ResearchPad - Marketing https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Information sources and adoption of vaccine during pandemics]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Naa1106a9-784f-4b62-84a7-f968c0c02890

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of different information sources on consumer health behavior during pandemics.

Design/methodology/approach

We collected survey data from 321 adults in a large western US city during November 2009 by mall and street intercepts. We analyzed their beliefs, attitudes and intentions with regard to adoption of the H1N1 (swine flu) vaccine. We developed and tested two alternative models on the role of mass media and personal information sources on the attitude towards the disease and the intention to get vaccinated.

Findings

Our study finds that mass media and personal sources of information simultaneously impact perceived threat from disease (attitude) and the intention to get vaccinated during a global pandemic. Personal information sources are more effective than mass media sources in impacting both attitude and intention. While the impact of mass media weakens from the attitude stage to the intention stage, the impact of personal information sources increases from the attitude stage to the intention stage.

Originality/value

The contribution of this paper to health policy makers and marketers is to draw implications on how mass media and personal information sources could be better utilized to counter future global pandemics.

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<![CDATA[Withdrawn medicines included in the essential medicines lists of 136 countries]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nfc60a8e8-cffd-4562-8a11-e8128980c61b

Background

Essential medicines lists and related policies are intended to meet the priority health needs of populations and their implementation is associated with more appropriate use of medicines. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that countries carefully select the medicines to be included in their national essential medicines lists. Lists that are used to prioritize access to important treatments should not include medicines that have been withdrawn elsewhere because of an unfavourable benefit-to-harm balance; however, countries still list and use medicines that have been withdrawn worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine whether the national essential medicines lists of 137 countries include medicines that have been withdrawn in other countries.

Methods and findings

We performed an audit of national essential medicines lists for medicines that had been withdrawn. Medicines withdrawn from worldwide markets between 1953 and 2014 were identified using a systematic review of published literature and regulatory documents. The reviewers used sources including the WHO’s database of drugs, PubMed, and the websites of regulatory agencies to obtain information regarding adverse effects associated with the medicines, the year of first withdrawal, markets of withdrawal, and the level of evidence supporting each withdrawal. We recorded the number of countries with a withdrawn medicine included in their national medicines list, the number of withdrawn medicines included in each nation’s list, and the number of national essential medicines including each withdrawn medicine. 97 medicines were withdrawn in at least one country but still included in one more national essential medicines list. Of 137 countries with a national essential medicines list, 136 lists included at least one withdrawn medicine, with 54% of the lists containing 5 or fewer withdrawn medicines, and 27% including 10 or more withdrawn medicines. 11 medicines were withdrawn worldwide but still included on at least one national essential medicines list. Countries with longer essential medicines lists had more withdrawn medicines included in their lists.

Conclusions

This study found that withdrawn medicines are included in all but one national essential medicines list, representing a need for more stringent processes for selecting and removing medicines on these lists. Countries may wish to apply special scrutiny to medicines withdrawn in other nations when selecting medicines to include on their lists.

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<![CDATA[Personally relevant online advertisements: Effects of demographic targeting on visual attention and brand evaluation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c70677bd5eed0c4847c70da

Global investments in online advertising rise quickly but internet users often avoid looking at ads due to established banner blindness. Demographic targeting is expected to overcome this tendency by attracting users’ attention to more self-relevant ad content. However, little is known about the effect of demographically targeted versus non-targeted ads on users’ actual attention allocation during exposure to webpages. The present study aimed to further fill this empirical gap by clarifying whether demographic targeting attracts visual attention and to exploratively examine whether it also affects brand attitude and website evaluation, as suggested by previous studies. Eye tracking data revealed that demographic targeting can have medium- to large-sized effects on several eye movement parameters when internet users are in a free-viewing mode. In contrast, demographic targeting did not influence brand attitude and website evaluation. We conclude that attention for personally relevant advertisement can be strong. However, attention, although being a necessary condition for subsequent judgment formation according to the model of human information processing, is not sufficient to elicit positive effects at the level of subjective judgments.

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<![CDATA[Association between commercial funding of Canadian patient groups and their views about funding of medicines: An observational study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c706777d5eed0c4847c7095

Background

Patient groups represent the interest of their members when it comes to drug funding. Many patient groups receive grants from pharmaceutical companies that make products being considered for funding. This research examines whether there is an association between the positions that Canadian groups take about the products and conflicts of interest with the companies.

Methods

The Common Drug Review (CDR) and panCanadian Oncology Drug Review (pCODR) make recommendations to Canadian provincial and federal drug plans about funding particular drug-indications. Both utilize input from patient groups in making their recommendations. Patient group submissions are available from both organizations and these submissions contain statements about conflicts of interest. Views of the patient groups, with and without a conflict with the company making the drug under consideration and without any conflicts at all, were assessed and then compared with the recommendations from CDR and pCODR.

Results

There was a total of 222 reports for drug-indications. There were 372 submissions from 93 different patient groups. Groups declared a total of 1896 conflicts with drug companies in 324 (87.1%) individual submissions. There were 268 submissions where groups declared a conflict with the company making the product or said they had no conflict. Irrespective of whether there was a conflict, the views of patient groups about the drug-indications under consideration were the same. There was no statistically significant difference between views of patient groups and the recommendations from CDR and/or pCODR.

Conclusions

The large majority of patient groups making submissions about funding of particular drug-indications had conflicts with the companies making the products and their views about the products were almost always positive. This association between funding and views needs to be further investigated to determine if a true cause and effect exists.

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<![CDATA[Correlated impulses: Using Facebook interests to improve predictions of crime rates in urban areas]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c61e910d5eed0c48496f765

Much research has examined how crime rates vary across urban neighborhoods, focusing particularly on community-level demographic and social characteristics. A parallel line of work has treated crime at the individual level as an expression of certain behavioral patterns (e.g., impulsivity). Little work has considered, however, whether the prevalence of such behavioral patterns in a neighborhood might be predictive of local crime, in large part because such measures are hard to come by and often subjective. The Facebook Advertising API offers a special opportunity to examine this question as it provides an extensive list of “interests” that can be tabulated at various geographic scales. Here we conduct an analysis of the association between the prevalence of interests among the Facebook population of a ZIP code and the local rate of assaults, burglaries, and robberies across 9 highly populated cities in the US. We fit various regression models to predict crime rates as a function of the Facebook and census demographic variables. In general, models using the variables for the interests of the whole adult population on Facebook perform better than those using data on specific demographic groups (such as Males 18-34). In terms of predictive performance, models combining Facebook data with demographic data generally have lower error rates than models using only demographic data. We find that interests associated with media consumption and mating competition are predictive of crime rates above and beyond demographic factors. We discuss how this might integrate with existing criminological theory.

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<![CDATA[The interplay between endorser social status and normative appeals on the endorsement effectiveness of pro-environmental behaviors]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c478c69d5eed0c484bd22e0

Employing message endorser is a popular strategy in encouraging consumers to protect the environment. This research explores how the social status of endorsers and the forms of normative messages can influence the effectiveness of endorsement for pro-environmental behaviors. Drawing on the focus theory of normative conduct and the match-up hypothesis, the authors propose that the effects of endorser social status on consumers’ responses to green advertising are contingent on whether the normative messages is framed as injunctive norms or descriptive norms. In three experiments, the results indicate that participants show more positive attitudes toward the advertisement and higher intentions to act environmentally friendly when endorsers with high social status are presented in combination with injunctive norm appeals. In contrast, ordinary consumer endorsers produce stronger impact on attitudes and behavioral intentions when descriptive norm appeals are used. These findings show that marketers using endorsers to promote pro-environmental behaviors should develop normative message accordingly.

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<![CDATA[Using physical contact heterogeneity and frequency to characterize dynamics of human exposure to nonhuman primate bodily fluids in central Africa]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c2e7fd9d5eed0c48451bb6f

Emerging infectious diseases of zoonotic origin constitute a recurrent threat to global health. Nonhuman primates (NHPs) occupy an important place in zoonotic spillovers (pathogenic transmissions from animals to humans), serving as reservoirs or amplifiers of multiple neglected tropical diseases, including viral hemorrhagic fevers and arboviruses, parasites and bacteria, as well as retroviruses (simian foamy virus, PTLV) that are pathogenic in human beings. Hunting and butchering studies in Africa characterize at-risk human social groups, but overlook critical factors of contact heterogeneity and frequency, NHP species differences, and meat processing practices. In southeastern Cameroon, a region with a history of zoonotic emergence and high risk of future spillovers, we conducted a novel mixed-method field study of human physical exposure to multiple NHP species, incorporating participant-based and ecological methodologies, and qualitative interviews (n = 25). We find frequent physical contact across adult human populations, greater physical contact with monkeys than apes, especially for meat handling practices, and positive correlation of human exposure with NHP species abundance and proximity to human settlement. These fine-grained results encourage reconsideration of the likely dynamics of human-NHP contact in past and future NTD emergence events. Multidisciplinary social science and ecological approaches should be mobilized to generate more effective human and animal surveillance and risk communications around neglected tropical diseases. At a moment when the WHO has included “Disease X”, a presumably zoonotic pathogen with pandemic potential, on its list of blueprint priority diseases as, new field-based tools for investigating zoonotic disease emergence, both known and unknown, are of critical importance.

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<![CDATA[An fNIRS-based investigation of visual merchandising displays for fashion stores]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c1966cbd5eed0c484b52e5c

This paper investigates a brain-based approach for visual merchandising display (VMD) in fashion stores. In marketing, VMD has become a research topic of interest. However, VMD research using brain activation information is rare. We examine the hemodynamic responses (HRs) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) while positive/negative displays of four stores (menswear, womenswear, underwear, and sportswear) are shown to 20 subjects. As features for classifying the HRs, the mean, variance, peak, skewness, kurtosis, t-value, and slope of the signals for a 20-sec time window for the activated channels are analyzed. Linear discriminant analysis is used for classifying two-class (positive and negative displays) and four-class (four fashion stores) models. PFC brain activation maps based on t-values depicting the data from the 16 channels are provided. In the two-class classification, the underwear store had the highest average classification result of 67.04%, whereas the menswear store had the lowest value of 64.15%. Men’s classification accuracy for the underwear stores with positive and negative displays was 71.38%, whereas the highest classification accuracy obtained by women for womenswear stores was 73%. The average accuracy over the 20 subjects for positive displays was 50.68%, while that of negative displays was 51.07%. Therefore, these findings suggest that human brain activation is involved in the evaluation of the fashion store displays. It is concluded that fNIRS can be used as a brain-based tool in the evaluation of fashion stores in a daily life environment.

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<![CDATA[PathFX provides mechanistic insights into drug efficacy and safety for regulatory review and therapeutic development]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c141eabd5eed0c484d27adc

Failure to demonstrate efficacy and safety issues are important reasons that drugs do not reach the market. An incomplete understanding of how drugs exert their effects hinders regulatory and pharmaceutical industry projections of a drug’s benefits and risks. Signaling pathways mediate drug response and while many signaling molecules have been characterized for their contribution to disease or their role in drug side effects, our knowledge of these pathways is incomplete. To better understand all signaling molecules involved in drug response and the phenotype associations of these molecules, we created a novel method, PathFX, a non-commercial entity, to identify these pathways and drug-related phenotypes. We benchmarked PathFX by identifying drugs’ marketed disease indications and reported a sensitivity of 41%, a 2.7-fold improvement over similar approaches. We then used PathFX to strengthen signals for drug-adverse event pairs occurring in the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) and also identified opportunities for drug repurposing for new diseases based on interaction paths that associated a marketed drug to that disease. By discovering molecular interaction pathways, PathFX improved our understanding of drug associations to safety and efficacy phenotypes. The algorithm may provide a new means to improve regulatory and therapeutic development decisions.

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<![CDATA[Changes over time in Lithuanian schoolchildren’s attitudes toward addictive behaviors: Promoting and preventing factors]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c117b39d5eed0c48469853d

Background

Concern is growing about the high prevalence of traditional and new forms of addictive behaviors among young people due to the health risks and a better understanding of the factors causing these behaviors is needed.

Aim

To evaluate tendencies in the attitudes of Lithuanian schoolchildren toward addictive behaviors over a three year period and to ascertain the promoting and preventing factors of such behaviors.

Methods

The researchers developed a survey which was conducted twice over a three year period. The sample consisted of pupils in the 5th, 9th and 12th grades (N = 1590, age range 11–19 years) from both urban and rural areas.

Results

Both the recognition of and involvement in addictive behaviors significantly increased with age. Motivation to abstain due to internal factors decreased with age and increased among pupils already involved in addictive behaviors. Time- and age-related differences were found regarding substance abuse and behavioral addictions. Whilst betting adverts were increasingly noticed over time, smoking adverts were decreasingly noticed over the three year period and it was concomitant with inconsistent changes in self-reported involvement in these behaviors.

Conclusions

Most significant changes in the attitudes of Lithuanian pupils toward addictive behaviors occur between the ages of 11 and 15 years. However, age-related changes differ for the pupils’ attitudes toward substance abuse and behavioral addictions. Increasing awareness of the potential risk of addictive behaviors does not prevent their increasing prevalence with age. Increased risk of involvement in addictive behavior correlates with decreased internal motivation to abstain from addictive behavior and decreased recognition of its potential risks. No clear correlation was found between significant changes in noticing adverts and involvement in addictive behaviors.

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<![CDATA[Spatial transmission of H5N2 highly pathogenic avian influenza between Minnesota poultry premises during the 2015 outbreak]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bae98f940307c0c23a1c154

The spatial spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N2 during the 2015 outbreak in the U.S. state of Minnesota was analyzed through the estimation of a spatial transmission kernel, which quantifies the infection hazard an infectious premises poses to an uninfected premises some given distance away. Parameters were estimated using a maximum likelihood method for the entire outbreak as well as for two phases defined by the daily number of newly detected HPAI-positive premises. The results indicate both a strong dependence of the likelihood of transmission on distance and a significant distance-independent component of outbreak spread for the overall outbreak. The results further suggest that HPAI spread differed during the later phase of the outbreak. The estimated spatial transmission kernel was used to compare the Minnesota outbreak with previous HPAI outbreaks in the Netherlands and Italy to contextualize the Minnesota transmission kernel results and make additional inferences about HPAI transmission during the Minnesota outbreak. Lastly, the spatial transmission kernel was used to identify high risk areas for HPAI spread in Minnesota. Risk maps were also used to evaluate the potential impact of an early marketing strategy implemented by poultry producers in a county in Minnesota during the outbreak, with results providing evidence that the strategy was successful in reducing the potential for HPAI spread.

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