ResearchPad - Insect Science https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Establishment Success of the Beetle Tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta Depends on Dose and Host Body Condition]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b4c7f43463d7e0c20d25f2c

Parasite effects on host fitness and immunology are often intensity-dependent. Unfortunately, only few experimental studies on insect-parasite interactions attempt to control the level of infection, which may contribute substantial variation to the fitness or immunological parameters of interest. The tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta—flour beetle Tenebrio molitor model—has been used extensively for ecological and evolutionary host–parasite studies. Successful establishment of H. diminuta cysticercoids in T. molitor relies on ingestion of viable eggs and penetration of the gut wall by the onchosphere. Like in other insect models, there is a lack of standardization of the infection load of cysticercoids in beetles. The aims of this study were to: (1) quantify the relationship between exposure dose and establishment success across several H. diminuta egg concentrations; and (2) test parasite establishment in beetles while experimentally manipulating host body condition and potential immune response to infection. Different egg concentrations of H. diminuta isolated from infected rat feces were fed to individual beetles 7–10 days after eclosion and beetles were exposed to starvation, wounding, or insertion of a nylon filament one hour prior to infection. We found that the establishment of cysticercoids in relation to exposure dose could be accurately predicted using a power function where establishment success was low at three lowest doses and higher at the two highest doses tested. Long-term starvation had a negative effect on cysticercoid establishment success, while insertion of a nylon filament and wounding the beetles did not have any effect compared to control treatment. Thus, our results show that parasite load may be predicted from the exposure dose within the observed range, and that the relationship between dose and parasite establishment success is able to withstand some changes in host body condition.

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<![CDATA[Tracing cells throughout development]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bc4f02d40307c023c5d8ba1

In the article “Predetermined embryonic glial cells form the distinct glial sheaths of the Drosophila peripheral nervous system” we combined our expertise to identify glial cells of the embryonic peripheral nervous system on a single cell resolution with the possibility to genetically label cells using Flybow. We show that all 12 embryonic peripheral glial cells (ePG) per abdominal hemisegment persist into larval (and even adult) stages and differentially contribute to the three distinct glial layers surrounding peripheral nerves. Repetitive labelings of the same cell further revealed that layer affiliation, morphological expansion, and control of proliferation are predetermined and subject to an intrinsic differentiation program. Interestingly, wrapping and subperineurial glia undergo enormous hypertrophy in response to larval growth and elongation of peripheral nerves, while perineurial glia respond to the same environmental changes with hyperplasia. Increase in cell number from embryo (12 cells per hemisegment) to third instar (up to 50 cells per hemisegment) is the result of proliferation of a single ePG that serves as transient progenitor and only contributes to the outermost perineurial glial layer.

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<![CDATA[Fruitless isoforms and target genes specify the sexually dimorphic nervous system underlying Drosophila reproductive behavior]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bc4f03240307c023c5d8ba3

Courtship is pivotal to successful reproduction throughout the animal kingdom. Sexual differences in the nervous system are thought to underlie courtship behavior. Male courtship behavior in Drosophila is in large part regulated by the gene fruitless (fru). fru has been reported to encode at least three putative BTB-zinc-finger transcription factors predicted to have different DNA-binding specificities. Although a large number of previous studies have demonstrated that fru plays essential roles in male courtship behavior, we know little about the function of Fru isoforms at the molecular level. Our recent study revealed that male-specific Fru isoforms are expressed in highly overlapping subsets of neurons in the male brain and ventral nerve cord. Fru isoforms play both distinct and redundant roles in male courtship behavior. Importantly, we have identified for the first time, by means of the DamID technique, direct Fru transcriptional target genes. Fru target genes overwhelmingly represent genes previously reported to be involved in the nervous system development, such as CadN, lola and pdm2. Our study provides important insight into how the sexually dimorphic neural circuits underlying reproductive behavior are established.

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<![CDATA[Chromosomal Speciation Revisited: Modes of Diversification in Australian Morabine Grasshoppers (Vandiemenella, viatica Species Group)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bc2bb3740307c62ef49210e

Chromosomal rearrangements can alter the rate and patterns of gene flow within or between species through a reduction in the fitness of chromosomal hybrids or by reducing recombination rates in rearranged areas of the genome. This concept, together with the observation that many species have structural variation in chromosomes, has led to the theory that the rearrangements may play a direct role in promoting speciation. Australian morabine grasshoppers (genus Vandiemenella, viatica species group) are an excellent model for studying the role of chromosomal rearrangement in speciation because they show extensive chromosomal variation, parapatric distribution patterns, and narrow hybrid zones at their boundaries. This species group stimulated development of one of the classic chromosomal speciation models, the stasipatric speciation model proposed by White in 1968. Our population genetic and phylogeographic analyses revealed extensive non-monophyly of chromosomal races along with historical and on-going gene introgression between them. These findings suggest that geographical isolation leading to the fixation of chromosomal variants in different geographic regions, followed by secondary contact, resulted in the present day parapatric distributions of chromosomal races. The significance of chromosomal rearrangements in the diversification of the viatica species group can be explored by comparing patterns of genetic differentiation between rearranged and co-linear parts of the genome.

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<![CDATA[Metabolic Resistance in Bed Bugs]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bc2bb3440307c62ef49210d

Blood-feeding insects have evolved resistance to various insecticides (organochlorines, pyrethroids, carbamates, etc.) through gene mutations and increased metabolism. Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius) are hematophagous ectoparasites that are poised to become one of the major pests in households throughout the United States. Currently, C. lectularius has attained a high global impact status due to its sudden and rampant resurgence. Resistance to pesticides is one factor implicated in this phenomenon. Although much emphasis has been placed on target sensitivity, little to no knowledge is available on the role of key metabolic players (e.g., cytochrome P450s and glutathione S-transferases) towards pesticide resistance in C. lectularius. In this review, we discuss different modes of resistance (target sensitivity, penetration resistance, behavioral resistance, and metabolic resistance) with more emphasis on metabolic resistance.

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<![CDATA[A New Method for in Situ Measurement of Bt-Maize Pollen Deposition on Host-Plant Leaves]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bc2bb2f40307c62ef49210b

Maize is wind pollinated and produces huge amounts of pollen. In consequence, the Cry toxins expressed in the pollen of Bt maize will be dispersed by wind in the surrounding vegetation leading to exposure of non-target organisms (NTO). NTO like lepidopteran larvae may be affected by the uptake of Bt-pollen deposited on their host plants. Although some information is available to estimate pollen deposition on host plants, recorded data are based on indirect measurements such as shaking or washing off pollen, or removing pollen with adhesive tapes. These methods often lack precision and they do not include the necessary information such as the spatial and temporal variation of pollen deposition on the leaves. Here, we present a new method for recording in situ the amount and the distribution of Bt-maize pollen deposited on host plant leaves. The method is based on the use of a mobile digital microscope (Dino-Lite Pro, including DinoCapture software), which can be used in combination with a notebook in the field. The method was evaluated during experiments in 2008 to 2010. Maize pollen could be correctly identified and pollen deposition as well as the spatial heterogeneity of maize pollen deposition was recorded on maize and different lepidopteran host plants (Centaurea scabiosa, Chenopodium album, Rumex spp., Succina pratensis and Urtica dioica) growing adjacent to maize fields.

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<![CDATA[In vivo cranial bone strain and bite force in the agamid lizard Uromastyx geyri]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bbf08e740307c38ebdd5d99

In vivo bone strain data are the most direct evidence of deformation and strain regimes in the vertebrate cranium during feeding and can provide important insights into skull morphology. Strain data have been collected during feeding across a wide range of mammals; in contrast, in vivo cranial bone strain data have been collected from few sauropsid taxa. Here we present bone strain data recorded from the jugal of the herbivorous agamid lizard Uromastyx geyri along with simultaneously recorded bite force. Principal and shear strain magnitudes in Uromastyx geyri were lower than cranial bone strains recorded in Alligator mississippiensis, but higher than those reported from herbivorous mammals. Our results suggest that variations in principal strain orientations in the facial skeleton are largely due to differences in feeding behavior and bite location, whereas food type has little impact on strain orientations. Furthermore, mean principal strain orientations differ between male and female Uromastyx during feeding, potentially because of sexual dimorphism in skull morphology.

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<![CDATA[Characteristics of the nuclear (18S, 5.8S, 28S and 5S) and mitochondrial (12S and 16S) rRNA genes of Apis mellifera (Insecta: Hymenoptera): structure, organization, and retrotransposable elements]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b7d15b9463d7e322c130e71

As an accompanying manuscript to the release of the honey bee genome, we report the entire sequence of the nuclear (18S, 5.8S, 28S and 5S) and mitochondrial (12S and 16S) ribosomal RNA (rRNA)-encoding gene sequences (rDNA) and related internally and externally transcribed spacer regions of Apis mellifera (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Apocrita). Additionally, we predict secondary structures for the mature rRNA molecules based on comparative sequence analyses with other arthropod taxa and reference to recently published crystal structures of the ribosome. In general, the structures of honey bee rRNAs are in agreement with previously predicted rRNA models from other arthropods in core regions of the rRNA, with little additional expansion in non-conserved regions. Our multiple sequence alignments are made available on several public databases and provide a preliminary establishment of a global structural model of all rRNAs from the insects. Additionally, we provide conserved stretches of sequences flanking the rDNA cistrons that comprise the externally transcribed spacer regions (ETS) and part of the intergenic spacer region (IGS), including several repetitive motifs. Finally, we report the occurrence of retrotransposition in the nuclear large subunit rDNA, as R2 elements are present in the usual insertion points found in other arthropods. Interestingly, functional R1 elements usually present in the genomes of insects were not detected in the honey bee rRNA genes. The reverse transcriptase products of the R2 elements are deduced from their putative open reading frames and structurally aligned with those from another hymenopteran insect, the jewel wasp Nasonia (Pteromalidae). Stretches of conserved amino acids shared between Apis and Nasonia are illustrated and serve as potential sites for primer design, as target amplicons within these R2 elements may serve as novel phylogenetic markers for Hymenoptera. Given the impending completion of the sequencing of the Nasonia genome, we expect our report eventually to shed light on the evolution of the hymenopteran genome within higher insects, particularly regarding the relative maintenance of conserved rDNA genes, related variable spacer regions and retrotransposable elements.

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<![CDATA[Plant structural changes due to herbivory: Do changes in Aceria-infested coconut fruits allow predatory mites to move under the perianth?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b7d0aa9463d7e30b734ccc8

Being minute in size, eriophyoid mites can reach places that are small enough to be inaccessible to their predators. The coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis, is a typical example; it finds partial refuge under the perianth of the coconut fruit. However, some predators can move under the perianth of the coconut fruits and attack the coconut mite. In Sri Lanka, the phytoseiid mite Neoseiulus baraki, is the most common predatory mite found in association with the coconut mite. The cross-diameter of this predatory mite is c. 3 times larger than that of the coconut mite. Nevertheless, taking this predator’s flat body and elongated idiosoma into account, it is—relative to many other phytoseiid mites—better able to reach the narrow space under the perianth of infested coconut fruits. On uninfested coconut fruits, however, they are hardly ever observed under the perianth. Prompted by earlier work on the accessibility of tulip bulbs to another eriophyoid mite and its predators, we hypothesized that the structure of the coconut fruit perianth is changed in response to damage by eriophyoid mites and as a result predatory mites are better able to enter under the perianth of infested coconut fruits. This was tested in an experiment where we measured the gap between the rim of the perianth and the coconut fruit surface in three cultivars (‘Sri Lanka Tall’, ‘Sri Lanka Dwarf Green’ and ‘Sri Lanka Dwarf Green × Sri Lanka Tall’ hybrid) that are cultivated extensively in Sri Lanka. It was found that the perianth-fruit gap in uninfested coconut fruits was significantly different between cultivars: the cultivar ‘Sri Lanka Dwarf Green’ with its smaller and more elongated coconut fruits had a larger perianth-fruit gap. In the uninfested coconut fruits this gap was large enough for the coconut mite to creep under the perianth, yet too small for its predator N. baraki. However, when the coconut fruits were infested by coconut mites, the perianth-rim-fruit gap was not different among cultivars and had increased to such an extent that the space under the perianth became accessible to the predatory mites.

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<![CDATA[Caste development and reproduction: a genome-wide analysis of hallmarks of insect eusociality]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b7c5794463d7e13cc387f6f

The honey bee queen and worker castes are a model system for developmental plasticity. We used established expressed sequence tag information for a Gene Ontology based annotation of genes that are differentially expressed during caste development. Metabolic regulation emerged as a major theme, with a caste-specific difference in the expression of oxidoreductases vs. hydrolases. Motif searches in upstream regions revealed group-specific motifs, providing an entry point to cis-regulatory network studies on caste genes. For genes putatively involved in reproduction, meiosis-associated factors came out as highly conserved, whereas some determinants of embryonic axes either do not have clear orthologs (bag of marbles, gurken, torso), or appear to be lacking (trunk) in the bee genome. Our results are the outcome of a first genome-based initiative to provide an annotated framework for trends in gene regulation during female caste differentiation (representing developmental plasticity) and reproduction.

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<![CDATA[Proteomic analyses of male contributions to honey bee sperm storage and mating]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b7c5793463d7e13cc387f6e

Honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) queens mate early in life and store sperm for years. Male bees likely contribute significantly to sperm survival. Proteins were extracted from seminal vesicles and semen of mature drones, separated by electrophoresis, and analysed by peptide mass fingerprinting. Computer searches against three databases, general species, honey bees and fruit flies, were performed. Spectra were used to query the recently generated honey bee genome protein list as well as general species and fruit fly databases. Of the 69 unique honey bee proteins found, 66 are also in Drosophila melanogaster. Two proteins only matched honey bee genes and one is a widespread protein lost from the fly genome. There is over-representation of genes implicated in the glycolysis pathway. Metabolism-associated proteins were found primarily in the seminal vesicle. Male accessory gland proteins as identified in Drosophila rarely had orthologs among proteins found in the honey bee. A complete listing of gel spots chosen including honey bee genome matches and Mascot searches of MALDI-TOF results with statistics is in the Supplementary table. MALDI-TOF spectra and more complete Mascot peptide mass fingerprinting data are available on request. Supplementary figs 13 show the stained protein gels.

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<![CDATA[Towards a molecular definition of worker sterility: differential gene expression and reproductive plasticity in honey bees]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b7c578e463d7e13cc387f6a

We show that differences in the reproductive development of honey bee workers are associated with locus-specific changes to abundance of messenger RNA. Using a cross-fostering field experiment to control for differences related to age and environment, we compared the gene expression profiles of functionally sterile workers (wild-type) and those from a mutant strain in which workers are reproductively active (anarchist). Among the set of three genes that are significantly differentially expressed are two major royal jelly proteins that are up-regulated in wild-type heads. This discovery is consistent with sterile workers synthesizing royal jelly as food for developing brood. Likewise, the relative underexpression of these two royal jellies in anarchist workers is consistent with these workers’ characteristic avoidance of alloparental behaviour, in favour of selfish egg-laying. Overall, there is a trend for the most differentially expressed genes to be up-regulated in wild-type workers. This pattern suggests that functional sterility in honey bee workers may generally involve the expression of a suite of genes that effectively ‘switch’ ovaries off, and that selfish reproduction in honey bee workers, though rare, is the default developmental pathway that results when ovary activation is not suppressed.

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<![CDATA[Comparative analysis of serine protease-related genes in the honey bee genome: possible involvement in embryonic development and innate immunity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b7c1034463d7e0846b7bcf4

We have identified 44 serine protease (SP) and 13 serine protease homolog (SPH) genes in the genome of Apis mellifera. Most of these genes encode putative secreted proteins, but four SPs and three SPHs may associate with the plasma membrane via a transmembrane region. Clip domains represent the most abundant non-catalytic structural units in these SP-like proteins −12 SPs and six SPHs contain at least one clip domain. Some of the family members contain other modules for protein–protein interactions, including disulphide-stabilized structures (LDLrA, SRCR, frizzled, kringle, Sushi, Wonton and Pan/apple), carbohydrate-recognition domains (C-type lectin and chitin-binding), and other modules (such as zinc finger, CUB, coiled coil and Sina). Comparison of the sequences with those from Drosophila led to a proposed SP pathway for establishing the dorsoventral axis of honey bee embryos. Multiple sequence alignments revealed evolutionary relationships of honey bee SPs and SPHs with those in Drosophila melanogaster, Anopheles gambiae, and Manduca sexta. We identified homologs of D. melanogaster persephone, M. sexta HP14, PAP-1 and SPH-1. A. mellifera genome includes at least five genes for potential SP inhibitors (serpin-1 through -5) and three genes of SP putative substrates (prophenoloxidase, spätzle-1 and spätzle-2). Quantitative RT-PCR analyses showed an elevation in the mRNA levels of SP2, SP3, SP9, SP10, SPH41, SPH42, SP49, serpin-2, serpin-4, serpin-5, and spätzle-2 in adults after a microbial challenge. The SP41 and SP6 transcripts significantly increased after an injection of Paenibacillus larva, but there was no such increase after injection of saline or Escherichia coli. mRNA levels of most SPs and serpins significantly increased by 48 h after the pathogen infection in 1st instar larvae. On the contrary, SP1, SP3, SP19 and serpin-5 transcript levels reduced. These results, taken together, provide a framework for designing experimental studies of the roles of SPs and related proteins in embryonic development and immune responses of A. mellifera.

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<![CDATA[Genomic and transcriptional analysis of protein heterogeneity of the honeybee venom allergen Api m 6]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b7c1038463d7e0846b7bcf7

Several components of honeybee venom are known to cause allergenic responses in humans and other vertebrates. One such component, the minor allergen Api m 6, has been known to show amino acid variation but the genetic mechanism for this variation is unknown. Here we show that Api m 6 is derived from a single locus, and that substantial protein-level variation has a simple genome-level cause, without the need to invoke multiple loci or alternatively spliced exons. Api m 6 sits near a misassembled section of the honeybee genome sequence, and we propose that a substantial number of indels at and near Api m 6 might be the root cause of this misassembly. We suggest that genes such as Api m 6 with coding-region or untranslated region indels might have had a strong effect on the assembly of this draft of the honeybee genome.

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<![CDATA[Sweetness and light: illuminating the honey bee genome]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b7c1037463d7e0846b7bcf6 ]]> <![CDATA[The PKA-CREB system encoded by the honeybee genome]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b7c1081463d7e0846b7bd34

The cAMP-dependent kinase (PKA) plays a crucial part in long-term memory formation in the honeybee (Apis mellifera). One of the putative substrates of the PKA activity is the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), a transcription factor in the bZIP protein family. We searched the honeybee genome to characterize genes from the CREB/CREM and the PKA families. We identified two genes that encode regulatory subunits and three genes encode catalytic subunits of PKA. Eight genes code for bZIP proteins, but only one gene was found that encodes a member of the CREB/CREM family. The phylogenetic relationship of these genes was analysed with their Drosophila and human counterparts.

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<![CDATA[Genome sequences of the honey bee pathogens Paenibacillus larvae and Ascosphaera apis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b7c1033463d7e0846b7bcf3

Genome sequences offer a broad view of host–pathogen interactions at the systems biology level. With the completion of the sequence of the honey bee, interest in the relevant pathogens is heightened. Here we report the genome sequences of two of the major pathogens of honey bees, the bacterium Paenibacillus larvae (causative agent for American foulbrood disease) and the fungus Ascosphaera apis. (causative agent for chalkbrood disease). Ongoing efforts to characterize the genomes of these species can be used to understand and mitigate the effects of two important pathogens, and will provide a contrast with pathogenic, benign and freeliving relatives.

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<![CDATA[Analysis of 44 Cases before the Landlord and Tenant Board Involving Bed Bug Infestations in Ontario, Canada: Focus on Adjudicator Decisions Based on Entomological/Pest Management Evidence and Accountability under the Residential Tenancy Act and Other Applicable Legislation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5af1fe28463d7e28b728b39f

The resurgence of bed bugs in major urban centres in North America has resulted in conflict between landlords and tenants. This is commonly focused on attribution of blame for source of infestation, on responsibility, on costs for preparation, treatment and losses, and for compensation as rent abatement and/or alternative temporary housing. In Ontario, Canada, these issues are often decided by adjudicators at the Landlord and Tenant Board hearing claims, counter-claims and defense by legal representation (lawyers and paralegals) as well as through mediation. Evidence in these hearings may include photographs, invoices for costs as well as testimony by tenants, landlords and “expert witnesses” who are most often pest control firms representing their landlord clients. A total of 44 Landlord and Tenant Board adjudicated cases available online were analyzed. The analysis included elements of the decisions such as adjudicator, claimant (landlord or tenant), basis of claim, review of evidence, amount of claim, amount awarded, and evaluation of the quality of the evidence. The results of the analysis of these findings are discussed. Recommendations for improvement of adjudicator decisions on the basis of knowledge of bed bug biology and Integrated Pest Management best practices are presented as well as the importance of education of tenants and landlords to a process of mutual trust, support and accountability.

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<![CDATA[Methoprene application and diet protein supplementation to male melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, modifies female remating behavior]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5adb1873463d7e61f0a22fd5

Methoprene (an analogue of juvenile hormone) application and feeding on a protein diet is known to enhance male melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae), mating success. In this study, we investigated the effect of these treatments on male B. cucurbitae's ability to inhibit female remating. While 14-d-old females were fed on protein diet, 6-d-old males were exposed to one of the following treatments: (i) topical application of methoprene and fed on a protein diet; (ii) no methoprene but fed on a protein diet; (iii) methoprene and sugar-fed only; and (iv) sugar-fed, 14-d-old males acted as controls. Treatments had no effect on a male's ability to depress the female remating receptivity in comparison to the control. Females mated with protein-deprived males showed higher remating receptivity than females first mated with protein-fed males. Methoprene and protein diet interaction had a positive effect on male mating success during the first and second mating of females. Significantly more females first mated with sugar-fed males remated with protein-fed males and females first mated with methoprene treated and protein-fed males were more likely to remate with similarly treated males. Females mating latency (time to start mating) was significantly shorter with protein-fed males, and mating duration was significantly longer with protein-fed males compared with protein-deprived males. These results are discussed in the context of methoprene and/or dietary protein as prerelease treatment of sterile males in area-wide control of melon fly integrating the sterile insect technique (SIT).

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<![CDATA[Serological detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Ehrlichia canis antibodies and Dirofilaria immitis antigen in a countrywide survey in dogs in Poland]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5ad7d926463d7e12f460f265

Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) have increasingly become a focus of attention in the past few years. Nevertheless, in many parts of Europe information on their occurrence is still scarce. In a large study in Poland 3,094 serum samples taken from dogs throughout all 16 Polish provinces were tested using a commercial kit for the detection of circulating antibodies against Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Ehrlichia canis and of Dirofilaria immitis antigen. A total of 12.31 % (381/3,094; 95 % confidence interval [CI]: 11.18–13.52 %) and 3.75 % (116/3,094; 95 % CI: 3.11–4.48 %) of the dogs were positive for A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l. antibodies, respectively. Furthermore, 0.26 % (8/3,094; 95 % CI: 0.11–0.51 %) were positive for E. canis antibodies and 0.16 % (5/3,094; 95 % CI: 0.05–0.38 %) for D. immitis antigen. The highest percentages of A. phagocytophilum-positive dogs were noted in Lesser Poland, Silesia and Łódź Provinces. For B. burgdorferi s.l., the highest prevalence was recorded in Łódź Province. Co-infections with A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l. were recorded in 1.71 % of all examined dogs (53/3,094; 95 % CI: 1.29–2.23 %). One dog even had a triple infection, testing positive for E. canis too. Both A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l. have previously been reported in Poland and were confirmed in the present study by positive samples from all 16 provinces. Concerning E. canis and D. immitis travel history or importation cannot be excluded as factors which may have determined the occurrence of these pathogens in the relevant animals. Practitioners in Poland should be aware of the above mentioned CVBDs and of prophylactic measures to protect dogs and their owners.

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