when the reaction was carried out under the following conditions: hexane as a solvent; reaction period of 48 hours; 120 mg of Lipozyme TL IM/3 mmol oil; HA-oil ratio of 19 mmol HA/3 mmol oil; and temperature of 40°C. The cytotoxicity of the synthesized RHA was assessed using human dermal fibroblasts (HDF), and its application towards fighting cancer was assessed using melanoma and glioblastoma cancer cells over a duration of 24 and 48 hours.

Results

RHA was successfully synthesized  and it demonstrated strong anticancer activity against glioblastoma and melanoma cells at as low as a 1 µg/mL concentration while it did not demonstrate any toxicity against HDF cells.

Conclusion

This is the first report on the synthesis of RHA with great potential to be used as a new anticancer agent.

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<![CDATA[Medical care for spinal diseases during the COVID-19 pandemic]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N6c40b897-d0b0-4232-a3b1-fa43e5b2343d ]]> <![CDATA[A company doctor's role during the COVID-19 pandemic]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N525b92bd-dfc3-4814-a4f0-5ac9a15c4625 ]]> <![CDATA[A Novel Sequential Docking Technique: Use of Femtosecond Arcuate Keratotomy and Femtosecond Assisted Cataract Surgery Using a Pupil Expansion Ring on a Patient with Intraoperative Floppy Iris Syndrome]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N5b5664f5-460b-4095-9e6b-9739a6fb18ab

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a novel double-docking technique, incorporating the use of femtosecond laser arcuate keratotomy (FSAK) in correcting low-degree astigmatism and Malyugin ring, in a patient with intraoperative floppy iris syndrome (IFIS).

Methods

A case report of a 72-year-old man with grade 4 cataract, low-degree astigmatism (<2D), and IFIS (pupil size <4 mm, intraoperatively) is presented. The patient underwent cataract surgery using a femtosecond laser to treat low-degree astigmatism because the patient requested for the use of a multifocal  intraocular lens (IOL). The first docking was performed to complete arcuate keratotomy, produce the mainparacentesis incisions, and create clear corneal incisions. Insertion of the Malyugin ring was performed after the first docking, whereas the second one was executed to complete continuous curvilinear capsulotomy and lens fragmentation. The patient’s uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) was measured pre- and post-operatively. The complications were evaluated post-operatively and 3 months later during the follow-up visit.

Results

The patient’s UCVA for distance improved from 0.3 (6/12 Snellen equivalent) to 0 (6/6 Snellen equivalent) logMAR post-operatively. During the follow-up visit, the patient’s uncorrected near visual acuity was at J2. His corneal astigmatism changed from −1.0 Diopter @177° pre-operative to −0.12 D @173° post-operative. No other intraoperative or post-operative complications were observed.

Conclusion

The double-docking technique, with the use of FSAK, and Malyugin ring produced successful surgical outcomes for the patient. The benefits of this technique allow surgeons to avoid changing the shape of the patient’s cornea from the injection of the viscoelastic device into the anterior chamber, which could lower the femtosecond laser’s precision and docking location.

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<![CDATA[Mechanical evaluation of tibial fixation of the hamstring tendon in anterior cruciate ligament double-bundle reconstruction with and without interference screws]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N6ceb38a0-858e-4622-85b5-4315671e0b90

OBJECTIVE:

The objective of this study was to compare two postero-lateral bundle (PLB) tibial fixation techniques for the reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament with double bundle: a technique without the use of an interference screw, preserving the native tibial insertion of the tendons of the gracilis and semitendineous muscles, and a technique with the use of an interference screw and without preserving the insertion of the tendons.

METHODS:

A comparative study was conducted in cadavers with a universal mechanical test machine. In total, 23 cadaver knees were randomized for tibial fixation of the PLB using the two techniques: Maintaining the tibial insertion of the tendons during reconstruction, without the use of an interference screw (group A, 11 cases); and fixating the graft with an interference screw, without maintaining the insertion of the tendons (group B, 12 cases). A continuous traction was performed (20 mm/min) in the same direction as the produced tunnel, and force (N), elongation (mm), rigidity (N/mm), and tension (N/mm2) were objectively determined in each group.

RESULTS:

Group A exhibited a maximum force (MF) of 315.4±124.7 N; maximum tension of 13.57±3.65 N/mm2; maximum elongation of 19.73±4.76 mm; force at the limit of proportionality (FLP) of 240.6±144.0 N; and an elongation at the limit of proportionality of 14.37±6.58 mm. Group B exhibited a MF of 195.7±71.8 N; maximum tension of 8.8±3.81 N/mm2; maximum elongation of 15.3±10.73 mm; FLP of 150.1±68.7 N; and an elongation at the limit of proportionality of 6.86±2.42 mm. When comparing the two groups, significant differences were observed in the variables of maximum force (p=0.016), maximum tension (p=0.019), maximum elongation (p=0.007), and elongation at the limit of proportionality (p=0.003).

CONCLUSION:

The use of the native insertion of the semitendineous and gracilis tendons, without an additional fixation device, presented mechanical superiority over their fixation with interference screws.

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<![CDATA[Alcohol and sudden unexpected death in epilepsy: do not pop the cork]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Ncc5a8611-ee7b-4e84-9ecb-a322d61df48b ]]> <![CDATA[Spotlight for healthy adolescents and adolescents with preexisting chronic diseases during the COVID-19 pandemic]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nc615235a-2882-4c13-a9d3-c576ef125e4e ]]> <![CDATA[Dual Receptor-Targeted and Redox-Sensitive Polymeric Micelles Self-Assembled from a Folic Acid-Hyaluronic Acid-SS-Vitamin E Succinate Polymer for Precise Cancer Therapy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N0333ac7a-c329-4c80-b402-750b5176061b

Purpose

Poor site-specific delivery and insufficient intracellular drug release in tumors are inherent disadvantages to successful chemotherapy. In this study, an extraordinary polymeric micelle nanoplatform was designed for the efficient delivery of paclitaxel (PTX) by combining dual receptor-mediated active targeting and stimuli response to intracellular reduction potential.

Methods

The dual-targeted redox-sensitive polymer, folic acid-hyaluronic acid-SS-vitamin E succinate (FHSV), was synthesized via an amidation reaction and characterized by 1H-NMR. Then, PTX-loaded FHSV micelles (PTX/FHSV) were prepared by a dialysis method. The physiochemical properties of the micelles were explored. Moreover, in vitro cytological experiments and in vivo animal studies were carried out to evaluate the antitumor efficacy of polymeric micelles.

Results

The PTX/FHSV micelles exhibited a uniform, near-spherical morphology (148.8 ± 1.4 nm) and a high drug loading capacity (11.28% ± 0.25). Triggered by the high concentration of glutathione, PTX/FHSV micelles could quickly release their loaded drug into the release medium. The in vitro cytological evaluations showed that, compared with Taxol or single receptor-targeted micelles, FHSV micelles yielded higher cellular uptake by the dual receptor-mediated endocytosis pathway, thus leading to significantly superior cytotoxicity and apoptosis in tumor cells but less cytotoxicity in normal cells. More importantly, in the in vivo antitumor experiments, PTX/FHSV micelles exhibited enhanced tumor accumulation and produced remarkable tumor growth inhibition with minimal systemic toxicity.

Conclusion

Our results suggest that this well-designed FHSV polymer has promising potential for use as a vehicle of chemotherapeutic drugs for precise cancer therapy.

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<![CDATA[Occupational allergic rhinoconjunctivitis to Tachypleus amoebocyte lysate: a case report]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N788b5f2e-5203-4da8-b2a4-4624b858c02e ]]> <![CDATA[Anatomical and clinical study of a new mallet fracture classification method]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nd6ffc184-44ef-4e74-925c-acad168046e9

Abstract

Background

Mallet fracture is avulsion of the terminal extensor tendon from the base of the distal phalangeal bone with a bony fragment. This study was performed to evaluate the anatomical characteristics of mallet fractures, investigate a new mallet fracture classification system using anatomical and imaging methods, and discuss the treatment schemes for different types of mallet fracture.

Methods

Sixty-four fresh cadaveric fingers were divided into four groups, and models of different types of mallet fracture with distal interphalangeal joint instability were established by dissecting 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of the bilateral collateral ligaments. The effect of mallet fractures on the stability of the distal interphalangeal joint was then observed. The lateral radiographs of mallet fractures in 168 patients were analyzed and classified according to the involvement of the joint surface in the fracture, the thickness of fracture, the untreated time after injury, and the complication of distal interphalangeal joint palmar subluxation. Forty-seven patients were surgically treated by reconstruction of extensor tendon insertion, the Ishiguro method, or single Kirschner wire fixation.

Results

The established mallet fracture model showed that the distal interphalangeal joint was stable when the bilateral collateral ligaments were cut off by 25% (t = –0.415, P = 0.684) and significantly unstable when this range was ≥50% (50% transection: t = –6.363, P < 0.001; 75% transection: t = –17.036, P < 0.001; 100% transection: t = –30.977, P < 0.001, respectively). The mallet fractures were divided into Types I, II, and III (fracture involving <20%, 20%–50%, and >50% of the joint surface, respectively). Type II was further divided into Types IIa and IIb according to whether the course of injury was < or ≥2 weeks, respectively. The mean post-operative flexion of the distal interphalangeal joint was 63.4° ± 7.9°, and the mean extension lag was 6.7° ± 4.6°.

Conclusions

The lateral collateral ligament is the main factor that maintains the stability of the distal interphalangeal joint. Classification that combines the involvement of the joint surface in the fracture, the thickness of the fracture, and the untreated time after injury is reasonable and will help to choose an appropriate operational method.

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<![CDATA[A case of acute-on-chronic liver failure promoted by thyrotoxicosis triggered due to iodinated contrast media exposure]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N2d5ba906-451a-46a1-aa17-c0d243620696 ]]> <![CDATA[The Discrediting of the Monoamine Hypothesis [Expression of Concern]]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N42a9a425-8623-4d45-b614-b6c5e016659d ]]> <![CDATA[Comparison of Characteristics Between ICS-Treated COPD Patients and ICS-Treated COPD Patients with Concomitant Asthma: A Study in Primary Care]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nadf11f1f-3b1e-4775-ab93-d3de2ac444ea

Background and Objective

Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) for COPD has been much debated. Our aim was to identify characteristics associated with prescribing ICS for patients with COPD alone compared to those with concomitant asthma in general practice.

Patients and Methods

Participating general practitioners (GPs) (n=144) recruited patients with COPD (ICPC 2nd ed. code R95) currently prescribed ICS (ACT code R03AK and R03BA). Data, if available, on demographics, smoking habits, spirometry, COPD medication, dyspnea score, and exacerbation history were retrieved from the medical records. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify possible differences in characteristics between patients with COPD alone compared to those having a concomitant diagnosis of asthma.

Results

A total of 2.289 (45% males) COPD patients on ICS were recruited. Compared to patients with COPD alone (n=1.749), those with COPD and concomitant asthma (n=540) were younger (p<0.001), had higher BMI, higher FEV1/FVC ratio, higher blood eosinophil count and less life-time tobacco exposure (36 and 26 pack-years, respectively). Compared to COPD alone, logistic regression analysis showed that COPD with concomitant asthma was significantly associated to age (OR 0.94; CI 0.92 to 0.97; p<0.001), pack-years of smoking (OR 0.98; CI 0.97 to 0.99; p<0.001), [TeX:] \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage[substack]{amsmath} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage[mathscr]{eucal} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \DeclareFontFamily{T1}{linotext}{} \DeclareFontShape{T1}{linotext}{m}{n} {linotext }{} \DeclareSymbolFont{linotext}{T1}{linotext}{m}{n} \DeclareSymbolFontAlphabet{\mathLINOTEXT}{linotext} \begin{document} $${\rm{FE}}{{\rm{V}}_1}$$ \end{document}%pred (OR 1.02; CI 1.00 to 1.03; p=0.005), and doctor-diagnosed depression (OR 2.59; CI 1.20 to 5.58; p=0.015).

Conclusion

In COPD patients currently prescribed ICS, the presence of concomitant asthma was associated with being younger, having less tobacco exposure, more preserved lung function and a higher likelihood of doctor-diagnosed depression compared to COPD alone.

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<![CDATA[Posterior Capsule Opacification after Cataract Surgery in Children Over Five Years of Age with Square-edge Hydrophobic versus Hydrophilic Acrylic Intraocular Lenses: A Prospective Randomized Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N7c398803-6bbf-4c1a-b31e-5c643f450e1b

OBJECTIVE:

To compare the effects of hydrophobic and hydrophilic materials in square-edged acrylic intraocular lenses (IOLs) on the development of posterior capsule opacification (PCO) after pediatric cataract surgery.

METHODS:

Patients were randomly assigned to group 1 (hydrophobic acrylic square-edged IOLs; 13 eyes) or group 2 (hydrophilic acrylic square-edged IOLs; 13 eyes). The study evaluated PCO rates using Evaluation of Posterior Capsule Opacification (EPCO) 2000 software at one, three, six and 12 months postoperatively. Postoperative measurements also included corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), neodymium:yttrium‐aluminum‐garnet (Nd:YAG) capsulotomy and postoperative complications other than PCO.

RESULTS:

Both groups had significant increases in PCO rates after one year. Comparison of the groups showed no significant differences in the EPCO scores at three (group 1, 0.007±0.016 vs group 2, 0.008±0.014; p=0.830), six (group 1, 0.062±0.103 vs group 2, 0.021±0.023; p=0.184), or twelve months postoperatively (group 1, 0.200±0.193 vs group 2, 0.192±0.138; p=0.902). We also found no significant group differences regarding the change (delta, Δ) in EPCO scores between three and six months (group 1, 0.055±0.09 vs group 2, 0.013±0.02; p=0.113) or between six and twelve months postoperatively (group 1, 0.139±0.14 vs group 2, 0.171±0.14; p=0.567). Twenty-three percent of patients required Nd:YAG capsulotomy at the twelve-month visit.

CONCLUSIONS:

No differences in PCO rates were found between hydrophobic and hydrophilic acrylic square-edged IOLs in children between five and twelve years of age at one year of follow-up.

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