ResearchPad - Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Multidimensional correlation among plan complexity, quality and deliverability parameters for volumetric-modulated arc therapy using canonical correlation analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b59a53a463d7e789700d0df

Abstract

A multidimensional exploratory statistical method, canonical correlation analysis (CCA), was applied to evaluate the impact of complexity parameters on the plan quality and deliverability of volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and to determine parameters in the generation of an ideal VMAT plan. Canonical correlations among complexity, quality and deliverability parameters of VMAT, as well as the contribution weights of different parameters were investigated with 71 two-arc VMAT nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) patients, and further verified with 28 one-arc VMAT prostate cancer patients. The average MU and MU per control point (MU/CP) for two-arc VMAT plans were 702.6 ± 55.7 and 3.9 ± 0.3 versus 504.6 ± 99.2 and 5.6 ± 1.1 for one-arc VMAT plans, respectively. The individual volume-based 3D gamma passing rates of clinical target volume (γCTV) and planning target volume (γPTV) for NPC and prostate cancer patients were 85.7% ± 9.0% vs 92.6% ± 7.8%, and 88.0% ± 7.6% vs 91.2% ± 7.7%, respectively. Plan complexity parameters of NPC patients were correlated with plan quality (P = 0.047) and individual volume-based 3D gamma indices γ(IV) (P = 0.01), in which, MU/CP and segment area (SA) per control point (SA/CP) were weighted highly in correlation with γ(IV) , and SA/CP, percentage of CPs with SA < 5 × 5 cm2 (%SA < 5 × 5 cm2) and PTV volume were weighted highly in correlation with plan quality with coefficients of 0.98, 0.68 and −0.99, respectively. Further verification with one-arc VMAT plans demonstrated similar results. In conclusion, MU, SA-related parameters and PTV volume were found to have strong effects on the plan quality and deliverability.

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<![CDATA[Colibactin: More Than a New Bacterial Toxin]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b5928e0463d7e57a32e3e46

Cyclomodulins are bacterial toxins that interfere with the eukaryotic cell cycle. A new cyclomodulin called colibactin, which is synthetized by the pks genomic island, was discovered in 2006. Despite many efforts, colibactin has not yet been purified, and its structure remains elusive. Interestingly, the pks island is found in members of the family Enterobacteriaceae (mainly Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae) isolated from different origins, including from intestinal microbiota, septicaemia, newborn meningitis, and urinary tract infections. Colibactin-producing bacteria induce chromosomal instability and DNA damage in eukaryotic cells, which leads to senescence of epithelial cells and apoptosis of immune cells. The pks island is mainly observed in B2 phylogroup E. coli strains, which include extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli strains, and pks E. coli are over-represented in biopsies isolated from colorectal cancer. In addition, pks E. coli bacteria increase the number of tumours in diverse colorectal cancer mouse models. Thus, colibactin could have a major impact on human health. In the present review, we will focus on the biological effects of colibactin, the distribution of the pks island, and summarize what is currently known about its synthesis and its structure.

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<![CDATA[A Three Monoclonal Antibody Combination Potently Neutralizes Multiple Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype E Subtypes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b4c6fb7463d7e0b052d96fe

Human botulism is most commonly caused by botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) serotypes A, B, and E. For this work, we sought to develop a human monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based antitoxin capable of binding and neutralizing multiple subtypes of BoNT/E. Libraries of yeast-displayed single chain Fv (scFv) antibodies were created from the heavy and light chain variable region genes of humans immunized with pentavalent-toxoid- and BoNT/E-binding scFv isolated by Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting (FACS). A total of 10 scFv were isolated that bound one or more BoNT/E subtypes with nanomolar-level equilibrium dissociation constants (KD). By diversifying the V-regions of the lead mAbs and selecting for cross-reactivity, we generated three scFv that bound all four BoNT/E subtypes tested at three non-overlapping epitopes. The scFvs were converted to IgG that had KD values for the different BoNT/E subtypes ranging from 9.7 nM to 2.28 pM. An equimolar combination of the three mAbs was able to potently neutralize BoNT/E1, BoNT/E3, and BoNT/E4 in a mouse neutralization assay. The mAbs have potential utility as therapeutics and as diagnostics capable of recognizing multiple BoNT/E subtypes. A derivative of the three-antibody combination (NTM-1633) is in pre-clinical development with an investigational new drug (IND) application filing expected in 2018.

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<![CDATA[Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fish species from the Meiliang Bay, Taihu Lake, China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b4b9cba463d7e79a47a24ae

Graphical abstract

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<![CDATA[Chronic Dietary Intake of Enniatin B in Broiler Chickens Has Low Impact on Intestinal Morphometry and Hepatic Histology, and Shows Limited Transfer to Liver Tissue]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b4a7491463d7e6595398c5c

The Fusarium mycotoxin enniatin B (ENN B) is a so-called emerging mycotoxin frequently contaminating poultry feed. To investigate the impact of chronic ENN B exposure on animal health, broiler chickens were fed either a diet naturally contaminated with ENN B (2352 µg/kg) or a control diet (135 µg/kg) for 2, 7, 14, or 21 days. ENN B concentrations were determined in plasma and liver using a validated ultra-high performance liquid chromatography—tandem mass spectrometry UHPLC-MS/MS method. Liver was evaluated histologically, and the villus length and crypt depth of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were measured. Histopathology of the livers did not reveal major abnormalities. Feeding an ENN B-contaminated diet could possibly inhibit the proliferation of enterocytes in the duodenal crypts, but did not affect villus length, crypt depth, or villus length-crypt depth ratio of the jejunum and ileum. ENN B levels in plasma and liver were significantly higher in the ENN B-fed group and ranged between <25–264 pg/mL and <0.05–0.85 ng/g, respectively. ENN B carry-over rates from feed to liver tissue were 0.005–0.014% and 0.034–0.109% in the ENN B and control group, respectively. Carry-over rates were low and indicated a limited contribution of poultry tissue-derived products to the total dietary ENN B intake for humans. The above results support the opinion of the European Food Safety Authority stating that adverse health effects from ENN B in broiler chickens are unlikely.

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<![CDATA[An Embryonic Field of Study: The Aquatic Fate and Toxicity of Diluted Bitumen]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bf44e5cd5eed0c4846e62df

Canada has experienced a significant increase in the transport of diluted bitumen (dilbit), a predominant oil sands product that combines bitumen with diluents derived from oil–gas condensates and other proprietary compounds. The proportion of diluent and the chemical composition of dilbit vary to meet seasonal transport requirements. While the toxic effects of a variety of crude and refined oils are well-studied, the toxicity of dilbit to aquatic species is less well known. This focused review summarizes dilbit production, chemistry, and the few data on toxicity to aquatic species. These data suggest that un-weathered dilbit would cause effects on fish equivalent to those of conventional oils, but its toxicity may be lower, depending on interactions among test conditions, the behavior of dilbit added to water and the species tested.

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<![CDATA[QuickStats: Percentage* of Adults Aged ≥18 Years Who Currently Use E-Cigarettes,† by Sex and Age Group — National Health Interview Survey,§ 2016]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b479dc9463d7e73d008efb8 ]]> <![CDATA[Review of the Global Solar UV Index 2015 Workshop Report]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bf1b09cd5eed0c484d28690 <![CDATA[Mechanisms linked to differences in the mutagenic potential of 1,3-dinitropyrene and 1,8-dinitropyrene]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b438358463d7e2a0b8ba521

This study explores and characterizes the toxicity of two closely related carcinogenic dinitro-pyrenes (DNPs), 1,3-DNP and 1,8-DNP, in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells and mouse hepatoma Hepa1c1c7 cells. Neither 1,3-DNP nor 1,8-DNP (3–30 μM) induced cell death in BEAS-2B cells. In Hepa1c1c7 cells only 1,3-DNP (10–30 μM) induced a mixture of apoptotic and necrotic cell death after 24 h. Both compounds increased the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in BEAS-2B as measured by CM-H2DCFDA-fluorescence. A corresponding increase in oxidative damage to DNA was revealed by the formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (fpg)-modified comet assay. Without fpg, DNP-induced DNA damage detected by the comet assay was only found in Hepa1c1c7 cells. Only 1,8-DNP formed DNA adduct measured by 32P-postlabelling. In Hepa1c1c cells, 1,8-DNP induced phosphorylation of H2AX (γH2AX) and p53 at a lower concentration than 1,3-DNP and there was no direct correlation between DNA damage/DNA damage response (DR) and induced cytotoxicity. On the other hand, 1,3-DNP-induced apoptosis was inhibited by pifithrin-α, an inhibitor of p53 transcriptional activity. Furthermore, 1,3-DNP triggered an unfolded protein response (UPR), as measured by an increased expression of CHOP, ATF4 and XBP1. Thus, other types of damage possibly linked to endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress and/or UPR could be involved in the induced apoptosis. Our results suggest that the stronger carcinogenic potency of 1,8-DNP compared to 1,3-DNP is linked to its higher genotoxic effects. This in combination with its lower potency to induce cell death may increase the probability of causing mutations.

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<![CDATA[Analysis of genes involved in the PI3K/Akt pathway in radiation- and MNU-induced rat mammary carcinomas]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b425d8b463d7e171a1321be

Abstract

The PI3K/AKT pathway is one of the most important signaling networks in human breast cancer, and since it was potentially implicated in our preliminary investigations of radiation-induced rat mammary carcinomas, our aim here was to verify its role. We included mammary carcinomas induced by the chemical carcinogen 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea to determine whether any changes were radiation-specific. Most carcinomas from both groups showed activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway, but phosphorylation of AKT1 was often heterogeneous and only present in a minority of carcinoma cells. The negative pathway regulator Inpp4b was significantly downregulated in both groups, compared with in normal mammary tissue, and radiation-induced carcinomas also showed a significant decrease in Pten expression, while the chemically induced carcinomas showed a decrease in Pik3r1 and Pdk1. Significant upregulation of the positive regulators Erbb2 and Pik3ca was observed only in chemically induced carcinomas. However, no genes showed clear correlations with AKT phosphorylation levels, except in individual carcinomas. Only rare carcinomas showed mutations in PI3K/AKT pathway genes, yet these carcinomas did not exhibit stronger AKT phosphorylation. Thus, while AKT phosphorylation is a common feature of rat mammary carcinomas induced by radiation or a canonical chemical carcinogen, the mutation of key genes in the pathways or permanent changes to gene expression of particular signaling proteins do not explain the pathway activation in the advanced cancers. Although AKT signaling likely facilitates cancer development and growth in rat mammary carcinomas, it is unlikely that permanent disruption of the PI3K/AKT pathway genes is a major causal event in radiation carcinogenesis.

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<![CDATA[Multicentre dose audit for clinical trials of radiation therapy in Asia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b3d19e2463d7e3049dc5a22

Abstract

A dose audit of 16 facilities in 11 countries has been performed within the framework of the Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia (FNCA) quality assurance program. The quality of radiation dosimetry varies because of the large variation in radiation therapy among the participating countries. One of the most important aspects of international multicentre clinical trials is uniformity of absolute dose between centres. The National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) in Japan has conducted a dose audit of participating countries since 2006 by using radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeters (RGDs). RGDs have been successfully applied to a domestic postal dose audit in Japan. The authors used the same audit system to perform a dose audit of the FNCA countries. The average and standard deviation of the relative deviation between the measured and intended dose among 46 beams was 0.4% and 1.5% (k = 1), respectively. This is an excellent level of uniformity for the multicountry data. However, of the 46 beams measured, a single beam exceeded the permitted tolerance level of ±5%. We investigated the cause for this and solved the problem. This event highlights the importance of external audits in radiation therapy.

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<![CDATA[Inhibitory potential of methanolic extracts of Aristolochia tagala and Curcuma caesia on hepatocellular carcinoma induced by diethylnitrosamine in BALB/c mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5ba69c2840307c1e9641ba64

Context:

Aristolochia tagala (AT) and Curcuma caesia (CC) have been used traditionally by local herbal practitioners for cancer treatment and as chief ingredients of many polyherbal formulations for various types of ailments. However, there is void in scientific study to evaluate their anti-cancer property.

Aims:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-carcinogenic properties of the crude methanolic extracts of roots of AT and rhizomes of CC in BALB/c mice exposed to a hepatocarcinogen, diethylnitrosamine (DEN).

Settings and Design:

(I) Toxicity of herbal plant extracts (HPE); (II) Anticancer studies; (III) Histological studies; and (IV) Biochemical studies.

Materials and Methods:

To evaluate the effects of these two HPE either alone or following DEN exposure, serum transaminases (aspartate aminotransferase [AST], alanine aminotransferase [ALT]), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and cancer marker enzyme acetylcholine esterase (AChE) were assayed in mice. In addition, histological study was also carried out under similar conditions. The antioxidant potentials of the HPE were evaluated by monitoring the activity of antioxidant enzymes and metabolites, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione (GSH).

Statistical Analysis Used:

Statistical analysis was performed by GraphPad Prism 6 Software using one-way analysis of variance followed by the Tukey's multiple comparisons test. Significance was set at P < 0.05.

Results:

Our findings show that DEN administration elevated AST, ALT, ALP, and AChE activities. CC or AT extracts attenuated the increased activities of these marker enzymes. The activities of antioxidant enzymes, which were decreased following DEN administration, were significantly increased in mice treated with CC or AT.

Conclusions:

The present study clearly documents anticarcinogenic and antioxidant properties of AT and CC in DEN-induced mouse liver cancer in vivo.

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<![CDATA[Circulating tumor cells in breast cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5ba69c2640307c1e9641ba63

Circulating tumor cell (CTC) measurement in peripheral blood of patients with breast cancer offers prognostic information. In this review, we will try to identify evidence that could be used for prognosis, predictive power to draw this tool to clinical utility. We reviewed 81 manuscripts, and categorized those in discovery datasets, prognostic factors in metastatic breast cancer, identification of clinical utility in early breast cancer and in novel approaches. With each patient responding differently to chemotherapy, more efficient markers would improve clinical outcome. Current CTC diagnostic techniques use epithelial markers predominantly; however, the most appropriate method is the measurement of circulating DNA. It has been hypothesized that micrometastasis occurs early in the development of tumors. That implies the presence of CTCs in nonmetastatic setting. The origin of stimulus for malignant transformation is yet unknown. The role of microenvironment as a stimulus is also being investigated. It has been shown that CTCs vary in numbers with chemotherapy. The markers, which are followed-up in the primary tumors, are also being studied on the CTCs. There is discordance of the human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 status between the primary tumor and CTCs. This review summarizes our current knowledge about the CTCs. With genetic profiling and molecular characterization of CTCs, it is possible to overcome the diagnostic difficulties. Evidence for clinical utility of CTC as prognostic and predictive marker is increasing. Appropriate patient stratification according to CTC determination among other tests, would make personalized cancer therapy more feasible.

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<![CDATA[Seven benzimidazole pesticides combined at sub-threshold levels induce micronuclei in vitro]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5ba4fc3740307c6e82cb767e

Benzimidazoles act by disrupting microtubule polymerisation and are capable of inducing the formation of micronuclei. Considering the similarities in their mechanisms of action (inhibition of microtubule assembly by binding to the colchicine-binding site on tubulin monomers), combination effects according to the principles of concentration addition might occur. If so, it is to be expected that several benzimidazoles contribute to micronucleus formation even when each single one is present at or below threshold levels. This would have profound implications for risk assessment, but the idea has never been tested rigorously. To fill this gap, we analysed micronucleus frequencies for seven benzimidazoles, including the fungicide benomyl, its metabolite carbendazim, the anthelmintics albendazole, albendazole oxide, flubendazole, mebendazole and oxibendazole. Thiabendazole was also tested but was inactive. We used the cytochalasin-blocked micronucleus assay with CHO-K1 cells according to OECD guidelines, and employed an automated micronucleus scoring system based on image analysis to establish quantitative concentration–response relationships for the seven active benzimidazoles. Based on this information, we predicted additive combination effects for a mixture of the seven benzimidazoles by using the concepts of concentration addition and independent action. The observed effects of the mixture agreed very well with those predicted by concentration addition. Independent action underestimated the observed combined effects by a large margin. With a mixture that combined all benzimidazoles at their estimated threshold concentrations for micronucleus induction, micronucleus frequencies of ~15.5% were observed, correctly anticipated by concentration addition. On the basis of independent action, this mixture was expected to produce no effects. Our data provide convincing evidence that concentration addition is applicable to combinations of benzimidazoles that form micronuclei by disrupting microtubule polymerisation. They present a rationale for grouping these chemicals together for the purpose of cumulative risk assessment.

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<![CDATA[Prolactin, TNF alpha and nitric oxide expression in nitroso-N-methylurea-induced-mammary tumours]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b7d89ac463d7e7c2c629b76

Background

The N-Nitrosomethylurea breast cancer model induced in rats is used for the study of carcinogenesis in mammary cancer, prostate, pancreas, etc. This model is very similar to human neoplastic disease.

Methods

The present experimental study was designed to assess whether metoclopramide administration has any effect on development of MNU-induced tumours, and evaluate the treatment of goserelin acetate on PRL, TNF alpha and NO expression. NMU was administered to female Wistar rats on 2 occasions (5 mg/100 g body w/rat). PRL and TNF alpha were performed by immune-assay. Nitric Oxide by semi automated-assay and ploidy analyses by flow cytometry.

Results

The administration of metoclopramide made the induction time shorter and increased the incidence and average of tumours per rat. Tumours development was inhibited by a goserelin chronic administration. The ploidy of adenocarcinoma was polyploid-aneuploid type (average S = 60%). It was higher basal PRL plasma levels in rats with NMU induced tumours than in basal controls without tumour (p < 0.001). The goserelin "in bolus" administration showed maximal inhibition of plasma PRL at 90 min. Plasmatic TNF alpha expression was inhibited at 60 min and also remained inhibited in tissue homogenate post chronic treatment (P < 0.0125). Plasmatic NO expression is higher in rats with induced tumours than healthy controls (P < 0.001). In tissue homogenate NO values were inhibited at 90 min (P < 0.01), as well during chronically goserelin treatment (P < 0.005).

Conclusion

The increase of blood PRL levels in NMU-induced rats may be an indicator of a poor prognosis of mammary cancer evolution. The metoclopramide administration accelerates tumour growth. However goserelin administration achieves regression in tumour development associated to inhibition PRL, TNF alpha and NO expression.

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<![CDATA[The role of GSTM1 gene polymorphisms in lung cancer development in Turkish population]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b7d1fa0463d7e3e6f1a9baa

Background

Glutathione S-transferase (GSTs) plays an important role in the detoxification of many xenobiotics involved in the etiology of cancer. In different ethnic groups, variations in null allele frequency have been observed. We have investigated GSTM1 gene polymorphisms in healthy subjects and lung cancer patients in the Turkish population and reviewed the control subjects of the studies performed in the Turkish population.

Methods

Following blood sampling from patients and controls, DNA samples were extracted from the whole blood and were amplified by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method in all of the 256 cases, consisting of 102 previously diagnosed with lung cancer and 154 healthy controls.

Results

The prevalence of GSTM1-null genotype in the lung cancer patients was 49%, compared to 52.6% in the control group (OR = 1.39, 95% CI = 0.70–1.90, p = 0.57). There were also no significant relationships in GSTM1 genotypes among histopathologic types of lung cancers (p > 0.05). The frequency of GSTM1 was found to be 41.2% (n = 1809) when the control subjects of the studies performed in Turkish population were reviewed.

Conclusion

We have observed that GSTM1 genotype is not an independent risk factor for lung cancer.

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<![CDATA[Protective Role of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 in Ozone-Induced Airway Inflammation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b7d1e13463d7e3d3f391a62

Background

Exposure to ozone causes airway inflammation, hyperreactivity, lung hyper-permeability, and epithelial cell injury. An early inflammatory response induced by inhaled O3 is characterized primarily by release of inflammatory mediators such as cytokines, chemokines, and airway neutrophil accumulation. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of oxidative lung disorders including acute lung injury, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Objective

We hypothesized that MMPs have an important role in the pathogenesis of O3-induced airway inflammation.

Methods

We compared the lung injury responses in either Mmp7- (Mmp7−/−) or Mmp9-deficient (Mmp9−/−) mice and their wild-type controls (Mmp7+/+, Mmp9+/+) after exposure to 0.3 ppm O3 or filtered air.

Results

Relative to air-exposed controls, MMP-9 activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was significantly increased by O3 exposure in Mmp9+/+ mice. O3-induced increases in the concentration of total protein (a marker of lung permeability) and the numbers of neutrophils and epithelial cells in BALF were significantly greater in Mmp9−/− mice compared with Mmp9+/+ mice. Keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC) and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 levels in BALF were also significantly higher in Mmp9−/− mice than in Mmp9+/+ mice after O3 exposure, although no differences in mRNA expression for these chemokines were found between genotypes. Mean BALF protein concentration and numbers of inflammatory cells were not significantly different between Mmp7+/+ and Mmp7−/− mice after O3 exposure.

Conclusions

Results demonstrated a protective role of MMP-9 but not of MMP-7, in O3-induced lung neutrophilic inflammation and hyperpermeability. The mechanism through which Mmp9 limits O3-induced airway injury is not known but may be via posttranscriptional effects on proinflammatory CXC chemokines including KC and MIP-2.

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<![CDATA[Home Indoor Pollutant Exposures among Inner-City Children With and Without Asthma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b7d1e10463d7e3d3f391a5f

Background

Evidence for environmental causes of asthma is limited, especially among African Americans. To look for systematic differences in early life domestic exposures between inner-city preschool children with and without asthma, we performed a study of home indoor air pollutants and allergens.

Methods

Children 2–6 years of age were enrolled in a cohort study in East Baltimore, Maryland. From the child’s bedroom, air was monitored for 3 days for particulate matter ≤ 2.5 and ≤ 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5, PM10), nitrogen dioxide, and ozone. Median baseline values were compared for children with (n = 150) and without (n = 150) asthma. Housing characteristics related to indoor air pollution were assessed by caregiver report and home inspection. In addition, indoor allergen levels were measured in settled dust.

Results

Children were 58% male, 91% African American, and 88% with public health insurance. Housing characteristics related to pollutant exposure and bedroom air pollutant concentrations did not differ significantly between asthmatic and control subjects [median: PM2.5, 28.7 vs. 28.5 μg/m3; PM10, 43.6 vs. 41.4 μg/m3; NO2, 21.6 vs. 20.9 ppb; O3, 1.4 vs. 1.8 ppb; all p > 0.05]. Settled dust allergen levels (cat, dust mite, cockroach, dog, and mouse) were also similar in bedrooms of asthmatic and control children.

Conclusions

Exposures to common home indoor pollutants and allergens are similar for inner-city preschool children with and without asthma. Although these exposures may exacerbate existing asthma, this study does not support a causative role of these factors for risk of developing childhood asthma.

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<![CDATA[Embryonic Exposure to Domoic Acid Increases the Susceptibility of Zebrafish Larvae to the Chemical Convulsant Pentylenetetrazole]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b7d1e15463d7e3d3f391a63

Background

Domoic acid (DA) is a neurotoxin produced by diatoms of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia that targets the limbic system to induce tonic–clonic seizures and memory impairment. In utero DA exposure of mice leads to a reduction in seizure threshold to subsequent DA exposures in mid-postnatal life, and similar studies have shown neurotoxic effects in rats that were delayed until adolescence.

Objective

We used in ovo microinjection of zebrafish (Danio rerio) to characterize the effect of embryonic exposure of DA on seizure-inducing agents later in life as an alternative species model to screen environmental contaminants that might induce a fetal-originating adult disease.

Methods

Embryos were microinjected within hours of fertilization to DA concentrations ranging from 0.12 to 1.26 ng/mg egg weight. Seven days later, the larval animals were characterized for sensitivity to the chemical convulsant pentylenetetrazole (PTZ), an agent that is well-defined in laboratory rodents and, more recently, in zebrafish.

Results

In ovo DA exposure, most significantly at 0.4 ng/mg, reduces the latency time until first PTZ seizure in larval fish and increases the severity of seizures as determined by seizure stage and movement parameters. The interaction between in ovo DA exposure and PTZ caused seizure behaviors to individually asymptomatic doses of PTZ (1.0 and 1.25 mM) and DA (0.13 and 0.22 ng/mg).

Conclusion

These studies demonstrate that in ovo exposure to DA reduces the threshold to chemically induced seizures in larval fish and increases the severity of seizure behavior in a manner that is consistent with in utero studies of laboratory rodents.

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<![CDATA[HLA-B*1301 as a Biomarker for Genetic Susceptibility to Hypersensitivity Dermatitis Induced by Trichloroethylene among Workers in China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b7d1e12463d7e3d3f391a61

Background

Trichloroethylene (TCE) is used extensively as an industrial solvent and has been recognized as one of the major environmental pollutants. To date, > 200 cases of TCE-induced hypersensitivity dermatitis among exposed workers have been reported worldwide, and TCE exposure has become one of the critical occupational health issues in Asia.

Objectives

The study aimed to identify genetic susceptible biomarkers associated with the TCE-induced hypersensitivity dermatitis in genes located in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region.

Methods

From 1998 to 2006, 121 cases with TCE-induced hypersensitivity dermatitis and 142 tolerant controls were recruited into the population-based case–control study. We determined HLA alleles B, DRB1, DQA1, and DQB1, by sequence-based typing. p-Values were corrected for comparisons of multiple HLA alleles. In addition, we compared and analyzed the structure character of amino acid residues of HLA molecules found in participants.

Results

We obtained complete genotyping data of 113 cases and 142 controls. The allele HLA-B*1301 was present in 83 (73.5%) of 113 patients compared with 13 (9.2%) of 142 tolerant workers (odds ratio = 27.5; 95% confidence interval, 13.5–55.7; corrected p = 1.48 × 10−21). In addition, the HLA-B*44 alleles were present in 6.2% (7/113) of patients, but were absent in TCE-tolerant workers. Residue 95 shared by HLA-B*1301 and HLA-B*44 molecules formed a different pocket F than other residues.

Conclusions

The allele HLA-B*1301 is strongly associated with TCE-induced hypersensitivity dermatitis among exposed workers and might be used as a biomarker to predict high risk individuals to TCE.

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