ResearchPad - Geology https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Lake-depth related pattern of genetic and morphological diatom diversity in boreal Lake Bolshoe Toko, Eastern Siberia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N3e538c26-938b-46fc-81d6-ffac689cc377

Large, old and heterogenous lake systems are valuable sources of biodiversity. The analysis of current spatial variability within such lakes increases our understanding of the origin and establishment of biodiversity. The environmental sensitivity and the high taxonomic richness of diatoms make them ideal organisms to investigate intra-lake variability. We investigated modern intra-lake diatom diversity in the large and old sub-arctic Lake Bolshoe Toko in Siberia. Our study uses diatom-specific metabarcoding, applying a short rbcL marker combined with next-generation sequencing and morphological identification to analyse the diatom diversity in modern sediment samples of 17 intra-lake sites. We analysed abundance-based compositional taxonomic diversity and generic phylogenetic diversity to investigate the relationship of diatom diversity changes with water depth. The two approaches show differences in taxonomic identification and alpha diversity, revealing a generally higher diversity with the genetic approach. With respect to beta diversity and ordination analyses, both approaches result in similar patterns. Water depth or related lake environmental conditions are significant factors influencing intra-lake diatom patterns, showing many significant negative correlations between alpha and beta diversity and water depth. Further, one near-shore and two lagoon lake sites characterized by low (0-10m) and medium (10-30m) water depth are unusual with unique taxonomic compositions. At deeper (>30m) water sites we identified strongest phylogenetic clustering in Aulacoseira, but generally much less in Staurosira, which supports that water depth is a strong environmental filter on the Aulacoseira communities. Our study demonstrates the utility of combining analyses of genetic and morphological as well as phylogenetic diversity to decipher compositional and generic phylogenetic patterns, which are relevant in understanding intra-lake heterogeneity as a source of biodiversity in the sub-arctic glacial Lake Bolshoe Toko.

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<![CDATA[The southern Gulf of Mexico: A baseline radiocarbon isoscape of surface sediments and isotopic excursions at depth]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Ne8afb4d0-568f-42aa-84a3-644a9625edfc

The southern Gulf of Mexico (sGoM) is home to an extensive oil recovery and development infrastructure. In addition, the basin harbors sites of submarine hydrocarbon seepage and receives terrestrial inputs from bordering rivers. We used stable carbon, nitrogen, and radiocarbon analyses of bulk sediment organic matter to define the current baseline isoscapes of surface sediments in the sGoM and determined which factors might influence them. These baseline surface isoscapes will be useful for accessing future environmental impacts. We also examined the region for influence of hydrocarbon deposition in the sedimentary record that might be associated with hydrocarbon recovery, spillage and seepage, as was found in the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGoM) following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill in 2010. In 1979, the sGoM experienced a major oil spill, Ixtoc 1. Surface sediment δ13C values ranged from -22.4‰ to -19.9‰, while Δ14C values ranged from -337.1‰ to -69.2‰. Sediment δ15N values ranged from 2.8‰ to 7.2‰, while the %C on a carbonate-free basis ranged in value of 0.65% to 3.89% and %N ranged in value of 0.09% to 0.49%. Spatial trends for δ13C and Δ14C were driven by water depth and distance from the coastline, while spatial trends for δ15N were driven by location (latitude and longitude). Location and distance from the coastline were significantly correlated with %C and %N. At depth in two of twenty (10%) core profiles, we found negative δ13C and Δ14C excursions from baseline values in bulk sedimentary organic material, consistent with either oil-residue deposition or terrestrial inputs, but likely the latter. We then used 210Pb dating on those two profiles to determine the time in which the excursion-containing horizons were deposited. Despite the large spill in 1979, no evidence of hydrocarbon residue remained in the sediments from this specific time period.

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<![CDATA[Quartz, mica, and amphibole exsolution from majoritic garnet reveals ultra-deep sediment subduction, Appalachian orogen]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Ndf162629-f622-41d8-abb5-879c051784df

Garnet textures and chemistry identify ultrahigh-pressure metasedimentary rocks.

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<![CDATA[Critical transitions in Chinese dunes during the past 12,000 years]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N90288bd4-3d05-45ca-a669-d20da26cefc5

Like other complex systems, sand dunes alternate between stable states, which have coexisted for 12,000 years in northern China.

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<![CDATA[The Role of Crustal Buoyancy in the Generation and Emplacement of Magmatism During Continental Collision]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Ndcd87f00-8e1e-43c1-80a9-861fe954de26

Abstract

During continental collision, considerable amounts of buoyant continental crust subduct to depth and subsequently exhume. Whether various exhumation paths contribute to contrasting styles of magmatism across modern collision zones is unclear. Here we present 2D thermomechanical models of continental collision combined with petrological databases to investigate the effect of the main contrasting buoyancy forces, in the form of continental crustal buoyancy versus oceanic slab age (i.e., its thickness). We specifically focus on the consequences for crustal exhumation mechanisms and magmatism. Results indicate that it is mainly crustal density that determines the degree of steepening of the subducting continent and separates the models' parameter space into two regimes. In the first regime, high buoyancy values (∆ρ > 500 kg/m3) steepen the slab most rapidly (to 45–58°), leading to opening of a gap in the subduction channel through which the subducted crust exhumes (“subduction channel crustal exhumation”). A shift to a second regime (“underplating”) occurs when the density contrast is reduced by 50 kg/m3. In this scenario, the slab steepens less (to 37–50°), forcing subducted crust to be placed below the overriding plate. Importantly, the magmatism changes in the two cases: Crustal exhumation through the subduction channel is mainly accompanied by a narrow band of mantle melts, while underplating leads to widespread melting of mixed sources. Finally, we suggest that the amount (or density) of subducted continental crust, and the resulting buoyancy forces, could contribute to contrasting collision styles and magmatism in the Alps and Himalayas/Tibet.

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<![CDATA[Molecular identification of fungi microfossils in a Neoproterozoic shale rock]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N9f445783-cdac-4046-b22b-66c516a11fd3

We report the discovery of 715 to ca. 810 million–year–old fungal fossils through molecular characterization of vestigial chitin.

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<![CDATA[A PCA‐Based Framework for Determining Remotely Sensed Geological Surface Orientations and Their Statistical Quality]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N88586ae5-2186-427c-a894-c1fe793c1adb

The orientations of planar rock layers are fundamental to our understanding of structural geology and stratigraphy. Remote sensing platforms including satellites, unmanned aerial vehicles, and Light Detection and Ranging scanners are increasingly used to build three‐dimensional models of structural features on Earth and other planets. Remotely gathered orientation measurements are straightforward to calculate but subject to uncertainty inherited from input data, differences in viewing geometry, and the plane‐fitting process, complicating geological interpretation. Here, we improve upon the present state of the art by developing a generalized means for computing and reporting errors in strike‐dip measurements from remotely sensed data. We outline a general framework for representing the error space of uncertain orientations in Cartesian and spherical coordinates and develop a principal component analysis (PCA) regression method, which captures statistical errors independent of viewing geometry and input data structure. We also introduce graphical techniques to visualize the uniqueness and quality of orientation measurements and a process to increase statistical power by jointly fitting bedding planes under the assumption of parallel stratigraphy. These new techniques are validated by comparison of field‐gathered orientation measurements with those derived from minimally processed satellite imagery of the San Rafael Swell, Utah, and unmanned aerial vehicle imagery from the Naukluft Mountains, Namibia. We provide software packages supporting planar fitting and visualization of error distributions. This method increases the precision and comparability of structural measurements gathered using a new generation of remote sensing techniques.

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<![CDATA[Human traffic and habitat complexity are strong predictors for the distribution of a declining amphibian]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c8acce2d5eed0c484990222

Invasive species and habitat modification threaten California's native pond-breeding amphibians, including the federally threatened California Red-legged Frog (Rana draytonii). The relative contributions of invasive species, including the American Bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus), and of habitat changes to these declines are disputed. I conducted a field study over several years in central California to examine the presence/absence of these two species at 79 breeding ponds to determine the predictive role for occupancy of factors including vegetation, pond characteristics, and measures of human activity. I used a boosted regression tree approach to determine the relative value of each predictor variable. Increased measures of human activity, especially proximity to trails and roads, were the best predictors for the absence of California Red-legged Frogs and California Newts. Historical factors and habitat conditions were associated with the extent and spread of the American Bullfrog. The extent and complexity of aquatic macrophytes and pond surface area were good predictors for the presence of these and other amphibian species. Surprisingly, invasive species played a relatively small role in predicting pond occupancy by the native species. These findings can inform conservation and restoration efforts for California Red-legged Frogs, which apparently persist best in small vegetated ponds in areas of low human disturbance.

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<![CDATA[Geological significance of new zircon U–Pb geochronology and geochemistry: Niuxinshan intrusive complex, northern North China Craton]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c897791d5eed0c4847d303a

The Huajian gold deposit is one of the largest hydrothermal intrusion-related gold deposits in eastern Hebei Province, located in the northern margin of the North China Craton (NCC). The mineralization in this district displays a close spatial association with the shoshonitic Niuxinshan intrusive complex (NIC), which contributes to the characterization of the metallogeny associated with convergent margin magmatism. In the current study, new geochronological and geochemical data are combined with previously published isotopic data, obtained from the granitic rocks in the NIC, to constrain the timing of the district’s tectonic setting transformation and determine its bearing on regional metallogeny. The new geochronological data constrain the timing of the tectonic transformation between 155 and 185 Ma. The NIC’s granitic rocks can be geochemically subdivided into two groups. One group’s geochemical signature exhibits steep rare earth element (REE) patterns with negligible Eu anomalies, lower Yb, higher Sr, and negative Nb–Ta–Ti (NTT) anomalies, which indicate a volcanic-arc environment with a thickened crust in a convergent setting. The other group exhibits flat REE patterns with obvious negative Eu anomalies, higher Yb, lower Sr, and weak NTT anomalies, which indicate an intra-plate extensional environment with a thinning crust. Combining geochronologic and isotopic data, the mineralization is Late Jurassic (~155 Ma). This is interpreted to be genetically related to the crystallization of the shallow crustal-sourced portions of this complex. Additionally, a tectonic model is presented that provides a plausible explanation for the abundant polymetallic mineralization that occurs in the northern margin of the NCC after 155 Ma.

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<![CDATA[Sediment potentially controls in-lake phosphorus cycling and harmful cyanobacteria in shallow, eutrophic Utah Lake]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c6f1536d5eed0c48467aed8

Lakes worldwide are impacted by eutrophication and harmful algal or cyanobacteria blooms (HABs) due to excessive nutrients, including legacy P released from sediments in shallow lakes. Utah Lake (northern Utah, USA) is a shallow lake with urban development primarily on the east side of the watershed, providing an opportunity to evaluate HABs in relation to a gradient of legacy sediment P. In this study, we investigated sediment composition and P concentrations in sediment, pore water, and the water column in relation to blooms of harmful cyanobacteria species. Sediments on the east side of the lake had P concentrations up to 1710 mg/kg, corresponding to elevated P concentrations in pore water (up to 10.8 mg/L) and overlying water column (up to 1.7 mg/L). Sediment P concentrations were positively correlated with Fe2O3, CaO, and organic matter abundance, and inversely correlated with SiO2, demonstrating the importance of sediment composition for P sorption and mineral precipitation. Although the sediment contained <3% Fe2O3 by weight, approximately half of the sediment P was associated with redox-sensitive Fe oxide/hydroxide minerals that could be released to the water column under reducing conditions. Cyanobacteria cell counts indicate that blooms of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and Dolichospermum flosaquae species tend to occur on the east side of Utah Lake, corresponding to areas with elevated P concentrations in the sediment, pore water, and water column. Our findings suggest that shallow lake eutrophication may be a function of P in legacy sediments that contribute to observed HABs in specific locations of shallow lakes.

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<![CDATA[A new African Titanosaurian Sauropod Dinosaur from the middle Cretaceous Galula Formation (Mtuka Member), Rukwa Rift Basin, Southwestern Tanzania]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c6dca2ad5eed0c48452a874

The African terrestrial fossil record has been limited in its contribution to our understanding of both regional and global Cretaceous paleobiogeography, an interval of significant geologic and macroevolutionary change. A common component in Cretaceous African faunas, titanosaurian sauropods diversified into one of the most specious groups of dinosaurs worldwide. Here we describe the new titanosaurian Mnyamawamtuka moyowamkia gen. et sp. nov. from the Mtuka Member of the Galula Formation in southwest Tanzania. The new specimen preserves teeth, elements from all regions of the postcranial axial skeleton, parts of both appendicular girdles, and portions of both limbs including a complete metatarsus. Unique traits of M. moyowamkia include the lack of an interpostzygapophyseal lamina in posterior dorsal vertebrae, pronounced posterolateral expansion of middle caudal centra, and an unusually small sternal plate. Phylogenetic analyses consistently place M. moyowamkia as either a close relative to lithostrotian titanosaurians (e.g., parsimony, uncalibrated Bayesian analyses) or as a lithostrotian and sister taxon to Malawisaurus dixeyi from the nearby Aptian? Dinosaur Beds of Malawi (e.g., tip-dating Bayesian analyses). M. moyowamkia shares a few features with M. dixeyi, including semi-spatulate teeth and a median lamina between the neural canal and interpostzygapophyseal lamina in anterior dorsal vertebrae. Both comparative morphology and phylogenetic analyses support Mnyamawamtuka as a distinct and distant relative to Rukwatitan bisepultus and Shingopana songwensis from the younger Namba Member of the Galula Formation with these results largely congruent with newly constrained ages for the Mtuka Member (Aptian–Cenomanian) and Namba Member (Campanian). Coupled with recent discoveries from the Dahkla Oasis, Egypt (e.g., Mansourasaurus shahinae) and other parts of continental Afro-Arabia, the Tanzania titanosaurians refine perspectives on the development of African terrestrial faunas throughout the Cretaceous—a critical step in understanding non-marine paleobiogeographic patterns of Africa that have remained elusive until the past few years.

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<![CDATA[Population dynamics and socio-spatial organization of the Aurignacian: Scalable quantitative demographic data for western and central Europe]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c6dc991d5eed0c484529e40

Demographic estimates are presented for the Aurignacian techno-complex (~42,000 to 33,000 y calBP) and discussed in the context of socio-spatial organization of hunter-gatherer populations. Results of the analytical approach applied estimate a mean of 1,500 persons (upper limit: 3,300; lower limit: 800) for western and central Europe. The temporal and spatial analysis indicates an increase of the population during the Aurignacian as well as marked regional differences in population size and density. Demographic increase and patterns of socio-spatial organization continue during the subsequent early Gravettian period. We introduce the concept of Core Areas and Extended Areas as informed analytical spatial scales, which are evaluated against additional chronological and archaeological data. Lithic raw material transport and personal ornaments serve as correlates for human mobility and connectedness in the interpretative framework of this study. Observed regional differences are set in relation with the new demographic data. Our large-scale approach on Aurignacian population dynamics in Europe suggests that past socio-spatial organization followed socially inherent rules to establish and maintain a functioning social network of extremely low population densities. The data suggest that the network was fully established across Europe during the early phase of the Gravettian, when demographic as well as cultural developments peaked.

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<![CDATA[Comparisons of Schansitherium tafeli with Samotherium boissieri (Giraffidae, Mammalia) from the Late Miocene of Gansu Province, China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c6c7573d5eed0c4843cfdbf

We are describing and figuring for the first time skulls of Schansitherium tafeli, which are abundant in the Gansu area of China from the Late Miocene. They were animals about the size of Samotherium with shorter necks that had two pairs of ossicones that merge at the base, which is unlike Samotherium. The anterior ossicones consist of anterior lineations, which may represent growth lines. They were likely mixed feeders similar to Samotherium. Schansitherium is tentatively placed in a very close position to Samotherium. Samotherium and Schansitherium represent a pair of morphologically very similar species that likely coexisted similarly to pairs of modern species, where the main difference is in the ossicones. Pairs of ruminants in Africa, for example, exist today that differ mostly in their horn shape but otherwise are similar in size, shape, and diet. The absence of Schansitherium from Europe is interesting, however, as Samotherium is found in both locations. While is it challenging to interpret neck length and ossicone shape in terms of function in combat, we offer our hypothesis as to how the two species differed in their fighting techniques.

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<![CDATA[Potential risk of Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans in Mexico]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c6c759ad5eed0c4843cff09

The recent decline in populations of European salamanders caused by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) has generated worldwide concern, as it is a major threat to amphibians. Evaluation of the areas most suitable for the establishment of Bsal combined with analysis of the distribution of salamander species could be used to generate and implement biosecurity measures and protect biodiversity at sites with high salamander diversity. In this study, we identified the areas most suitable for the establishment of Bsal in Mexico. Mexico has the second-highest salamander species diversity in the world; thus, we identified areas moderately to highly suitable for the establishment of Bsal with high salamander diversity as potential hotspots for surveillance. Central and Southern Mexico were identified as high-risk zones, with 13 hotspots where 30% of Mexican salamander species occur, including range-restricted species and endangered species. We propose that these hotspots should be thoroughly monitored for the presence of Bsal to prevent the spread of the pathogen if it is introduced to the country.

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<![CDATA[Large-scale micron-order 3D surface correlative chemical imaging of ancient Roman concrete]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c648d0ed5eed0c484c81e67

There has been significant progress in recent years aimed at the development of new analytical techniques for investigating structure-function relationships in hierarchically ordered materials. Inspired by these technological advances and the potential for applying these approaches to the study of construction materials from antiquity, we present a new set of high throughput characterization tools for investigating ancient Roman concrete, which like many ancient construction materials, exhibits compositional heterogeneity and structural complexity across multiple length scales. The detailed characterization of ancient Roman concrete at each of these scales is important for understanding its mechanics, resilience, degradation pathways, and for making informed decisions regarding its preservation. In this multi-scale characterization investigation of ancient Roman concrete samples collected from the ancient city of Privernum (Priverno, Italy), cm-scale maps with micron-scale features were collected using multi-detector energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and confocal Raman microscopy on both polished cross-sections and topographically complex fracture surfaces to extract both bulk and surface information. Raman spectroscopy was used for chemical profiling and phase characterization, and data collected using EDS was used to construct ternary diagrams to supplement our understanding of the different phases. We also present a methodology for correlating data collected using different techniques on the same sample at different orientations, which shows remarkable potential in using complementary characterization approaches in the study of heterogeneous materials with complex surface topographies.

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<![CDATA[The optical and biological properties of glacial meltwater in an Antarctic fjord]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c648cc0d5eed0c484c816dd

As the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) region responds to a warmer climate, the impacts of glacial meltwater on the Southern Ocean are expected to intensify. The Antarctic Peninsula fjord system offers an ideal system to understand meltwater’s properties, providing an extreme in the meltwater’s spatial gradient from the glacio-marine boundary to the WAP continental shelf. Glacial meltwater discharge in Arctic and Greenland fjords is typically characterized as relatively lower temperature, fresh and with high turbidity. During two cruises conducted in December 2015 and April 2016 in Andvord Bay, we found a water lens of low salinity and low temperature along the glacio-marine interface. Oxygen isotope ratios identified this water lens as a mixture of glacial ice and deep water in Gerlache Strait suggesting this is glacial meltwater. Conventional hydrographic measurements were combined with optical properties to effectively quantify its spatial extent. Fine suspended sediments associated with meltwater (nanoparticles of ~ 5nm) had a significant impact on the underwater light field and enabled the detection of meltwater characteristics and spatial distribution. In this study, we illustrate that glacial meltwater in Andvord Bay alters the inherent and apparent optical properties of the water column, and develop statistical models to predict the meltwater content from hydrographic and optical measurements. The predicted meltwater fraction is in good agreement with in-situ values. These models offer a potential for remote sensing and high-resolution detection of glacial meltwater in Antarctic waters. Furthermore, the possible influence of meltwater on phytoplankton abundance in the surface is highlighted; a significant correlation is found between meltwater fraction and chlorophyll concentration.

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<![CDATA[Slow slip events in the roots of the San Andreas fault]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c8014d0d5eed0c484a9e442

By analyzing GPS time series, we have detected an averaged Mw 4.9 slow slip event in the roots of the San Andreas fault.

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<![CDATA[Long-term magmatic evolution reveals the beginning of a new caldera cycle at Campi Flegrei]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c801361d5eed0c484a9c1ce

The Campi Flegrei magma reservoir is entering a new built-up phase that may culminate in the future in a caldera-forming eruption.

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<![CDATA[High rates of apoptosis visualized in the symbiont-bearing gills of deep-sea Bathymodiolus mussels]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c61e8c2d5eed0c48496f0dc

Symbiosis between Bathymodiolus and Gammaproteobacteria allows these deep-sea mussels to live in toxic environments such as hydrothermal vents and cold seeps. The quantity of endosymbionts within the gill-bacteriocytes appears to vary according to the hosts environment; however, the mechanisms of endosymbiont population size regulation remain obscure. We investigated the possibility of a control of endosymbiont density by apoptosis, a programmed cell death, in three mussel species. Fluorometric TUNEL and active Caspase-3-targeting antibodies were used to visualize and quantify apoptotic cells in mussel gills. To control for potential artefacts due to depressurization upon specimen recovery from the deep-sea, the apoptotic rates between mussels recovered unpressurised, versus mussels recovered in a pressure-maintaining device, were compared in two species from hydrothermal vents on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge: Bathymodiolus azoricus and B. puteoserpentis. Results show that pressurized recovery had no significant effect on the apoptotic rate in the gill filaments. Apoptotic levels were highest in the ciliated zone and in the circulating hemocytes, compared to the bacteriocyte zone. Apoptotic gill-cells in B. aff. boomerang from cold seeps off the Gulf of Guinea show similar distribution patterns. Deep-sea symbiotic mussels have much higher rates of apoptosis in their gills than the coastal mussel Mytilus edulis, which lacks chemolithoautotrophic symbionts. We discuss how apoptosis might be one of the mechanisms that contribute to the adaptation of deep-sea mussels to toxic environments and/or to symbiosis.

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<![CDATA[Towards a sampling design for characterizing habitat-specific benthic biodiversity related to oxygen flux dynamics using Aquatic Eddy Covariance]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c61e8b6d5eed0c48496f005

The Aquatic Eddy Covariance (AEC) technique has emerged as an important method to quantify in situ seafloor metabolism over large areas of heterogeneous benthic communities, enabling cross-habitat comparisons of seafloor productivity. However, the lack of a corresponding sampling protocol to perform biodiversity comparisons across habitats is impeding a full assessment of marine ecosystem metabolism. Here, we study a range of coastal benthic habitats, from rocky-bed communities defined by either perennial macroalgae or blue mussel beds to soft-sediment communities comprised of either seagrass, patches of different macrophyte species or bare sand. We estimated that the maximum contribution to the AEC metabolic flux can be found for a seafloor area of approximately 80 m2 with a 5 meter upstream distance of the instrument across all the habitats. We conducted a sampling approach to characterize and quantify the dominant features of biodiversity (i.e., community biomass) within the main seafloor area of maximum metabolic contribution (i.e., gross primary production and community respiration) measured by the AEC. We documented a high biomass contribution of the macroalgal Fucus vesiculosus, the seagrass Zostera marina and the macroinvertebrate Mytilus edulis to the net ecosystem metabolism of the habitats. We also documented a significant role of the bare sediments for primary productivity compared to vegetated canopies of the soft sediments. The AEC also provided insight into dynamic short-term drivers of productivity such as PAR availability and water flow velocity for the productivity estimate. We regard this study as an important step forward, setting a framework for upcoming research focusing on linking biodiversity metrics and AEC flux measurements across habitats.

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