ResearchPad - Microbiology (medical) https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Potentially Same Novel Ehrlichia Species in Horses in Nicaragua and Brazil]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b5997bb463d7e77ce8a4a1d ]]> <![CDATA[Susceptibility patterns and the role of extracellular DNA in Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm resistance to physico-chemical stress exposure]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b5952d6463d7e5b5d3ed183

Background

Over 65% of human infections are ascribed to bacterial biofilms that are often highly resistant to antibiotics and host immunity. Staphylococcus epidermidis is the predominant cause of recurrent nosocomial and biofilm-related infections. However, the susceptibility patterns of S. epidermidis biofilms to physico-chemical stress induced by commonly recommended disinfectants [(heat, sodium chloride (NaCl), sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)] in domestic and human healthcare settings remains largely unknown. Further, the molecular mechanisms of bacterial biofilms resistance to the physico-chemical stresses remain unclear. Growing evidence demonstrates that extracellular DNA (eDNA) protects bacterial biofilms against antibiotics. However, the role of eDNA as a potential mechanism underlying S. epidermidis biofilms resistance to physico-chemical stress exposure is yet to be understood. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the susceptibility patterns of and eDNA release by S. epidermidis biofilm and planktonic cells to physico-chemical stress exposure.

Results

S. epidermidis biofilms exposed to physico-chemical stress conditions commonly recommended for disinfection [heat (60 °C), 1.72 M NaCl, solution containing 150 μL of waterguard (0.178 M NaOCl) in 1 L of water or 1.77 M H2O2] for 30 and 60 min exhibited lower log reductions of CFU/mL than the corresponding planktonic cells (p < 0.0001). The eDNA released by sub-lethal heat (50 °C)-treated S. epidermidis biofilm and planktonic cells was not statistically different (p = 0.8501). However, 50 °C-treated S. epidermidis biofilm cells released significantly increased eDNA than the untreated controls (p = 0.0098). The eDNA released by 0.8 M NaCl-treated S. epidermidis biofilm and planktonic cells was not significantly different (p = 0.9697). Conversely, 5 mM NaOCl-treated S. epidermidis biofilms exhibited significantly increased eDNA release than the corresponding planktonic cells (p = 0.0015). Further, the 50 μM H2O2-treated S. epidermidis biofilms released significantly more eDNA than the corresponding planktonic cells (p = 0.021).

Conclusions

S. epidermidis biofilms were less susceptible to physico-chemical stress induced by the four commonly recommended disinfectants than the analogous planktonic cells. Further, S. epidermidis biofilms enhanced eDNA release in response to the sub-lethal heat and oxidative stress exposure than the corresponding planktonic cells suggesting a role of eDNA in biofilms resistance to the physico-chemical stresses.

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<![CDATA[Molecular characterization and new genotypes of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in pet chipmunks (Eutamias asiaticus) in Sichuan province, China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b58ebdd463d7e5414116037

Background

Enterocytozoon bieneusi, the most commonly identified microsporidian species in humans, is also identified in livestock, birds, rodents, reptiles, companion animals, even wastewater. However, there is no information available on occurrence of E. bieneusi in pet chipmunks. The aim of the present study was to determine the genotypes, molecular characterization of E. bieneusi in pet chipmunks, and assess the zoonotic potential.

Results

A total of 279 fecal specimens were collected from chipmunks from seven pet shops and one breeding facility in Sichuan province, China. The prevalence for E. bieneusi was 17.6% (49/279) based on nested PCR targeting the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. The prevalence of E. bieneusi in chipmunks < 90 days of age was significantly higher than that in older chipmunks; however, differences among different sources and between genders were not significant. Eight genotypes of E. bieneusi were identified, including four known genotypes (D, Nig7, CHG9, and CHY1) and four novel genotypes (SCC-1 to 4). Phylogenetic analysis classified these genotypes into four distinct groups as follows: genotypes D and CHG9 clustered into group 1 of zoonotic potential; genotypes Nig7 and CHY1 clustered into group 6 and a new group, respectively; the four novel genotypes (SCC-1 to 4) formed a separate group named group 10.

Conclusions

To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the prevalence and genotypes of E. bieneusi in pet chipmunks in China. Genotypes D and Nig7, found in chipmunks in this study, have also been previously identified in humans, which suggests that chipmunks might play a role in the transmission of this pathogen to humans.

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<![CDATA[Bats, Coronaviruses, and Deforestation: Toward the Emergence of Novel Infectious Diseases?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bfdca0cd5eed0c4846462d6 ]]> <![CDATA[Genomic characterisation of Leptospira inadai serogroup Lyme isolated from captured rat in Brazil and comparative analysis with human reference strain]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b4c0fb0463d7e0329bcc427

Leptospira inadai is classified as a species of the Leptospira intermediate group that has been poorly studied due to its apparent insignificance to human and animal health. Nevertheless, over the last two decades the species has been described in human cases in India and in carrier animals in Ecuador. Here, we present the first identification and genomic characterisation of L. inadai serogroup Lyme isolated from captured rodent in Brazil. Even though the M34/99 strain was not pathogenic for hamsters, it was able to establish renal colonisation. The M34/99 strain presented high similarity with L. inadai serogroup Lyme human reference indicating that animal strain could also infect humans, although it does not represent high risk of severe disease. An extrachromosomal sequence was also identified in M34/99 strain and presented high identity with previously described L. inadai phage LinZ_10, suggesting that phage-like extrachromosomal sequence may be another feature of this understudied species.

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<![CDATA[Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis Infection in a Domestic Rabbit, Germany]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b4b75ea463d7e75da2403a4

Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis is an opportunistic pathogen present in soil and dust. We report M. avium subsp. hominissuis infection found in a domestic rabbit in Hannover, Germany, in May 2017.

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<![CDATA[PHENOS: a high-throughput and flexible tool for microorganism growth phenotyping on solid media]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b4a7e10463d7e6681b4b2ed

Background

Microbial arrays, with a large number of different strains on a single plate printed with robotic precision, underpin an increasing number of genetic and genomic approaches. These include Synthetic Genetic Array analysis, high-throughput Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) analysis and 2-hybrid techniques. Measuring the growth of individual colonies within these arrays is an essential part of many of these techniques but is useful for any work with arrays. Measurement is typically done using intermittent imagery fed into complex image analysis software, which is not especially accurate and is challenging to use effectively. We have developed a simple and fast alternative technique that uses a pinning robot and a commonplace microplate reader to continuously measure the thickness of colonies growing on solid agar, complemented by a technique for normalizing the amount of cells initially printed to each spot of the array in the first place. We have developed software to automate the process of combining multiple sets of readings, subtracting agar absorbance, and visualizing colony thickness changes in a number of informative ways.

Results

The “PHENOS” pipeline (PHENotyping On Solid media), optimized for Saccharomyces yeasts, produces highly reproducible growth curves and is particularly sensitive to low-level growth. We have empirically determined a formula to estimate colony cell count from an absorbance measurement, and shown this to be comparable with estimates from measurements in liquid. We have also validated the technique by reproducing the results of an earlier QTL study done with conventional liquid phenotyping, and found PHENOS to be considerably more sensitive.

Conclusions

“PHENOS” is a cost effective and reliable high-throughput technique for quantifying growth of yeast arrays, and is likely to be equally very useful for a range of other types of microbial arrays. A detailed guide to the pipeline and software is provided with the installation files at https://github.com/gact/phenos.

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (10.1186/s12866-017-1143-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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<![CDATA[Emergomyces africanus in Soil, South Africa]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b4a7caf463d7e6681b4b2e8

We detected Emergomyces africanus, a thermally dimorphic fungus that causes an HIV-associated systemic mycosis, by PCR in 18 (30%) of 60 soil samples from a wide range of habitats in South Africa. Direct and indirect culture techniques were unsuccessful. Experimental intraperitoneal inoculation of conidia induced murine disease.

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<![CDATA[Experimental Infection and Response to Rechallenge of Alpacas with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bcafcf340307c48521e262b

We conducted a challenge/rechallenge trial in which 3 alpacas were infected with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. The alpacas shed virus at challenge but were refractory to further shedding at rechallenge on day 21. The trial indicates that alpacas may be suitable models for infection and shedding dynamics of this virus.

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<![CDATA[MERS-CoV Infection of Alpaca in a Region Where MERS-CoV is Endemic]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bcafc9d40307c48521e2613 ]]> <![CDATA[Go in for the kill]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bc26a9640307c2017bbd495

Plant resistance (R) proteins perceive specific pathogen effectors from diverse plant pathogens to initiate defense responses, designated effector-triggered immunity (ETI). Plant R proteins are mostly nucleotide binding-leucine rich repeat (NB-LRR) proteins, which recognize pathogen effectors directly or indirectly through sophisticated mechanisms. Upon activation by effector proteins, R proteins elicit robust defense responses, including a rapid burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS), induced biosynthesis and accumulation of salicylic acid (SA), a rapid programmed cell death (PCD) called hypersensitive response (HR) at the infection sites, and increased expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes. Initiation of ETI is correlated with a complex network of defense signaling pathways, resulting in defensive cellular responses and large-scale transcriptional reprogramming events. In this review, we highlight important recent advances on the recognition of effectors, regulation and activation of plant R proteins, dynamic intracellular trafficking of R proteins, induction of cell death, and transcriptional reprogramming associated with ETI. Current knowledge gaps and future research directions are also discussed in this review.

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<![CDATA[Effector biology during biotrophic invasion of plant cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bc26a9340307c2017bbd494

Several obligate biotrophic phytopathogens, namely oomycetes and fungi, invade and feed on living plant cells through specialized structures known as haustoria. Deploying an arsenal of secreted proteins called effectors, these pathogens balance their parasitic propagation by subverting plant immunity without sacrificing host cells. Such secreted proteins, which are thought to be delivered by haustoria, conceivably reprogram host cells and instigate structural modifications, in addition to the modulation of various cellular processes. As effectors represent tools to assist disease resistance breeding, this short review provides a bird’s eye view on the relationship between the virulence function of effectors and their subcellular localization in host cells.

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<![CDATA[Effector triggered immunity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bc26a9140307c2017bbd493

Pathogenic bacteria produce virulence factors called effectors, which are important components of the infection process. Effectors aid in pathogenesis by facilitating bacterial attachment, pathogen entry into or exit from the host cell, immunoevasion, and immunosuppression. Effectors also have the ability to subvert host cellular processes, such as hijacking cytoskeletal machinery or blocking protein translation. However, host cells possess an evolutionarily conserved innate immune response that can sense the pathogen through the activity of its effectors and mount a robust immune response. This “effector triggered immunity” (ETI) was first discovered in plants but recent evidence suggest that the process is also well conserved in metazoans. We will discuss salient points of the mechanism of ETI in metazoans from recent studies done in mammalian cells and invertebrate model hosts.

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<![CDATA[The role of effectors and host immunity in plant–necrotrophic fungal interactions]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bc26a9840307c2017bbd496

Fungal diseases pose constant threats to the global economy and food safety. As the largest group of plant fungal pathogens, necrotrophic fungi cause heavy crop losses worldwide. The molecular mechanisms of the interaction between necrotrophic fungi and plants are complex and involve sophisticated recognition and signaling networks. Here, we review recent findings on the roles of phytotoxin and proteinaceous effectors, pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), and small RNAs from necrotrophic fungi. We also consider the functions of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), the receptor-like protein kinase BIK1, and epigenetic regulation in plant immunity to necrotrophic fungi.

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<![CDATA[Community Case Clusters of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus in Hafr Al-Batin, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A Descriptive Genomic study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bbec99840307c264bf63979

Summary

The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was first described in September 2012 and to date 86 deaths from a total of 206 cases of MERS-CoV infection have been reported to the WHO. Camels have been implicated as the reservoir of MERS-CoV, but the exact source and mode of transmission for most patients remain unknown. During a 3 month period, June to August 2013, there were 12 positive MERS-CoV cases reported from the Hafr Al-Batin region district in the north east region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In addition to the different regional camel festivals in neighboring countries, Hafr Al-Batin has the biggest camel market in the entire Kingdom and hosts an annual camel festival. Thus, we conducted a detailed epidemiological, clinical and genomic study to ascertain common exposure and transmission patterns of all cases of MERS-CoV reported from Hafr Al-Batin. Analysis of previously reported genetic data indicated that at least two of the infected contacts could not have been directly infected from the index patient and alternate source should be considered. While camels appear as the likely source, other sources have not been ruled out. More detailed case control studies with detailed case histories, epidemiological information and genomic analysis are being conducted to delineate the missing pieces in the transmission dynamics of MERS-CoV outbreak.

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<![CDATA[Family Cluster of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infections, Tunisia, 2013]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5ba72b2940307c7113450062

In 2013 in Tunisia, 3 persons in 1 family were infected with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). The index case-patient’s respiratory tract samples were negative for MERS-CoV by reverse transcription PCR, but diagnosis was retrospectively confirmed by PCR of serum. Sequences clustered with those from Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates.

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<![CDATA[Porcine Coronavirus HKU15 Detected in 9 US States, 2014]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5ba72af140307c7113450048 ]]> <![CDATA[Isolation of MERS Coronavirus from a Dromedary Camel, Qatar, 2014]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5ba5e80a40307c595fed164f

We obtained the full genome of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) from a camel in Qatar. This virus is highly similar to the human England/Qatar 1 virus isolated in 2012. The MERS-CoV from the camel efficiently replicated in human cells, providing further evidence for the zoonotic potential of MERS-CoV from camels.

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<![CDATA[Geographic Distribution of MERS Coronavirus among Dromedary Camels, Africa]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5ba5e7b740307c595fed162a

We found serologic evidence for the circulation of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus among dromedary camels in Nigeria, Tunisia, and Ethiopia. Circulation of the virus among dromedaries across broad areas of Africa may indicate that this disease is currently underdiagnosed in humans outside the Arabian Peninsula.

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<![CDATA[Rapid Detection, Complete Genome Sequencing, and Phylogenetic Analysis of Porcine Deltacoronavirus]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5ba5e7f240307c595fed1645

In February 2014, porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) was identified in the United States. We developed a PDCoV real-time reverse transcription PCR that identified PDCoV in 30% of samples tested. Four additional PDCoV genomes from the United States were sequenced; these had ≈99%–100% nt similarity to the other US PDCoV strains.

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