ResearchPad - General Veterinary https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Acute hemorrhagic diarrhea syndrome associated with contaminated foreign bodies (used feminine hygiene products) in a Golden Retriever dog]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b595daa463d7e5c4d0d54d0

A one-year-old male Golden Retriever presented with acute onset of vomiting and hemorrhagic diarrhea since 2 days. The dog was depressed, showing abdominal pain, 12% dehydration, tachycardia, and a bounding pulse. Diagnostic imaging showed severe dilatation and fluid retention of the entire gastrointestinal tract with decreased motility. A foreign body was found in the gastroduodenal region, but there was no obstruction or plication. The dog was tentatively diagnosed with acute hemorrhagic diarrhea syndrome and rapidly recovered after supportive treatment. However, on the morning of day 4, anorexia and vomiting recurred, and diagnostic imaging revealed intestinal plication with free peritoneal fluid, not found on the previous image. An emergency laparotomy revealed the foreign body to be two used feminine hygiene products. These contaminated products were suspected to induce acute hemorrhagic diarrhea syndrome, and led to subsequent complication in this large dog.

]]>
<![CDATA[Comparative effectiveness of individualised homeopathy and antibiotics in the treatment of bovine clinical mastitis: randomised controlled trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bfd2224d5eed0c48429c372

Based on the widespread use of homeopathy in dairy farm practice when treating mastitis, a blind randomised controlled trial (RCT) was conducted to assess the effectiveness of homeopathic treatment of clinical mastitis on four dairy farms. The study considered specific guidelines for RCTs as well as the basic principles of individualised homeopathy and involved 180 lactating dairy cows. Evaluation of cure rates was based on clinical investigation of the udder and on laboratory analysis of milk samples. In culture-positive cases, the antibiotic treatment provided suboptimal bacteriological cures (60–81 per cent) but was more effective than individualised homeopathy (33–43 per cent) whose effects appeared little different to those of placebos (45–47 per cent) (P≤0.05). On the cytological cure level, all three treatment methods were similarly ineffective: antibiotic being 2–21 per cent, individualised homeopathy 0–8 per cent and placebo 3–13 per cent (P≤0.05; P=0.13). Antibiotics, individualised homeopathy and placebo had similar effects on bacteriological and cytological cure in cases of culture-negative milk samples (P>0.4) and Escherichia coli infections (P=1.0). The study results implied that the effectiveness of individualised homeopathy does not go beyond a placebo effect and successful treatment is highly dependent on the specific mastitis pathogen. Thus, antimicrobial or alternative remedies used should be based on the bacterial culture of the milk sample.

Trial registration number

NTP-ID: 00008011-1-9, Pre-results.

]]>
<![CDATA[Prevalence and characterization of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive Staphylococcus aureus in bovine milk in Jabalpur district of Madhya Pradesh, India]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b588391463d7e4a48649418

Aim:

The study aimed to investigate the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive Staphylococcus aureus in bovine milk due to its public health significance.

Materials and Methods:

A total of 400 milk samples of bovines taken from different dairy farms and outlets of Jabalpur were screened for the S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The strains were tested for the PVL gene and antimicrobial sensitivity toward 10 different classes of antimicrobial agents. The PVL-positive S. aureus strains were further characterized by staphylococcal protein A or spa typing.

Result:

The prevalence of PVL-positive S. aureus was 10.53%. All the isolates positive for the PVL were resistant to methicillin, while the methicillin-sensitive S. aureus isolates were negative for the PVL. Five different spa types were found.

Conclusion:

The presence of PVL-positive MRSA in bovine milk close to consumer poses a potential public health risk to the community.

]]>
<![CDATA[In vitro inhibition of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus replication by short antisense oligonucleotides with locked nucleic acid modification]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b4c7c28463d7e0c20d25f21

Background

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), which is currently insufficiently controlled. From a previous small-scale screen we identified an effective DNA-based short antisense oligonucleotide (AS-ON) targeting viral NSP9, which could inhibit PRRSV replication in both Marc-145 cells and pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs). The objective of this study was to explore the strategy of incorporating locked nucleic acids (LNAs) to achieve better inhibition of PRRSV replication in vitro.

Methods

The effective DNA-based AS-ON (YN8) was modified with LNAs at both ends as gap-mer (LNA-YN8-A) or as mix-mer (LNA-YN8-B). Marc-145 cells or PAMs were infected with PRRSV and subsequently transfected.

Results

Compared with the DNA-based YN8 control, the two AS-ONs modified with LNAs were found to be significantly more effective in decreasing the cytopathic effect (CPE) induced by PRRSV and thus in maintaining cell viability. LNA modifications conferred longer lifetimes to the AS-ON in the cell culture model. Viral ORF7 levels were more significantly reduced at both RNA and protein levels as shown by quantitative PCR, western blot and indirect immunofluorescence staining. Moreover, transfection with LNA modified AS-ON reduced the PRRSV titer by 10-fold compared with the YN8 control.

Conclusion

Taken together, incorporation of LNA into AS-ON technology holds higher therapeutic promise for PRRS control.

]]>
<![CDATA[Prospective evaluation of an indwelling esophageal balloon dilatation feeding tube for treatment of benign esophageal strictures in dogs and cats]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b4c6e98463d7e0b052d96fa

Background

Despite multiple dilatation procedures, benign esophageal strictures (BES) remain a recurring cause of morbidity and mortality in dogs and cats.

Objective

Investigate the use of an indwelling Balloon Dilatation esophagostomy tube (B‐Tube) for treatment of BES in dogs and cats.

Animals

Nine dogs and 3 cats.

Methods

Animals with BES were recruited for our prospective study. Endoscopic and fluoroscopic evaluation of the esophagus and balloon dilatation were performed under general anesthesia, followed by placement of an indwelling B‐Tube. The animals' owners performed twice daily at‐home inflations for approximately 6 weeks. Repeat endoscopy was performed before B‐Tube removal. Animals were reevaluated for changes in modified dysphagia score (MDS) after B‐Tube removal.

Results

The B‐Tube management was relatively well tolerated and effective in maintaining dilatation of a BES while in place. These animals underwent a median of 2 anesthetic episodes and were monitored for a median of 472 days (range, 358‐1736 days). The mean MDS before treatment was 3.1 ± 0.5/4.0 and final follow‐up MDS were significantly (P < .0001) improved at 0.36 ± 0.65/4.0. Eleven of 12 animals (91.7%) had improved MDS at the end of the follow‐up period, with 8/12 (66.7%) having an MDS of 0/4, 2/12 (16.7%) an MDS of 1/4, and 1/12 (8.3%) an MDS of 2/4. One dog died.

Conclusions and Clinical Importance

The B‐Tube offers an effective, and more economical method, and often decreased anesthetic time to repeated balloon dilatation procedures for the treatment of BES in dogs and cats.

]]>
<![CDATA[Edible bird's nest impact on rats' uterine histomorphology, expressions of genes of growth factors and proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and oxidative stress level]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b4b16fe463d7e7245bad20d

Aim:

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of edible bird’s nest (EBN) supplementation on the uteri of rats based on analyses of the morphological and histomorphometric changes, and expressions of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its receptor (REGF) genes, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and steroid receptors.

Materials and Methods:

Twenty-four: Sprague Dawley rats were equally distributed into the following four groups: G1 (control), G2, G3, and G4 represented the groups treated with EBN at graded concentrations of 0, 30, 60, and 120 mg/kg body weight (BW) per day for 8 weeks, respectively. During the experimental period, the BW of each rat was recorded weekly. At the proestrus stage of estrous cycle, blood samples were collected from the hearts of anesthetized rats that were later sacrificed. The uteri were removed for histological and immunohistochemical analyses.

Results:

The EBN-treated groups showed an increase in the weights and lengths of uteri as compared to the control. Results showed that relative to G1 and G2, G3 and G4 exhibited proliferation in their uterine luminal and glandular epithelia and uterine glands, and up-regulated expressions of EGF, REGF, VEGF, PCNA, and progesterone receptor, and estrogen receptor in their uteri. The EBN increased the antioxidant (AO) and total AO capacities and reduced the oxidative stress (OS) levels in non-pregnant rats.

Conclusion:

Findings of this study revealed that EBN promotes proliferation of the uterine structures as evidenced by the upregulation of the expressions of steroid receptors, EGF, REGF, VEGF, and PCNA in the uterus and increased in the plasma concentrations of AO and reduced levels of OS.

]]>
<![CDATA[Evaluation of the Live Biotherapeutic Product, Asymptomatic Bacteriuria Escherichia coli 2-12, in Healthy Dogs and Dogs with Clinical Recurrent UTI]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bf5cfd2d5eed0c484a8d63e

Background

Antimicrobial resistance is an emerging problem.

Hypothesis/Objective

To investigate the safety and efficacy of a live biotherapeutic product, ASB E. coli 2‐12 for UTI treatment.

Animals

Six healthy research dogs; nine client‐owned dogs with recurrent UTI.

Methods

Prospective noncontrolled clinical trial. For safety data, research dogs were sedated, a urinary catheter was inserted into the bladder; 1010 CFU/mL of ASB E. coli 2‐12 was instilled. Urine was cultured on days 1, 3, and 8 post‐instillation and dogs were observed for lower urinary tract signs (LUTS). For client‐owned dogs, ASB E. coli 2‐12 was instilled similarly and urine cultures analyzed on days 1, 7, and 14 days postinstillation.

Results

No LUTS were noted in any of the 6 research dogs after ASB E. coli 2‐12 infusion. Pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) studies confirmed the bacterial strains isolated matched that ASB E. coli 2‐12 strain. Four of the nine client‐owned dogs had complete or nearly complete clinical cures by day 14. Of these four dogs, 3 also had microbiologic cures at day 14; one of these dogs had subclinical bacteriuria (in addition to ASB E. coli 2‐12). Three of these four dogs had ASB E. coli 2‐12 isolated from their urine at day 14. With the exception of mild, temporary, self‐limiting, hyporexia in two dogs on the day of biotherapeutic administration, there were no major adverse effects.

Conclusions and Clinical Importance

These results suggest ASB E. coli 2‐12 is safe and should be investigated in a larger controlled study evaluating clinical UTI in dogs.

]]>
<![CDATA[Familial Congenital Methemoglobinemia in Pomeranian Dogs Caused by a Missense Variant in the NADH-Cytochrome B5 Reductase Gene]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bf5cfd4d5eed0c484a8d6a8

Background

In veterinary medicine, congenital methemoglobinemia associated with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)‐cytochrome b5 reductase (b5R) deficiency is rare. It has been reported in several breeds of dogs, but little information is available about its etiology.

Objectives

To analyze the NADH‐cytochrome b5 reductase gene, CYB5R3, in a Pomeranian dog family with methemoglobinemia suspected to be caused by congenital b5R deficiency.

Animals

Three Pomeranian dogs from a family with methemoglobinemia were analyzed. Five healthy beagles and 5 nonrelated Pomeranian dogs without methemoglobinemia were used as controls.

Methods

Methemoglobin concentration, b5R activity, and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration were measured, and a turbidity index was used to evaluate Heinz body formation. The CYB5R3 genes of the affected dog and healthy dogs were analyzed by direct sequencing.

Results

Methemoglobin concentrations in erythrocytes of the affected dogs were remarkably higher than those of the control dogs. The b5R activity of the affected dogs was notably lower than that of the control dogs. DNA sequencing indicated that this Pomeranian family carried a CYB5R3 gene missense variant (ATC→CTC at codon 194) that resulted in the replacement of isoleucine (Ile) by leucine (Leu).

Conclusions and Clinical Importance

This dog family had familial congenital methemoglobinemia caused by b5R deficiency, which resulted from a nonsynonymous variant in the CYB5R3 gene. This variation (c.580A>C) led to an amino acid substitution (p.Ile194Leu), and Ile194 was located in the proximal region of the NADH‐binding motif. Our data suggested that this variant in the canine CYB5R3 gene would affect function of the b5R in erythrocytes.

]]>
<![CDATA[Effect of Intravenous Administration of Cobalt Chloride to Horses on Clinical and Hemodynamic Variables]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bf5cf98d5eed0c484a8c9b4

Background

Cobalt chloride (CoCl2) is administered to racehorses to enhance performance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical, cardiovascular, and endocrine effects of parenterally administered CoCl2.

Objectives

To describe the effects of weekly intravenous doses of CoCl2 on Standardbred horses.

Animals

Five, healthy Standardbred mares.

Methods

Prospective, randomized, experimental dose‐escalation pilot. Five Standardbred mares were assigned to receive 1 of 5 doses of CoCl2 (4, 2, 1, 0.5, or 0.25 mg/kg) weekly IV for 5 weeks. Physical examination, blood pressure, cardiac output, and electrocardiography (ECG) were evaluated for 4 hours after administration of the first and fifth doses. Blood and urine samples were collected for evaluation of cobalt concentration, CBC and clinical chemistry, and hormone concentrations.

Results

All mares displayed pawing, nostril flaring, muscle tremors, and straining after CoCl2 infusion. Mares receiving 4, 2, or 1 mg/kg doses developed tachycardia after dosing (HR 60–126 bpm). Ventricular tachycardia was noted for 10 minutes after administration of the 4 mg/kg dose. Increases in systolic arterial pressure (SAP), diastolic arterial pressure (DAP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) occurred after administration of all doses (4, 2, 1, 0.5, and 0.25 mg/kg). Profound hypertension was observed after the 4 mg/kg dose (SAP/DAP, MAP [mmHg] = 291–300/163–213, 218–279). Hemodynamics normalized by 1–2 hours after administration. ACTH and cortisol concentrations increased within 30 minutes of administration of all CoCl2 doses, and cardiac troponin I concentration increased after administration of the 4 and 2 mg/kg doses.

Conclusions and Clinical Importance

The degree of hypertension and arrhythmia observed after IV CoCl2 administration raises animal welfare and human safety concerns.

]]>
<![CDATA[Effect of Prophylactic Calcitriol Administration on Serum Ionized Calcium Concentrations after Parathyroidectomy: 78 Cases (2005-2015)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bf5cfd5d5eed0c484a8d704

Background

Prophylactic administration of calcitriol has been suggested to mitigate the risk of hypocalcemia after parathyroidectomy. The effect of calcitriol on postoperative serum ionized calcium concentrations has not been evaluated in dogs after parathyroidectomy.

Hypothesis/Objectives

To determine the effect of prophylactic calcitriol administration on postoperative serum ionized calcium (iCa) concentrations in dogs with primary hyperthyroidism (PHPTH) treated by parathyroidectomy.

Animals

Seventy‐eight dogs with primary hyperparathyroidism treated surgically.

Methods

Multi‐institutional retrospective case study. Medical records from 2005 to 2015 were evaluated. Dogs were included if they had a diagnosis of PHPTH and had surgery to remove parathyroid tissue. Serum iCa concentrations were monitored for a minimum of 2 days postoperatively. Two study groups were evaluated: calcitriol administration and no calcitriol administration.

Results

Serial postoperative iCa concentrations measured at 12‐hour time intervals for 2 days postoperatively were positively associated with preoperative iCa concentrations. This association was evident at each time interval, and the effect of preoperative iCa concentrations on postoperative iCa concentrations decreased as time elapsed (12 hours, P < 0.0001; 24 hours, P < 0.0001; 36 hours, P < 0.04; and 48 hours, P = 0.01). Prophylactic calcitriol administration was not found to be significantly associated with postoperative iCa concentrations or its rate of decrease after parathyroidectomy.

Conclusion and Clinical Importance

We found no protective value in administering calcitriol prophylactically to prevent hypocalcemia in the immediate postoperative period (48 hours) after parathyroidectomy. Preoperative iCa concentrations had a significant positive association with postoperative iCa concentrations throughout the monitoring period.

]]>
<![CDATA[Evaluation of Serum Symmetric Dimethylarginine Concentration as a Marker for Masked Chronic Kidney Disease in Cats With Hyperthyroidism]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bf5cf91d5eed0c484a8c835

Background

Hyperthyroidism can complicate (mask) the diagnosis of chronic kidney disease (CKD) because it increases glomerular filtration rate and decreases body muscle mass, both of which can lower serum creatinine concentrations. Currently, there is no clinical test that can reliably predict which hyperthyroid cats have concurrent azotemic CKD that will become apparent after treatment of the hyperthyroidism.

Objectives

To investigate serum symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) concentration as a potential marker of masked azotemia in untreated hyperthyroid cats.

Animals

Two hundred and sixty‐two hyperthyroid cats and 206 aged‐matched, clinically normal cats.

Methods

Prospective study. We measured creatinine, urea nitrogen, SDMA, T4, and TSH concentrations before and 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment with radioiodine (131I) and classified 131I‐treated cats as azotemic or nonazotemic based on persistent, post‐treatment creatinine concentrations >2.1 mg/dL. Groups were compared via nonparametric tests, and diagnostic accuracy was determined by receiver operating characteristic analysis and logistic regression.

Results

No hyperthyroid cats were azotemic before treatment, but 42 (16%) became azotemic when rechecked at 4–8 months (median, 6 months) after 131I treatment; of these, 14 had high SDMA concentrations before treatment. As a diagnostic test for pre‐azotemic (masked) CKD in untreated hyperthyroid cats, SDMA showed a sensitivity of 33.3% and specificity of 97.7%.

Conclusions and Clinical Importance

Finding a high serum SDMA concentration in a hyperthyroid cat can help predict development of azotemia after treatment. The test has high diagnostic test specificity (few false‐positive results) but relatively low sensitivity (fails to predict azotemia in most hyperthyroid cats).

]]>
<![CDATA[Efficacy of Oral Administration of Sodium Iodide to Prevent Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bf5cf95d5eed0c484a8c8cf

Background

The prevention of bovine respiratory disease complex (BRD) in beef cattle is important to maintaining health and productivity of calves in feeding operations.

Objective

Determine whether BRD bacterial and viral pathogens are susceptible to the lactoperoxidase/hydrogen peroxide/iodide (LPO/H2O2/I) system in vitro and to determine whether the oral administration of sodium iodide (NaI) could achieve sufficient concentrations of iodine (I) in the respiratory secretions of weaned beef calves to inactivate these pathogens in vivo.

Animals

Sixteen weaned, apparently healthy, commercial beef calves from the University of Missouri, College of Veterinary Medicine teaching herd.

Methods

In vitro viral and bacterial assays were performed to determine susceptibility to the LPO/H2O2/I system at varying concentrations of NaI. Sixteen randomly selected, healthy crossbred beef weanlings were administered 70 mg/kg NaI, or water, orally in a blinded, placebo‐controlled trial. Blood and nasal secretions were collected for 72 hours and analyzed for I concentration.

Results

Bovine herpesvirus‐1, parainfluenza‐3, Mannheimia haemolytica and Bibersteinia trehalosi were all inactivated or inhibited in vitro by the LPO/H2O2/I reaction. Oral administration of NaI caused a marked increase in nasal fluid I concentration with a C max = 181 (1,420 μM I), T12, a sufficient concentration to inactivate these pathogens in vitro.

Conclusions and Clinical Importance

In vitro, the LPO/H2O2/I system inactivates and inhibits common pathogens associated with BRD. The administration of oral NaI significantly increases the I concentration of nasal fluid indicating that this system might be useful in preventing bovine respiratory infections.

]]>
<![CDATA[Erratum]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bf5cf96d5eed0c484a8c959 ]]> <![CDATA[Identifying individual animal factors associated with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) milk ELISA positivity in dairy cattle in the Midwest region of the United States]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bf5a646d5eed0c484a0b8a6

Background

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is a widespread chronic disease of ruminants that causes severe economic losses to the dairy cattle industry worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between individual cow MAP-ELISA and relevant milk production predictors in dairy cattle using data routinely collected as part of quality and disease control programs in the Midwest region of the U.S. Milk ELISA results of 45,652 animals from 691 herds from November 2014 to August 2016 were analyzed.

Results

The association between epidemiological and production factors and ELISA results for MAP in milk was quantified using four individual-level mixed multivariable logistic regression models that accounted for clustering of animals at the farm level. The four fitted models were one global model for all the animals assessed here, irrespective of age, and one for each of the categories of < 4 year-old, 4–8 year-old, and > 8 year-old cattle, respectively.

A small proportion (4.9%; n = 2222) of the 45,652 tested samples were MAP-seropositive. Increasing age of the animals and higher somatic cell count (SCC) were both associated with increased odds for MAP positive test result in the model that included all animals, while milk production, milk protein and days in milk were negatively associated with MAP milk ELISA. Somatic cell count was positively associated with an increased risk in the models fitted for < 4 year-old and 4–8 year-old cattle. Variables describing higher milk production, milk protein content and days in milk were associated with significantly lower risk in the models for 4–8 year-old cattle and for all cattle.

Conclusions

Our results suggest that testing cows with high SCC (> 26 × 1000/ml), low milk production and within the first 60 days of lactation may maximize the odds of detecting seropositive animals. These results could be useful in helping to design better surveillance strategies based in testing of milk.

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (10.1186/s12917-018-1354-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

]]>
<![CDATA[PCR-diagnosis of Anaplasma marginale in cattle populations of Ecuador and its molecular identification through sequencing of ribosomal 16S fragments]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b46caf3463d7e6446d0e402

Background

Bovine anaplasmosis is an endemic disease in tropical and subtropical areas. It is caused by a bacterium named Anaplasma marginale, and represents an economic problem for cattle farmers due to the losses it generates, such as: mortalities, reduced production, quarantine measures, treatments and control of vectors. The method most often used to diagnose this haemotrophic bacterium is direct examination on blood smear, which sensitivity and specificity are limited compared to other methods such as PCR. The present study aimed at investigating the presence of A. marginale in dairy cattle of Luz de América commune, province of Santo Domingo de los Tsachilas. Two PCRs were used to amplify specific regions of the Rickettsia for its molecular identification.

Results

At first, 151 blood samples were tested: msp5 specific gene of A. marginale was identified in 130 samples, meaning 86.1% of them were infected by the rickettsia. Two positive samples were further randomly selected to confirm the presence of A. marginale through amplification, cloning and sequencing of the conserved region of gene 16S rRNA. The analysis of sequences obtained through cloning revealed a 100% identity between both samples and those registered in GenBank for A. marginale.

Conclusion

This is the first report and molecular identification of A. marginale in the bovine population of Ecuador and its prevalence was high at the level of farms and animals. These results demonstrate the importance of proceeding to evaluate and characterize bovine Anaplasmosis in Ecuador in order to establish control measures and reduce their impact.

]]>
<![CDATA[Establishment of serological test to detect antibody against ferret coronavirus]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bcca78840307c320e0bf1f1

Since there is no available serological methods to detect antibodies to ferret coronavirus (FRCoV), an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using recombinant partial nucleocapsid (N) proteins of the ferret coronavirus (FRCoV) Yamaguchi-1 strain was developed to establish a serological method for detection of FRCoV infection. Many serum samples collected from ferrets recognized both a.a. 1–179 and a.a. 180–374 of the N protein, but two serum samples did not a.a. 180–374 of the N protein. This different reactivity was also confirmed by immunoblot analysis using the serum from the ferret.Therefore, the a.a. 1–179 of the N protein was used as an ELISA antigen. Serological test was carried out using sera or plasma of ferrets in Japan. Surprisingly, 89% ferrets in Japan had been infected with FRCoV. These results indicated that our established ELISA using a.a. 1–179 of the N protein is useful for detection of antibody to FRCoV for diagnosis and seroepidemiology of FRCoV infection.

]]>
<![CDATA[The Effect of Tramadol and Indomethacin Coadministration on Gastric Barrier Function in Dogs]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bc2075f40307c07ea6f9c61

Background

Tramadol is a centrally acting analgesic that is often used in conjunction with nonsteroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The effect of coadministration of tramadol and indomethacin on gastric barrier function in dogs is unknown.

Hypothesis/Objectives

That coadministration of a nonselective NSAID (indomethacin) and tramadol would decrease recovery of barrier function as compared with acid‐injured, indomethacin‐treated, and tramadol‐treated mucosa.

Animals

Gastric mucosa of 10 humanely euthanized shelter dogs.

Methods

Ex vivo study. Mounted gastric mucosa was treated with indomethacin, tramadol, or both. Gastric barrier function, prostanoid production, and cyclooxygenase expression were quantified.

Results

Indomethacin decreased recovery of transepithelial electrical resistance after injury, although neither tramadol nor the coadministration of the two had an additional effect. Indomethacin inhibited production of gastroprotective prostanoids prostaglandin E2 (acid‐injured PGE 2: 509.3 ± 158.3 pg/mL, indomethacin + acid injury PGE 2: 182.9 ± 93.8 pg/mL, P < .001) and thromboxane B2 (acid‐injured TXB 2: 233.2 ± 90.7 pg/mL, indomethacin + acid injury TXB 2: 37.9 ± 16.8 pg/mL, P < .001), whereas tramadol had no significant effect (PGE 2 P = .713, TXB 2 P = .194). Neither drug had an effect on cyclooxygenase expression (COX‐1 P = .743, COX‐2 P = .705). Acid injury induced moderate to marked epithelial cell sloughing, which was unchanged by drug administration.

Conclusions and Clinical Importance

There was no apparent interaction of tramadol and a nonselective cyclooxygenase in this ex vivo model. These results suggest that if there is an adverse interaction of the 2 drugs in vivo, it is unlikely to be via prostanoid inhibition.

]]>
<![CDATA[Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Antibody Reactors Among Camels in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, in 2005]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5ba9e18940307c6c02ae8725

Summary

We tested, using a low starting dilution, sequential serum samples from dromedary camels, sheep and horses collected in Dubai from February/April to October of 2005 and from dromedary camels for export/import testing between Canada and USA in 2000–2001. Using a standard Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS‐CoV) neutralization test, serial sera from three sheep and three horses were all negative while sera from 9 of 11 dromedary camels from Dubai were positive for antibodies supported by similar results in a MERS‐CoV recombinant partial spike protein antibody ELISA. The two negative Dubai camels were both dromedary calves and remained negative over the 5 months studied. The six dromedary samples from USA and Canada were negative in both tests. These results support the recent findings that infection with MERS‐CoV or a closely related virus is not a new occurrence in camels in the Middle East. Therefore, interactions of MERS‐CoV at the human–animal interface may have been ongoing for several, perhaps many, years and by inference, a widespread pandemic may be less likely unless significant evolution of the virus allow accelerated infection and spread potential in the human population.

]]>
<![CDATA[Group B Betacoronavirus in Rhinolophid Bats, Japan]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5ba7a6d640307c3b857db7f6

We report group B Betacoronavirus infection in little Japanese horseshoe bats in Iwate prefecture. We then used reverse-transcription PCR to look for the coronavirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene in fecal samples collected from 27 little Japanese horseshoe bats and found eight were provisionally positive. We had a success in the nucleotide sequencing of six of the eight positive samples and compared them with those of authentic coronaviruses. We found that these six samples were positive in coronavirus infection, and they belonged to the group B Betacornavirus by phylogenetic analysis. Virus isolation using the Vero cell culture was unsuccessful. Pathogenic trait of these bat coronaviruses remained unexplored.

]]>
<![CDATA[Detection of Ascitic Feline Coronavirus RNA from Cats with Clinically Suspected Feline Infectious Peritonitis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5ba345af40307c109d111fb3

ABSTRACT

Ascitic feline coronavirus (FCoV) RNA was examined in 854 cats with suspected feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) by RT-PCR. The positivity was significantly higher in purebreds (62.2%) than in crossbreds (34.8%) (P<0.0001). Among purebreds, the positivities in the Norwegian forest cat (92.3%) and Scottish fold (77.6%) were significantly higher than the average of purebreds (P=0.0274 and 0.0251, respectively). The positivity was significantly higher in males (51.5%) than in females (35.7%) (P<0.0001), whereas no gender difference has generally been noted in FCoV antibody prevalence, indicating that FIP more frequently develops in males among FCoV-infected cats. Genotyping was performed for 377 gene-positive specimens. Type I (83.3%) was far more predominantly detected than type II (10.6%) (P<0.0001), similar to previous serological and genetic surveys.

]]>