ResearchPad - Molecular Medicine https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Challenges and Future Prospects of Precision Medicine in Psychiatry]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nc7e14344-465a-4b7b-bbc3-e5736a6e7375

Abstract

Precision medicine is increasingly recognized as a promising approach to improve disease treatment, taking into consideration the individual clinical and biological characteristics shared by specific subgroups of patients. In specific fields such as oncology and hematology, precision medicine has already started to be implemented in the clinical setting and molecular testing is routinely used to select treatments with higher efficacy and reduced adverse effects. The application of precision medicine in psychiatry is still in its early phases. However, there are already examples of predictive models based on clinical data or combinations of clinical, neuroimaging and biological data. While the power of single clinical predictors would remain inadequate if analyzed only with traditional statistical approaches, these predictors are now increasingly used to impute machine learning models that can have adequate accuracy even in the presence of relatively small sample size. These models have started to be applied to disentangle relevant clinical questions that could lead to a more effective management of psychiatric disorders, such as prediction of response to the mood stabilizer lithium, resistance to antidepressants in major depressive disorder or stratification of the risk and outcome prediction in schizophrenia. In this narrative review, we summarized the most important findings in precision medicine in psychiatry based on studies that constructed machine learning models using clinical, neuroimaging and/or biological data. Limitations and barriers to the implementation of precision psychiatry in the clinical setting, as well as possible solutions and future perspectives, will be presented.

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<![CDATA[Post-translational modifications and stress adaptation: the paradigm of FKBP51]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N466313a2-a8f0-4e5e-aec5-9e6600c95be2

Adaptation to stress is a fundamental requirement to cope with changing environmental conditions that pose a threat to the homeostasis of cells and organisms. Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins represent a possibility to quickly produce proteins with new features demanding relatively little cellular resources. FK506 binding protein (FKBP) 51 is a pivotal stress protein that is involved in the regulation of several executers of PTMs. This mini-review discusses the role of FKBP51 in the function of proteins responsible for setting the phosphorylation, ubiquitination and lipidation of other proteins. Examples include the kinases Akt1, CDK5 and GSK3β, the phosphatases calcineurin, PP2A and PHLPP, and the ubiquitin E3-ligase SKP2. The impact of FKBP51 on PTMs of signal transduction proteins significantly extends the functional versatility of this protein. As a stress-induced protein, FKBP51 uses re-setting of PTMs to relay the effect of stress on various signaling pathways.

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<![CDATA[Involvement of p53-dependent apoptosis signal in antitumor effect of Colchicine on human papilloma virus (HPV)-positive human cervical cancer cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nf252f75d-f123-460d-be01-4a92f19e6b11

Abstract

Colchicine, a plant-derived alkaloid with relatively low toxicity on normal human epidermal keratinocytes (HEKn), has selective inhibitory effect on the growth of CaSki (HPV16-positive) and HeLa (HPV18-positive) human cervical cancer cell lines via the induction of apoptosis. Colchicine (2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 ng/ml) significantly reduced the expression of human papilloma virus (HPV) 16 E6/E7 mRNA and protein in CaSki and HeLa cells. Moreover, reduced expression of E6 and E7 induced by Colchicine resulted in the up-regulation of tumor suppressor proteins, p53 and Rb, as well as down-regulation of phospho Rb (pRb) protein. In addition, Bax, cytosolic cytochrome c and cleaved caspase-3 protein were increased while Bcl-2 protein was decreased significantly by 48 h of Colchicine treatment. These results implied that Colchicine could be explored as a potent candidate agent for the treatment and prevention of HPV-associated cervical cancer without deleterious effects.

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<![CDATA[Sappanone A alleviates hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced cardiomyocytes injury through inhibition of mitochondrial apoptosis and activation of PI3K–Akt–Gsk-3β pathway]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N6dd7e059-3ecb-44b6-a063-cbcecf746dfd

Abstract

Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury (MIRI) is a complex pathophysiological process involved with the activation of oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis. Sappanone A (SA), a homoisoflavanone isolated from the heartwood of Caesalpinia sappan L., could exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activities. Therefore, we assumed that SA has a potential use for preventing against MIRI. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of SA treatment on MIRI and its mechanism. Cardiomyocytes (H9c2 cells) were treated with SA for 1 h, followed by 6 h of hypoxia/3 h of reoxygenation. Cell viability assay was detected by CCK-8 assay. Apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry and Hoechst staining. Mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) were measured by spectrophotometry and JC-1 staining. The changes of mitochondrial apoptosis-related proteins and PI3K–Akt–Gsk-3β signaling pathway were evaluated by Western blotting. The results showed that SA pretreatment enhanced the cell viability and decreased the activity of myocardial enzyme in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, SA pretreatment significantly inhibited apoptosis, blocked mPTP opening, suppressed the release of ΔΨm, prevented the cytochrome c releasing from mitochondria into cytoplasm, and repressed the cleavage of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Furthermore, SA pretreatment increased the phosphorylation levels of Akt and Gsk-3β but not of Stat-3. Meanwhile, the protective effect of SA was abrogated by PI3K inhibitor (LY294002). In conclusion, our results demonstrate that SA could prevent hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced cardiomyocytes injury through inhibition of mitochondrial apoptosis and activation of PI3K–Akt–Gsk-3β pathway. Thus, SA may have a potential use for the prevention of MIRI.

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<![CDATA[Proteostasis regulators modulate proteasomal activity and gene expression to attenuate multiple phenotypes in Fabry disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Ncb67bb93-58cf-4196-99ee-9f62076d3ef2

The lysosomal storage disorder Fabry disease is characterized by a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme α-Galactosidase A. The observation that missense variants in the encoding GLA gene often lead to structural destabilization, endoplasmic reticulum retention and proteasomal degradation of the misfolded, but otherwise catalytically functional enzyme has resulted in the exploration of alternative therapeutic approaches. In this context, we have investigated proteostasis regulators (PRs) for their potential to increase cellular enzyme activity, and to reduce the disease-specific accumulation of the biomarker globotriaosylsphingosine in patient-derived cell culture. The PRs also acted synergistically with the clinically approved 1-deoxygalactonojirimycine, demonstrating the potential of combination treatment in a therapeutic application. Extensive characterization of the effective PRs revealed inhibition of the proteasome and elevation of GLA gene expression as paramount effects. Further analysis of transcriptional patterns of the PRs exposed a variety of genes involved in proteostasis as potential modulators. We propose that addressing proteostasis is an effective approach to discover new therapeutic targets for diseases involving folding and trafficking-deficient protein mutants.

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<![CDATA[Inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α accumulation by glyceryl trinitrate and cyclic guanosine monophosphate]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N1b004ac6-ccf9-4123-a526-0404519c4776

Abstract

A key mechanism mediating cellular adaptive responses to hypoxia involves the activity of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), a transcription factor composed of HIF-1α, and HIF-1β subunits. The classical mechanism of regulation of HIF-1 activity involves destabilisation of HIF-1α via oxygen-dependent hydroxylation of proline residues and subsequent proteasomal degradation. Studies from our laboratory revealed that nitric oxide (NO)-mediated activation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signalling inhibits the acquisition of hypoxia-induced malignant phenotypes in tumour cells. The present study aimed to elucidate a mechanism of HIF-1 regulation involving NO/cGMP signalling. Using human DU145 prostate cancer cells, we assessed the effect of the NO mimetic glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) and the cGMP analogue 8-Bromo-cGMP on hypoxic accumulation of HIF-1α. Concentrations of GTN known to primarily activate the NO/cGMP pathway (100 nM–1 µM) inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1α protein accumulation in a time-dependent manner. Incubation with 8-Bromo-cGMP (1 nM–10 µM) also attenuated HIF-1α accumulation, while levels of HIF-1α mRNA remained unaltered by exposure to GTN or 8-Bromo-cGMP. Furthermore, treatment of cells with the calpain (Ca2+-activated proteinase) inhibitor calpastatin attenuated the effects of GTN and 8-Bromo-cGMP on HIF-1α accumulation. However, since calpain activity was not affected by incubation of DU145 cells with various concentrations of GTN or 8-Bromo-cGMP (10 nM or 1 µM) under hypoxic or well-oxygenated conditions, it is unlikely that NO/cGMP signalling inhibits HIF-1α accumulation via regulation of calpain activity. These findings provide evidence for a role of NO/cGMP signalling in the regulation of HIF-1α, and hence HIF-1-mediated hypoxic responses, via a mechanism dependent on calpain.

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<![CDATA[2-Methylquinazoline derivative 23BB as a highly selective histone deacetylase 6 inhibitor alleviated cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N3754d22e-423e-4038-bba7-89aa96f82518

Abstract

Histone deacetylases 6 (HDAC6) has been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). Selective inhibition of HDAC6 might be a potential treatment for AKI. In our previous study, a highly selective HDAC6 inhibitor (HDAC6i) 23BB effectively protected against rhabdomyolysis-induced AKI with good safety. However, whether 23BB possessed favorable renoprotection against cisplatin-induced AKI and the involved mechanisms remained unknown. In the study, cisplatin-injected mice developed severe AKI symptom as indicated by acute kidney dysfunction and pathological changes, companied by the overexpression of HDAC6 in tubular epithelial cells. Pharmacological inhibition of HDAC6 by the treatment of 23BB significantly attenuated sCr, BUN and renal tubular damage. Mechanistically, 23BB enhanced the acetylation of histone H3 to reduce the HDAC6 activity. Cisplatin-induced AKI triggered multiple signal mediators of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress including PERK, ATF6 and IRE1 pathway, as well as CHOP, GRP78, p-JNK and caspase 12 proteins. Oral administration of our HDAC6i 23BB at a dose of 40 mg/kg/d for 3 days notably improved above-mentioned responses in the injured kidney tissues. HDAC6 inhibition also reduced the number of TUNEL-positive tubular cells and regulated apoptosis-related protein expression. Overall, these data highlighted that HDAC6 inhibitor 23BB modulated apoptosis via the inhibition of ER stress in the tubular epithelial cells of cisplatin-induced AKI.

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<![CDATA[Eupatilin alleviates airway remodeling via regulating phenotype plasticity of airway smooth muscle cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N10cbf5a0-a8e6-4bdb-86ba-06cb0cedf942

Abstract

Childhood asthma is a common chronic airway disease, and its severe form remains a challenge. Eupatilin is a bioactive natural flavone that has been found to possess potential anti-asthma activity. However, the roles of eupatilin in asthma remain to be elucidated. In the present study, airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) were applied for the in vitro investigation since their phenotype plasticity make great contribution to airway remodeling during asthma pathogenesis. Our results showed that eupatilin suppressed the transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1)-induced proliferation and migration of ASMCs. Exposure of ASMCs to eupatilin increased the expressions of contractile markers smooth muscle α-actin (α-SMA) and myocardin, whereas expressions of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins type I collagen (Coll I) and fibronectin were reduced. Furthermore, eupatilin treatment reversed the activation of nuclear factor-κ B (NF-κB), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and AKT pathways caused by TGF-β1 in ASMCs. These findings suggested that eupatilin might attenuate airway remodeling via regulating phenotype plasticity of ASMCs.

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<![CDATA[Overcoming cisplatin resistance in osteosarcoma through the miR-199a-modulated inhibition of HIF-1α]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N8431908f-1d12-47c1-8866-c82d22996a3d

Abstract

Dysregulation of miRNAs has been shown to contribute to multiple tumorigenic processes, as well as to correlate with tumour progression and prognosis. miR-199a has been shown to be dysregulated in multiple tumour types. However, the association between miR-199a and the chemoresistance features of osteosarcoma are not well understood, the target genes for miR-199a and the regulatory mechanisms are also unknown. In the present study, we demonstrated that miR-199a is expressed at low levels in osteosarcoma cells and patient samples. By the selection and establishment of cisplatin resistant osteosarcoma cell line, we observed a correlation between miR-199a and cisplatin resistance in osteosarcoma cells: resistant cells exhibit attenuated miR-199a expressions and exogenous overexpression of miR-199a sensitizes osteosarcoma cells to cisplatin. Moreover, we identified HIF-1α as a direct target for miR-199a. Intriguingly, cisplatin resistant osteosarcoma cells display significantly elevated HIF-1α expression under hypoxia. We report here overexpression of miR-199a resensitizes cisplatin resistant cells to cisplatin through inhibition of HIF-1α in vitro and in vivo. Finally, by analysing the clinical osteosarcoma patient samples, we demonstrate a reverse correlation between miR-199a and HIF-1α mRNAs. Our study will provide mechanisms for the miRNA-mediated anticancer therapy and miR-199a may be considered a promising therapeutic agent for osteosarcoma patients who fail to respond to conventional chemotherapy.

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<![CDATA[CLIC4/Arf6 Pathway]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c4b9219d5eed0c484878183

Supplemental Digital Content is available in the text.

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<![CDATA[A Decision Support Tool Facilitating Medicine Design for Optimal Acceptability in The Older Population]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b59793f463d7e5ce270da2e

Purpose

Medicine acceptability, which is of the utmost importance for vulnerable patients’ adherence, is driven by both user and product characteristics. Herein, a novel multivariate approach integrating the many aspects of acceptability is used to discriminate positively and negatively accepted medicines in the older population.

Methods

An observational study was carried out in eight hospitals and eight nursing homes to collect a large set of real-life data on medicines uses in older patients (≥65 years). Mapping and clustering explored these multiple observational measures and summarised the main information into an intelligible reference framework. Resampling statistics were used to validate the model’s reliability.

Results

A three-dimensional map and two clusters defining acceptability profiles, as positive or negative, emerged from the 1079 evaluations. Factors of interest (medicines, user features…) were positioned on the map at the barycentre of their evaluations and assigned to an acceptability profile. Focusing on patients’ ability to swallow, we have highlighted the tool’s efficacy in demonstrating the impact of user features on medicine acceptability.

Conclusions

This multivariate approach provides a relevant judgement criterion for this multi-dimensional concept. Facilitating the choice of the most appropriate dosage form to achieve optimal acceptability in a targeted population, this tool is of real potential to improve clinical decisions.

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<![CDATA[Identification of COL4A1 as a potential gene conferring trastuzumab resistance in gastric cancer based on bioinformatics analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b594318463d7e5a17cb0a04

Trastuzumab, the first targeted antibody against human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), has been used to treat gastric cancer patients with HER2 overexpression. However, trastuzumab resistance often occurs following an initial period of benefits, and the underlying mechanisms remain largely unclear. The present study revealed that collagen type IV α1 chain (COL4A1), whose expression is upregulated in gastric cancer tissues and trastuzumab-resistant gastric cancer cells, may potentially confer trastuzumab resistance in gastric cancer. By performing bioinformatics analysis of 2 microarray datasets, the present study initially identified COL4A1, overexpressed in gastric cancer tissues and trastuzumab-resistant gastric cancer cells, as a potential candidate for inducing trastuzumab resistance. The drug resistance function of COL4A1 in gastric cancer was then validated by performing protein/gene interactions and biological process annotation analyses, and further validated by analyzing the functionality of microRNAs that target COL4A1 mRNA. Collectively, these data indicated that COL4A1 may confer trastuzumab resistance in gastric cancer.

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<![CDATA[miR-34 modulates apoptotic gene expression in Ingenol mebutate treated keloid fibroblasts]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b594351463d7e5a17cb0a05

Keloids are benign skin tumors that develop in individuals who have a positive family history of keloid disorders. Keloids are characterized by a deregulated wound-healing process, atypical fibroblasts with extreme deposition of extracellular matrix components, particularly collagen, increased cell proliferation and associated failure of apoptosis. Recently ingenol-mebutate has been used as a novel agent with anti-proliferative activity on human keloids as an alternative treatment option in patients, once conventional therapies have failed. We hypothesized that microRNAs (miR/miRNA) may be involved in the balance between lesion formation and repair. A comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying the Ingenol-mebutate response in keloid fibroblast following Ingenol-mebutate exposure has been established previously. Therefore, the present study analyzed changes in miRNAs and apoptotic gene regulation in Ingenol-mebutate treated keloid fibroblast, by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and a DNA fragmentation assay. The range of upregulated miRNAs and downregulated genes encoding cell death appeared to be associated with the degree of the morphological alterations in Ingenol-mebutate treated keloids. In particular, the upregulation of miR-34a was detected in keloid fibroblasts during and following Ingenol-mebutate exposure. Keloid fibroblasts that overexpressed miR-34a showed differential expression of genes involved in the apoptotic signaling pathway such as p53. In conclusion, the Ingenol-mebutate treatment used here was effective in reducing keloid fibroblast growth in cell culture experiments and the expression of particular miRNAs modulated the pro-apoptotic gene expression following Ingenol-mebutate treatment.

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<![CDATA[PEGylated crushed gold shell-radiolabeled core nanoballs for in vivo tumor imaging with dual positron emission tomography and Cerenkov luminescent imaging]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b58ec17463d7e5414116038

Background

Radioactive isotope-labeled gold nanomaterials have potential biomedical applications. Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of PEGylated crushed gold shell-radioactive iodide-124-labeled gold core nanoballs (PEG-124I-Au@AuCBs) for in vivo tumor imaging applications through combined positron emission tomography and Cerenkov luminescent imaging (PET/CLI).

Results

PEG-124I-Au@AuCBs showed high stability and sensitivity in various pH solutions, serum, and in vivo conditions and were not toxic to tested cells. Combined PET/CLI clearly revealed tumor lesions at 1 h after injection of particles, and both signals remained visible in tumor lesions at 24 h, consistent with the biodistribution results.

Conclusion

Taken together, the data provided strong evidence for the application of PEG-124I-Au@AuCBs as promising imaging agents in nuclear medicine imaging of various biological systems, particularly in cancer diagnosis.

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (10.1186/s12951-018-0366-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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<![CDATA[Sleep deprivation disrupts the lacrimal system and induces dry eye disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b58925f463d7e4bbcb756ea

Sleep deficiency is a common public health problem associated with many diseases, such as obesity and cardiovascular disease. In this study, we established a sleep deprivation (SD) mouse model using a ‘stick over water’ method and observed the effect of sleep deficiency on ocular surface health. We found that SD decreased aqueous tear secretion; increased corneal epithelial cell defects, corneal sensitivity, and apoptosis; and induced squamous metaplasia of the corneal epithelium. These pathological changes mimic the typical features of dry eye. However, there was no obvious corneal inflammation and conjunctival goblet cell change after SD for 10 days. Meanwhile, lacrimal gland hypertrophy along with abnormal lipid metabolites, secretory proteins and free amino-acid profiles became apparent as the SD duration increased. Furthermore, the ocular surface changes induced by SD for 10 days were largely reversed after 14 days of rest. We conclude that SD compromises lacrimal system function and induces dry eye. These findings will benefit the clinical diagnosis and treatment of sleep-disorder-related ocular surface diseases.

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<![CDATA[Maximizing sensitivity for fast GABA edited spectroscopy in the visual cortex at 7 T]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b5877fd463d7e499e71c3c8

The combination of functional MRI (fMRI) and MRS is a promising approach to relate BOLD imaging to neuronal metabolism, especially at high field strength. However, typical scan times for GABA edited spectroscopy are of the order of 6‐30 min, which is long compared with functional changes observed with fMRI.

The aim of this study is to reduce scan time and increase GABA sensitivity for edited spectroscopy in the human visual cortex, by enlarging the volume of activated tissue in the primary visual cortex. A dedicated setup at 7 T for combined fMRI and GABA MRS is developed. This setup consists of a half volume multi‐transmit coil with a large screen for visual cortex activation, two high density receive arrays and an optimized single‐voxel MEGA‐sLASER sequence with macromolecular suppression for signal acquisition.

The coil setup performance as well as the GABA measurement speed, SNR, and stability were evaluated. A 2.2‐fold gain of the average SNR for GABA detection was obtained, as compared with a conventional 7 T setup. This was achieved by increasing the viewing angle of the participant with respect to the visual stimulus, thereby activating almost the entire primary visual cortex, allowing larger spectroscopy measurement volumes and resulting in an improved GABA SNR. Fewer than 16 signal averages, lasting 1 min 23 s in total, were needed for the GABA fit method to become stable, as demonstrated in three participants. The stability of the measurement setup was sufficient to detect GABA with an accuracy of 5%, as determined with a GABA phantom. In vivo, larger variations in GABA concentration are found: 14‐25%. Overall, the results bring functional GABA detections at a temporal resolution closer to the physiological time scale of BOLD cortex activation.

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<![CDATA[Differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into two distinct NKX6.1 populations of pancreatic progenitors]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b4d09cb463d7e142d5b64da

Background

The expression of a specific combination of transcription factors (TFs) in the multipotent progenitor cells (MPCs) is critical for determining pancreatic cell fate. NKX6.1 expression in PDX1+ MPCs is required for functional β cell generation. We have recently demonstrated the generation of a novel population of human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived MPCs that exclusively express NKX6.1, independently of PDX1 (PDX1/NKX6.1+). Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize this novel population to elucidate its role in pancreatic development.

Methods

The hPSCs were exposed to two differentiation protocols to generate MPCs that were analyzed using different techniques.

Results

Based on the expression of PDX1 and NKX6.1, we generated three different populations of MPCs, two of them were NKX6.1+. One of these NKX6.1 populations coexpressed PDX1 (PDX1+/NKX6.1+) which is known to mature into functional β cells, and an additional novel population did not express PDX1 (PDX1/NKX6.1+) with an undefined role in pancreatic cell fate. This novel population was enriched using our recently established protocol, allowing their reorganization in three-dimensional (3D) structures. Since NKX6.1 induction in MPCs can direct them to endocrine and/or ductal cells in humans, we examined the coexpression of endocrine and ductal markers. We found that the expression of the pancreatic endocrine progenitor markers chromogranin A (CHGA) and neurogenin 3 (NGN3) was not detected in the NKX6.1+ 3D structures, while few structures were positive for NKX2.2, another endocrine progenitor marker, thereby shedding light on the origin of this novel population and its role in pancreatic endocrine development. Furthermore, SOX9 was highly expressed in the 3D structures, but cytokeratin 19, a main ductal marker, was not detected in these structures.

Conclusions

These data support the existence of two independent NKX6.1+ MPC populations during human pancreatic development and the novel PDX1/NKX6.1+ population may be involved in a unique trajectory to generate β cells in humans.

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (10.1186/s13287-018-0834-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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<![CDATA[Endolysosomal Cation Channels and Cancer—A Link with Great Potential]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b4cd5af463d7e0fba429df8

The endolysosomal system (ES) consists of lysosomes; early, late, and recycling endosomes; and autophagosomes. It is a key regulator not only of macromolecule degradation and recycling, plasma membrane repair, homeostasis, and lipid storage, but also of antigen presentation, immune defense, cell motility, cell death signaling, tumor growth, and cancer progression. In addition, it plays a critical role in autophagy, and the autophagy-lysosome pathway is intimately associated with the hallmarks of cancer, such as escaping cell death pathways, evading immune surveillance, and deregulating metabolism. The function of endolysosomes is critically dependent on both soluble and endolysosomal membrane proteins such as ion channels and transporters. Cation channels found in the ES include members of the TRP (transient receptor potential) channel superfamily, namely TRPML channels (mucolipins) as well as two-pore channels (TPCs). In recent studies, these channels have been found to play crucial roles in endolysosomal trafficking, lysosomal exocytosis, and autophagy. Mutation or loss of these channel proteins can impact multiple endolysosomal trafficking pathways. A role for TPCs in cancer cell migration and metastasis, linked to distinct defects in endolysosomal trafficking such as integrin trafficking, has been recently established. In this review, we give an overview on the function of lysosomes in cancer with a particular focus on the roles which TPCs and TRPML channels play in the ES and how this can affect cancer cells.

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<![CDATA[Long non-coding RNA BC168687 small interfering RNA reduces high glucose and high free fatty acid-induced expression of P2X7 receptors in satellite glial cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b4c6e09463d7e0b052d96f8

Purinergic signaling contributes to inflammatory and immune responses. The activation of the P2X purinoceptor 7 (P2X7) in satellite glial cells (SGCs) may be an essential component in the promotion of inflammation and neuropathic pain. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in multiple physiological and pathological processes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a small interfering RNA for the lncRNA BC168687 on SGC P2X7 expression in a high glucose and high free fatty acids (HGHF) environment. It was demonstrated that BC168687 small interfering (si)RNA downregulated the co-expression of the P2X7 and glial fibrillary acidic protein and P2X7 mRNA expression. Additionally, HGHF may activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway by increasing the release of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species in SGCs. Taken together, these results indicate that silencing BC168687 expression may downregulate the increased expression of P2X7 receptors in SGCs induced by a HGHF environment.

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<![CDATA[Silencing Lin28 promotes apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells by upregulating let-7c targeting of antiapoptotic BCL2L1]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b4c6dc2463d7e0b052d96f7

Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a primary contributor to cancer-associated mortality. The Lin28/let-7 axis has previously been verified to participate in numerous pathophysiological processes involved in CRC. However, the potential roles and underlying mechanisms of this axis in apoptosis during CRC remain to be fully elucidated. The present study aimed to evaluate the role and reveal the molecular mechanisms of the Lin28/let-7 axis in the apoptosis of CRC cells. An MTT assay was conducted to assess the cell viability of HCT116 and HT29 CRC cells, and caspase-3 activity was analyzed to measure the apoptosis of CRC cells. Western blotting and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction were performed to examine the expression of Lin28, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X protein, Bcl-2-like 1 (BCL2L1) and let-7c. The present study demonstrated that Lin28 was upregulated whereas let-7c was downregulated in CRC tissues and cell lines compared with normal tissues and NCM460 normal colon epithelial cells, respectively. Forced overexpression of let-7c promoted apoptosis in CRC cells, which was at least partially mediated via the targeting of BCL2L1. Furthermore, knockdown of Lin28 decreased viability and promoted apoptosis in CRC cells, whereas this effect was attenuated by let-7c inhibition. The findings of the present study suggest the involvement of the Lin28/let-7c axis in apoptosis during CRC, and indicate the potential role of this pathway as a novel therapeutic target in CRC.

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