ResearchPad - Geriatrics and Gerontology https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Neuropsychiatric symptoms as risk factors of dementia in a Mexican population: A 10/66 Dementia Research Group study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b4c5d50463d7e09f8ec4a8c

Introduction

Cognitive and/or memory impairment are the main clinical markers currently used to identify subjects at risk of developing dementia. This study aimed to explore the relationship between the presence of neuropsychiatric symptoms and dementia incidence.

Methods

We analyzed the association between neuropsychiatric symptoms and incident dementia in a cohort of 1355 Mexican older adults from the general population over 3 years of follow-up, modeling cumulative incidence ratios using Poisson models.

Results

Five neuropsychiatric symptoms were associated with incident dementia: delusions, hallucinations, anxiety, aberrant motor behavior, and depression. The simultaneous presence of two symptoms had a relative risk, adjusted for mild cognitive impairment, diabetes, indicators of cognitive function, and sociodemographic factors, of 1.9 (95% confidence interval, 1.2–2.9), whereas the presence of three to five, similarly adjusted, had a relative risk of 3.0 (95% confidence interval, 1.9–4.8).

Discussion

Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common in predementia states and may independently contribute as risk factors for developing dementia.

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<![CDATA[Enhanced recovery after surgery—ERAS—principles, practice and feasibility in the elderly]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b4c41bf463d7e06c7b529dc

This is a short overview of the principles of a novel development in surgery called enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) programs. This is an evidence-based approach to perioperative care that has shown to reduce complications and recovery time by 30–50%. The main mechanism is reduction of the stress reactions to the operation. These principles have been shown to be particularly well suited for the compromised patient and hence very good for the elderly people who often have co-morbidities and run a higher risk of complications.

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<![CDATA[How much do combined affective and cognitive impairments worsen rehabilitation outcomes after hip fracture ?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b4c1f95463d7e045e4d94a4

Background

To investigate the association between isolated and combined affective and cognitive impairments with functional outcomes and discharge destination in older patients admitted to rehabilitation after a hip fracture.

Methods

Prospective study in 612 community-dwelling patients aged 65 years and over, admitted to rehabilitation after surgery for hip fracture. Information on socio-demographics, medical, functional, affective, and cognitive status was systematically collected at admission. Functional status, length of stay and destination were assessed at discharge. Functional improvement was defined as any gain on the Barthel Index score between admission and discharge from rehabilitation.

Results

At admission, 8.2% of the patients had isolated affective impairment, 27.5% had cognitive impairment only, and 7.5% had combined impairments. Rate of functional improvement steadily decreased from 91.2% in patients with no cognitive nor affective impairment to 73.8% in those with combined impairments. Compared to patients without any impairment, those with combined impairments had lower odds of functional improvement, even after adjustment for age, gender, health and functional status at admission (adjOR: 0.40; 95%CI: 0.16–1.0; p = .049). The proportion of patients discharged back home gradually decreased from 82.8% among patients without any impairment to only 45.6% in patients with combined impairments. In multivariate analysis, the odds of returning home remained significantly reduced in these latter patients (adjOR: 0.31; 95%CI:0.15–0.66; p = .002).

Conclusions

Affective and cognitive impairments had both independent, and synergistic negative association with functional outcome and discharge destination in patients admitted to rehabilitation after a hip fracture. Nevertheless, patients with combined affective and cognitive impairments still achieved significant functional improvement, even though its magnitude was reduced. Further studies should investigate whether these patients would benefit from better targeted, longer, or more intensive rehabilitation interventions to optimize their functional recovery.

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<![CDATA[Social factors and quality of life aspects on frailty syndrome in community-dwelling older adults: the VERISAÚDE study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b4bd857463d7e7e0dcdb899

Background

Frailty is a multidimensional clinical geriatric syndrome that may be reversed in its early stages. Most studies have paid attention to its physical or phenotypic boundaries, however, little is known about the social aspects surrounding this geriatric syndrome. The study examined the relationship between socio-demographic factors, social resources, quality of life and frailty in older adults.

Methods

This cross-sectional study included a representative sample (n = 749) of adults aged ≥65 years enrolled in forty-three senior centers located in North-West Spain. Socio-demographic data, social resources by the Older Americans Resources and Services Scale, quality of life by the World Health Organization’s Quality of Life measure-brief version (WHOQOL-BREF), and frailty status diagnosed by the Frailty phenotype were measured.

Results

Female gender, age older than 75 years, single marital status, a poor quality of life, and low scores in the physical health domain of the WHOQOL-BREF were the main determinants of being non-robust. Together, these variables explained 24.4% of the variance. Age between 80 and 89 years, and a poor quality of life were the main determinants for non-robust men, whilst the physical health domain of the WHOQOL-BREF was the single main determinant for women.

Conclusions

Our study found evidence that physical frailty is associated with social determinants and several quality of life domains. More research on this understudied topic is needed to avoid healthcare expenditures and improve the quality of life of non-robust elders.

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<![CDATA[Clinical utility of the revised cardiac risk index in older Chinese patients with known coronary artery disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b476793463d7e6ff2423d78

Objectives

The revised Cardiac Risk Index (RCRI) is the most widely used risk prediction tool for postoperative cardiac adverse events. We aim to explore the predictive ability of the RCRI in older Chinese patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing noncardiac surgery, which has not been previously evaluated.

Methods

We performed a multicenter, prospective study. We enrolled a total of 1,202 patients, aged >60 years, with a history of CAD who underwent noncardiac surgery. Perioperative data were extracted from an electronic database. The primary end point was defined as an occurrence of a postoperative major cardiac event (PoMCE) within 30 days. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the performance of the RCRI. A modified RCRI was created and compared with the original RCRI with regard to its ability to predict postoperative cardiac events.

Results

Of the enrolled patients, 4.3% experienced PoMCE. Most components of the RCRI were not predictive of postoperative cardiac events with the exception of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (odds ratio =2.38, 95% CI: 1.11–5.11; P=0.03). The RCRI performed no better than chance (area under the curve =0.53; 95% CI: 0.45–0.61) in identifying patients’ cardiac risk. The modified score had a higher discriminatory ability toward PoMCE (c index, 0.69 versus 0.53; P<0.01).

Conclusion

The original RCRI shows poor predictive ability in Chinese patients with CAD undergoing noncardiac surgery.

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<![CDATA[Intrahippocampal glucocorticoids generated by 11β-HSD1 affect memory in aged mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b472116463d7e6b4f5a4589

11Beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) locally amplifies active glucocorticoids within specific tissues including in brain. In the hippocampus, 11β-HSD1 messenger RNA increases with aging. Here, we report significantly greater increases in intrahippocampal corticosterone (CORT) levels in aged wild-type (WT) mice during the acquisition and retrieval trials in a Y-maze than age-matched 11β-HSD1−/− mice, corresponding to impaired and intact spatial memory, respectively. Acute stress applied to young WT mice led to increases in intrahippocampal CORT levels similar to the effects of aging and impaired retrieval of spatial memory. 11β-HSD1−/− mice resisted the stress-induced memory impairment. Pharmacologic inhibition of 11β-HSD1 abolished increases in intrahippocampal CORT levels during the Y-maze trials and prevented spatial memory impairments in aged WT mice. These data provide the first in vivo evidence that dynamic increases in hippocampal 11β-HSD1 regenerated CORT levels during learning and retrieval play a key role in age- and stress-associated impairments of spatial memory.

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<![CDATA[Informal care relationships and residential aged care recommendations: evidence from administrative data]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b46cd2c463d7e6446d0e40a

Background

The Australian government recognises the importance of informal care to enable ageing in place. Yet, few multivariable studies have examined aspects of informal care that alter the probability of entry to residential care in Australia. Existing Australian and international studies show differing effects of informal care on entry to residential care.

Methods

We utilise unique administrative data on aged care assessments collected from 2010 to 2013, consisting of 280,000 persons aged 65 and over. Logistic regression models were fitted to measure the propensity to be recommended care in a residential care setting, disaggregated by characteristics of informal care provision.

Results

Providing some explanation for the divergent findings in the literature, we show that close familial carer relationships (partner or child) and coresidence are associated with recommendations to live in the community. Weaker non-coresidential friend or neighbour carer relationships are associated with recommendations to live in residential care for women, as are non-coresidential other relatives (not a child, partner or in-law) for both males and females. Non-coresident carers who are in-laws (for females) or parents have no impact on assessor recommendations. Despite these significant differences, health conditions and assistance needs play a strong role in assessor recommendations about entry to residential care.

Conclusion

Co-resident care clearly plays an important protective role in residential care admission. Government policy should consider the need for differential supports for co-resident carers as part of future aged care reform.

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<![CDATA[Mortality and Financial Burden of Periprosthetic Fractures of the Femur]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bc4a70640307c3d1c48213e

Objective:

This study examines patient factors to identify risks of 12-month mortality following periprosthetic femur fractures. Hospital charges were analyzed to quantify the financial burden for treatment modalities.

Methods:

Data were retrospectively analyzed from a prospective database at a university hospital setting. One-hundred and thirteen patients with a periprosthetic fracture of the proximal or distal femur were identified. Risk factors for 12-month mortality were analyzed, and financial data were compared between the various treatment modalities.

Results:

In all, 14% of patients died (16 of 113) within 3 months and the 1-year mortality was 17.7% (20 of 113). Patients who died within 1 year had higher hospital charges (US$33 880 ± 25 051 vs US$22 886 ± 16 841; P = .01) and were older (87.6 ± 8.5 vs 81.5 ± 8.6; P = .004). Logistic regression analysis revealed age was the only significant predictor of 1-year mortality (P = .029, odds ratio 1.1). Analysis of financial data revealed 4 distinct groups (P < .05 between groups). Distal femoral revision arthroplasty (RA-DF) generated the highest hospital charges of US$91 035 ± 25 579 (n = 3). The second most highly charged group included proximal femoral fractures treated with revision arthroplasty (US$34 078 ± 17 832; n = 20) and hemi/total hip arthroplasty (THA; US$41 556 ± 23 651; n = 8). The third most charged group underwent open reduction internal fixation of the proximal (US$18 706 ± 6829; n = 35) and distal (US$22 381 ± 10 835; n = 35) femur. Nonoperative treatment generated the lowest charges (US$6426 ± 2899; n = 11). On average, the hospital lost money treating patients with RA-DF (US$−19 080 ± 2022 per patient) and hemi/THA (US$−6594 ± 9305 per patient), while all other treatment groups were profitable.

Conclusion:

One-year mortality after periprosthetic femur fractures was 17.7%, is mostly influenced by age, and 80% of deaths occur within 3 months. Patients treated with primary/revision arthroplasty generate more hospital charges than internal fixation. The average patient treated with revision arthroplasty of the distal femur or hemi/THA for a periprosthetic femur fractures resulted in net financial losses for the hospital.

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<![CDATA[SIRT3 overexpression antagonizes high glucose accelerated cellular senescence in human diploid fibroblasts via the SIRT3–FOXO1 signaling pathway]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5ba02cff40307c5317cae7b6

Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) is one of the seven mammalian sirtuins, which are homologs of the yeast Sir2 gene. SIRT3 is the only sirtuin reported to be associated with human life span. Many recent studies have indicated that SIRT3 levels are elevated by exercise and caloric restriction, but whether SIRT3 influences cell senescence under stressed conditions in human diploid fibroblasts has not been established. Our data showed that expression of SIRT3 is elevated in human diploid fibroblasts under low glucose (3.3 mM glucose) growth conditions and decreased under high glucose (25 mM glucose) growth conditions. We have demonstrated that SIRT3 interacts with forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1). High glucose levels also increased aging phenotypes and FOXO1 acetylation level. We have demonstrated that overexpression of SIRT3 under high glucose conditions reduces FOXO1 acetylation, suggesting that deacetylation of FOXO1 by SIRT3 elevates the expression of the FOXO1 target genes, catalase, and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) while decreasing senescence phenotypes. We studied the effects of SIRT3 protein knockdown by shRNA under low glucose conditions. The data showed that shRNA-SIRT3 accelerated senescence phenotypes and acetylation of FOXO1; the expression level of catalase and MnSOD decreased compared with the control group. As a consequence, SIRT3 antagonized cellular senescence with the characteristic features of delayed SA-β-gal staining, senescence-associated heterochromatin foci (SAHF) formation, and p16INK4A expression. These results demonstrate for the first time that SIRT3 overexpression antagonizes high glucose-induced cellular senescence in human diploid fibroblasts via the SIRT3–FOXO1 signaling pathway.

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<![CDATA[Phospholipid composition and longevity: lessons from Ames dwarf mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5ba02d0340307c5317cae7b8

Membrane fatty acid (FA) composition is correlated with longevity in mammals. The “membrane pacemaker hypothesis of ageing” proposes that animals which cellular membranes contain high amounts of polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) have shorter life spans because their membranes are more susceptible to peroxidation and further oxidative damage. It remains to be shown, however, that long-lived phenotypes such as the Ames dwarf mouse have membranes containing fewer PUFAs and thus being less prone to peroxidation, as would be predicted from the membrane pacemaker hypothesis of ageing. Here, we show that across four different tissues, i.e., muscle, heart, liver and brain as well as in liver mitochondria, Ames dwarf mice possess membrane phospholipids containing between 30 and 60 % PUFAs (depending on the tissue), which is similar to PUFA contents of their normal-sized, short-lived siblings. However, we found that that Ames dwarf mice membrane phospholipids were significantly poorer in n-3 PUFAs. While lack of a difference in PUFA contents is contradicting the membrane pacemaker hypothesis, the lower n-3 PUFAs content in the long-lived mice provides some support for the membrane pacemaker hypothesis of ageing, as n-3 PUFAs comprise those FAs being blamed most for causing oxidative damage. By comparing tissue composition between 1-, 2- and 6-month-old mice in both phenotypes, we found that membranes differed both in quantity of PUFAs and in the prevalence of certain PUFAs. In sum, membrane composition in the Ames dwarf mouse supports the concept that tissue FA composition is related to longevity.

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<![CDATA[Is cochlear implantation a good treatment method for profoundly deafened elderly?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b9f6f5740307c25d918c4bf

Purpose

To assess the benefits of cochlear implantation in the elderly.

Patients and methods

A retrospective analysis of 31 postlingually deafened elderly (≥60 years of age) with unilateral cochlear implants was conducted. Audiological testing included preoperative and postoperative pure-tone audiometry and a monosyllabic word recognition test presented from recorded material in free field. Speech perception tests included Ling’s six sound test (sound detection, discrimination, and identification), syllable discrimination, and monosyllabic and multisyllabic word recognition (open set) without lip-reading. Everyday life benefits from cochlear implantation were also evaluated.

Results

The mean age at the time of cochlear implantation was 72.4 years old. The mean postimplantation follow-up time was 2.34 years. All patients significantly improved their audiological and speech understanding performances. The preoperative mean pure-tone average threshold for 500 Hz, 1,000 Hz, 2,000 Hz, and 4,000 Hz was 110.17 dB HL. Before cochlear implantation, all patients scored 0% on the monosyllabic word recognition test in free field at 70 dB SPL intensity level. The postoperative pure-tone average was 37.14 dB HL (the best mean threshold was 17.50 dB HL, the worst was 58.75 dB HL). After the surgery, mean monosyllabic word recognition reached 47.25%. Speech perception tests showed statistically significant improvement in speech recognition.

Conclusion

The results of this study showed that cochlear implantation is indeed a successful treatment for improving speech recognition and offers a great help in everyday life to deafened elderly patients. Therefore, they can be good candidates for cochlear implantation and their age alone should not be a relevant or excluding factor when choosing candidates for cochlear implantation.

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<![CDATA[Heritability of a skeletal biomarker of biological aging]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b7d0c7e463d7e3157f9a0c9

Changes in the skeletal system, which include age-related bone and joint remodeling, can potentially be used as a biomarker of biological aging. The aim of the present study was to investigate the extent and mode of inheritance of skeletal biomarker of biological aging—osseographic score (OSS), in a large sample of ethnically homogeneous pedigrees. The investigated cohort comprised 359 Chuvashian families and included 787 men aged 18–89 years (mean 46.9) and 723 women aged 18–90 years (mean 48.5). The TOSS - transformed OSS standardized in 5-year age groups for each sex, was analyzed as a BA index. We evaluated familial correlations and performed segregation analysis. Results of our study suggest the familial aggregations of TOSS variation in the Chuvashian pedigrees. In a segregation analysis we found a significant major gene (MG) effect in the individual’s TOSS with a dominant most parsimonious model (H2 = 0.32). Genetic factors (MG genotypes) explained 47% of the residual OSS variance after age adjustment and after including sex-genotype interaction, they explained 52% of the residual variance. Results of our study also indicated that the inherited difference in the skeletal aging pattern in men lies mostly in the rate of aging, but in women in the age of the onset of the period of visible skeletal changes.

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<![CDATA[Intergenerational support among migrant families in Europe]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b0262cd463d7e570ccba44d

Intergenerational support is important throughout the individual life course and a major mechanism of cultural continuity. In this study, we analyse support between older parents and their adult children among international migrant and non-migrant populations in North, Centre and Southern Europe. Data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe are used to compare upward and downward practical support, grandparenting, and frequency of contact among 62,213 parent–child dyads. Findings indicate limited differences in support between migrants and non-migrants as well as between migrants of various origins. However, persistent differences in intergenerational support across Europe along a north–south gradient are found irrespective of migrant status.

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<![CDATA[Frailty and mortality are not influenced by mitochondrial DNA haplotypes in the very old]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5ad1cfca463d7e1bb7aa3cc3

Inherited genetic variation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) could account for the missing heritability of human longevity and healthy aging. Here, we show no robust association between common genetic variants of mtDNA and frailty (an “unhealthy aging” phenotype) or mortality in 700, more than 85-year-old, participants of the Newcastle 85+ study. Conflicting data from different populations underscore our conclusion that there is currently no compelling link between inherited mtDNA variants and aging.

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<![CDATA[Age-related reduction of cerebral ischemic preconditioning: myth or reality?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5ace90ef463d7e2992568bc0

Stroke is one of the leading causes of death in industrialized countries for people older than 65 years of age. The reasons are still unclear. A reduction of endogenous mechanisms against ischemic insults has been proposed to explain this phenomenon. The “cerebral” ischemic preconditioning mechanism is characterized by a brief episode of ischemia that renders the brain more resistant against subsequent longer ischemic events. This ischemic tolerance has been shown in numerous experimental models of cerebral ischemia. This protective mechanism seems to be reduced with aging both in experimental and clinical studies. Alterations of mediators released and/or intracellular pathways may be responsible for age-related ischemic preconditioning reduction. Agents able to mimic the “cerebral” preconditioning effect may represent a new powerful tool for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke in the elderly. In this article, animal and human cerebral ischemic preconditioning, its age-related difference, and its potential therapeutical applications are discussed.

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<![CDATA[Clearance of the mutant androgen receptor in motoneuronal models of spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5ace7a0f463d7e1617a11974

Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is an X-linked motoneuron disease caused by an abnormal expansion of a tandem CAG repeat in exon 1 of the androgen receptor (AR) gene that results in an abnormally long polyglutamine tract (polyQ) in the AR protein. As a result, the mutant AR (ARpolyQ) misfolds, forming cytoplasmic and nuclear aggregates in the affected neurons. Neurotoxicity only appears to be associated with the formation of nuclear aggregates. Thus, improved ARpolyQ cytoplasmic clearance, which indirectly decreases ARpolyQ nuclear accumulation, has beneficial effects on affected motoneurons. In addition, increased ARpolyQ clearance contributes to maintenance of motoneuron proteostasis and viability, preventing the blockage of the proteasome and autophagy pathways that might play a role in the neuropathy in SBMA. The expression of heat shock protein B8 (HspB8), a member of the small heat shock protein family, is highly induced in surviving motoneurons of patients affected by motoneuron diseases, where it seems to participate in the stress response aimed at cell protection. We report here that HspB8 facilitates the autophagic removal of misfolded aggregating species of ARpolyQ. In addition, though HspB8 does not influence p62 and LC3 (two key autophagic molecules) expression, it does prevent p62 bodies formation, and restores the normal autophagic flux in these cells. Interestingly, trehalose, a well-known autophagy stimulator, induces HspB8 expression, suggesting that HspB8 might act as one of the molecular mediators of the proautophagic activity of trehalose. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that treatments aimed at restoring a normal autophagic flux that result in the more efficient clearance of mutant ARpolyQ might produce beneficial effects in SBMA patients.

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<![CDATA[Evidence for the long term cost effectiveness of home care reablement programs]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5ace246b463d7e741326167c

Background

The objectives of this study were to determine whether older individuals who participated in a reablement (restorative) program rather than immediately receiving conventional home care services had a reduced need for ongoing support and lower home care costs over the next 57 months (nearly 5 years).

Materials and methods

Data linkage was used to examine retrospectively the service records of older individuals who had received a reablement service versus a conventional home care service to ascertain their use of home care services over time.

Results

Individuals who had received a reablement service were less likely to use a personal care service throughout the follow-up period or any other type of home care over the next 3 years. This reduced use of home care services was associated with median cost savings per person of approximately AU $12,500 over nearly 5 years.

Conclusion

The inclusion of reablement as the starting point for individuals referred for home care within Australia’s reformed aged care system could increase the system’s cost effectiveness and ensure that all older Australians have the opportunity to maximize their independence as they age.

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<![CDATA[Effect of Memo&reg;, a natural formula combination, on Mini-Mental State Examination scores in patients with mild cognitive impairment]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5acd2fea463d7e7d9329eb6b

Background

Mild cognitive impairment encompasses the clinical continuum between physiologic age-related cognitive changes and dementia. A variety of medications, including herbal preparations (in particular Ginkgo biloba and Panax ginseng), have been advocated as treatments for cognitive impairment in the elderly. In this study, we investigated the effect of an already marketed dietary supplement (Memo®) combining 750 mg of lyophilized royal jelly with standardized extracts of G. biloba 120 mg and P. ginseng 150 mg on Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores in patients with mild cognitive impairment.

Methods

Sixty-six subjects presenting with forgetfulness and satisfying the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) clinical criteria for mild cognitive impairment were randomly divided into an experimental group treated with one Memo capsule before breakfast daily for 4 weeks and a control group who took placebo. The mean change in MMSE score from baseline and reported adverse effects were compared between the two groups.

Results

The mean change in MMSE score in the group treated with Memo for 4 weeks was significantly greater than in the control group (+2.07 versus +0.13, respectively) by the Student’s t-test (t = 6.485, P < 0.0001). This was also true after adjusting for age as a covariate and educational level as a factor nested within the treatment groups in a general linear model (analysis of covariance, F = 9.675 [corrected model], P < 0.0001).

Conclusion

This combined triple formula may be beneficial in treating the cognitive decline that occurs during the aging process as well as in the early phases of pathologic cognitive impairment typical of insidious-onset vascular dementia and in the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease. Larger-sized studies with longer treatment durations are needed to confirm this.

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<![CDATA[Evaluation of clinical pharmacist recommendations in the geriatric ward of a Belgian university hospital]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5acc5512463d7e4085c546f2

Objective

To evaluate the type, acceptance rate, and clinical relevance of clinical pharmacist recommendations at the geriatric ward of the Ghent university hospital.

Methods

The clinical pharmacist evaluated drug use during a weekly 2-hour visit for a period of 4 months and, if needed, made recommendations to the prescribing physician. The recommendations were classified according to type, acceptance by the physician, prescribed medication, and underlying drug-related problem. Appropriateness of prescribing was assessed using the Medication Appropriateness Index (MAI) before and after the recommendations were made. Two clinical pharmacologists and two clinical pharmacists independently and retrospectively evaluated the clinical relevance of the recommendations and rated their own acceptance of them.

Results

The clinical pharmacist recommended 304 drug therapy changes for 100 patients taking a total of 1137 drugs. The most common underlying drug-related problems concerned incorrect dose, drug–drug interaction, and adverse drug reaction, which appeared most frequently for cardiovascular drugs, drugs for the central nervous system, and drugs for the gastrointestinal tract. The most common type of recommendation concerned adapting the dose, and stopping or changing a drug. In total, 59.7% of the recommendations were accepted by the treating physician. The acceptance rate by the evaluators ranged between 92.4% and 97.0%. The mean clinical relevance of the recommendations was assessed as possibly important (53.4%), possibly low relevance (38.1%), and possibly very important (4.2%). A low interrater agreement concerning clinical relevance between the evaluators was found: kappa values ranged between 0.15 and 0.25. Summated MAI scores significantly improved after the pharmacist recommendations, with mean values decreasing from 9.3 to 6.2 (P < 0.001).

Conclusion

In this study, the clinical pharmacist identified a high number of potential drug-related problems in older patients; however, the acceptance of the pharmacotherapy recommendations by the treating physician was lower than by a panel of evaluators. This panel, however, rated most recommendations as possibly important and as possibly having low relevance, with low interrater reliability. As the appropriateness of prescribing seemed to improve with decreased MAI scores, clinical pharmacy services may contribute to the optimization of drug therapy in older inpatients.

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<![CDATA[Responsiveness of the innate immune system and glucose concentrations in the oldest old]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5acc2e19463d7e3ccf725670

Patients with diabetes mellitus show increased risk of infectious disease as well as disturbances in innate immunity. In critical care settings, hyperglycemia is associated with increased risk of sepsis. It is unclear whether elevated glucose concentrations and innate immunity are associated in a non-clinical setting. We aimed to assess the association between glucose concentrations and innate immune response in the oldest old, who are at increased risk of both disturbed glucose metabolism as well as infectious disease. This study was part of the Leiden 85-plus Study. In 562 subjects aged 85 years old of the general population, venous blood samples were taken for measurement of morning glucose, C-reactive protein (CRP) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). The innate immune response was assessed by performing ex vivo whole blood lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation for production capacity of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 1-beta (IL1-β), interleukin 10 (IL-10) and interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra). Using linear regression analysis, cross-sectional analysis between glucose and cytokine production capacity was performed. We found a significant negative association between glucose concentrations, but not HbA1c, and cytokine response capacity in four out of five measured cytokines (all p < 0.05). Both glucose and HbA1c were positively associated with circulating levels of CRP. Higher glucose concentrations in non-diabetic elderly are associated with lower innate immune response. As elderly show increased vulnerability for disturbances in glucose metabolism as well as infectious disease, this relation could be of clinical significance.

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