ResearchPad - Nephrology https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[A Hemodialysis Patient with Severe COVID-19 Pneumonia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11601 Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a novel coronavirus that has spread rapidly, resulting in a worldwide pandemic. Even though end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients are particularly susceptible to COVID-19 infection and can develop severe to critical disease, there are limited studies and case reports about COVID-19 in ESRD patients. We report a case of a 63-year-old gentleman with ESRD on regular hemodialysis. We describe the clinical presentation of this patient, the diagnostic process, the laboratory and imaging investigations, as well as the course of treatment. He positively responded to a 14-day course of Lopinavir-Ritonavir, Ribavirin, Azithromycin, and Hydroxychloroquine.

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<![CDATA[Patients with chronic kidney disease have a poorer prognosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): an experience in New York City]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10665 <![CDATA[Bradycardia, Renal Failure, Atrioventricular Nodal Blockade, Shock, and Hyperkalemia (BRASH) Syndrome as a Presentation of Coronavirus Disease 2019]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10511 The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has led to a global pandemic. While acute respiratory failure has been the predominant concern, there have been reports of other end-organ damage such as renal failure. We report a case of an elderly woman who presented with BRASH syndrome, a constellation of bradycardia, renal failure, atrioventricular (AV) nodal blockade, shock, and hyperkalemia (BRASH), which was likely triggered by COVID-19.

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<![CDATA[Severe Kidney Injury After a 110-km Trail Race]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10498 We present a case of severe, acute kidney injury, rhabdomyolysis and dehydration in a 49-year-old, competitive trail runner, after a 110-km trail race in mountainous terrain. Six days after the event, he presented to the hospital with fatigue, weight gain and oedema. Biochemically the diagnosis of severe, acute kidney injury was made, with increased serum creatinine levels of 13.4 mg/dL (normal range 0.67-1.17 mg/dL). He remained hospitalised for two weeks, and improved with conservative measures, without the need for renal replacement therapy. Likely risk factors included ingestion of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs prior to the event, dehydration and prolonged running in mountainous environment at moderate altitude. Renal function largely returned to baseline levels four months after initial presentation. This case highlights that severe kidney injury can occur, even days after ultra-running events, especially in the presence of associated risk factors. If repeated cases of acute kidney injury can trigger chronic kidney injury is currently unclear and further research in this area is warranted. In the meantime, efforts should be made to educate athletes, coaches and health care professionals about the dangers of acute kidney injury and associated risk factors.

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<![CDATA[Geotrichosis Presenting As Funguria and Asymptomatic Urinary Tract Infection in a Patient with Renal Cyst]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9468 Fungi are a versatile group of microorganisms that exist in three morphological forms, which include the yeasts (oval/spherical budding cells), true fungi (produce long filamentous, branching structures called as hyphae/mycelia), and dimorphic fungi (show both yeast at 370C and hyphal forms at room temperature). Most fungi are present in the environment and live as saprophytes. Some fungal species like the Candida are present in the human respiratory, intestinal, and genitourinary tract as commensals. Some fungi cause infections in humans and animals (dermatophytes). Few other fungal species are responsible for opportunistic infections, mostly in debilitated and immunosuppressed individuals. Geotrichum is one such fungus, which is present in the soil, dead, and decomposing organic matter, and may contaminate food, fruits, and vegetables. Geotrichosis is the infection caused by Geotrichum species. Due to its similarity in morphology, clinical features, and the pathogenicity with common fungi like the Candida species, and others, its clinical significance is undermined. This report presents a case of funguria and asymptomatic urinary tract infection caused by Geotrichum species in a patient with a renal cyst. 

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<![CDATA[Propylene glycol neurotoxicity due to sodium citrate therapy in an infant with renal tubular acidosis ]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9381 Sodium citrate in its liquid formulation is commonly used as therapy for renal tubular acidosis in pediatric patients. Convenient dosing and administration is important to ensure long-term medication adherence and normal growth in the chronic forms of this condition. Liquid sodium citrate formulations contain propylene glycol, a commonly used excipient, which can be toxic at high doses. Propylene glycol toxicity due to medication excipients has been reported in the literature, including many cases secondary to sustained exposure to intravenous anti-epileptics, however toxicity associated with oral sodium citrate therapy has not been described. We report the first case of propylene glycol neurotoxicity in a 6-week-old infant with renal tubular acidosis treated with sodium citrate. Clinical suspicion of risk for medication-related toxicity and awareness of propylene glycol content in sodium citrate led to timely diagnosis and management. Awareness of increased risk of toxicity in pediatric patients due to high sodium citrate requirement and low propylene glycol metabolism capacity is important for optimal care for pediatric patients with renal tubular acidosis.

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<![CDATA[Development of End Stage Renal Disease after Long-Term Ingestion of Chaga Mushroom: Case Report and Review of Literature]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8427

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<![CDATA[Metabolomics window into the role of acute kidney injury after coronary artery bypass grafting in diabetic nephropathy progression]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8326 Metabolomics has emerged as a valuable tool to discover novel biomarkers and study the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, the effect of postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) on diabetes mellitus (DM) to chronic DN progression has not been evaluated from the perspective of metabolomics.MethodsA group of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) inpatients, who underwent off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), were enrolled in our study. According to whether postoperative AKI occurred, patients were grouped in either the AKI group (AKI, n = 44) or the non-AKI group (NAKI, n = 44). Urine samples were collected from these patients before and 24 h after operation. Six patients from the AKI group and six patients from the NAKI group were chosen as the pilot cohort for untargeted metabolomics analysis, with the goal of identifying postoperative AKI-related metabolites. To understand the possible role of these metabolites in the chronic development of renal injury among T2DM patients, trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline and azelaic acid were quantified by targeted metabolomics analysis among 38 NAKI patients, 38 AKI patients, 46 early DN patients (DN-micro group), and 34 overt DN patients (DN-macro group).ResultsUntargeted metabolomics screened 61 statistically distinguishable metabolites in postoperative urine samples, compared with preoperative urine samples. Via Venn diagram analysis, nine of 61 were postoperative AKI-related metabolites, including trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline, uridine triphosphate, p-aminobenzoate, caffeic acid, adrenochrome, δ-valerolactam, L-norleucine, 5′-deoxy-5′-(methylthio) adenosine, and azelaic acid. By targeted metabolomics analysis, the level of trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline increased gradually from the NAKI group to the AKI, DN-micro, and DN-macro groups. For azelaic acid, the highest level was found in the NAKI and DN-micro groups, followed by the DN-macro group. The AKI group exhibited the lowest level of azelaic acid.ConclusionsThe detection of urinary trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline after AKI could be treated as an early warning of chronic DN progression and might be linked to renal fibrosis. Urinary azelaic acid can be used to monitor renal function noninvasively in DM and DN patients. Our results identified markers of AKI on DM and the chronic progression of DN. In addition, the progression of DN was associated with AKI-like episodes occurring in DM. ]]> <![CDATA[Oxalate Nephropathy in an <i>Oxalobacter formigenes</i>–Negative Subject]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_5932 <![CDATA[Java Barb Fish Gallbladder–Induced Acute Kidney Injury and Ischemic Acute Hepatic Failure]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_5929 <![CDATA[Collateral Damage—The Risks of Central Venous Hemodialysis Catheters]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_5922 <![CDATA[Long-Standing Hypokalemia and Lactic Acidosis as the Primary Presentation of Mitochondrial Myopathy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_5910 <![CDATA[Conned by Conn’s: The Manifestation of Conn’s Syndrome Post-renal Transplant in a Patient with Polycystic Kidney Disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N7cf5652e-d78b-427e-ac95-c868bc6b14f5 We present the case of a 66-year-old African-American male with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) secondary to polycystic kidney disease (PCKD), with well-controlled hypertension. He was placed on peritoneal dialysis for two years before successfully undergoing a cadaveric renal transplant. There was an immediate graft function with no relevant postoperative complications. On regular follow-ups two months later, the patient now presents with worsening control of hypertension despite an increase in anti-hypertensive medications. Common causes of new-onset hypertension, such as renal artery stenosis, anti-calcineurin therapy, and allograft injury, were excluded. The patient’s biochemistry revealed the presence of hypokalemia, which was absent in previous reports. In light of this, plasma aldosterone and renin levels were sent and were found to be elevated: aldosterone: 50.4 ng/dL, renin: 0.4 ng/dL, aldosterone-renin Ratio (ARR): 126. In retrospect, a routine CT (computed tomography) scan performed in 2017 revealed an adrenal adenoma of 17 x 13 mm, which was diagnosed as an incidental finding at that time. A repeat CT scan was performed and showed no change in the size of the adenoma. In view of the new symptoms, the patient was started on spironolactone with little to no improvement in blood pressure and potassium levels. We present a case of Conn's syndrome in a patient with PCKD manifesting only after a renal transplant.

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<![CDATA[Comparison of immediate versus delayed streak plate inoculation on urine bacterial culture and susceptibility testing in dogs and cats]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N81ba3498-cbed-497e-ad26-a15409adc2e7

Abstract

Background

Quantitative bacterial culture and susceptibility testing is the gold standard diagnostic for determining bacterial urinary tract infection. Transport of samples to external reference laboratories is common practice in veterinary medicine.

Objective

To compare bacterial culture and susceptibility results from clinical urine samples when streak plate inoculation is performed immediately after sample collection versus after transport to a reference laboratory. To determine the clinical implications of discrepant culture results.

Animals

One hundred and ninety‐four canine and 45 feline urine samples that were submitted for urinalysis and urine culture and susceptibility testing.

Methods

This was a prospective, cross‐sectional study. Streak plate inoculations were performed on urine samples immediately after collection and also after transport to a reference laboratory. Samples were stored in plain sterile tubes and refrigerated up to 24 hours before transport. Culture results were compared, and discordant results were evaluated for clinical relevance. Signalment, comorbidities, lower urinary tract signs, and antimicrobial history were recorded.

Results

Kappa coefficient for agreement between plating methods was 0.884. Twenty‐two (71%) of 31 discrepant results were determined to have no clinical impact. Though 35% of clean midstream samples had discrepant culture results, only 8% of these had clinical impact. Conversely, 8.6% from cystocentesis were discrepant, but 41% of these had clinical impact.

Conclusions and Clinical Importance

Provided urine samples are stored and transported appropriately, the immediate preplating of urine for culture and susceptibility testing is unnecessary in the majority of cases. Despite more discrepancies in plating methods for midstream samples, the minority were of clinical importance.

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<![CDATA[Urine cortisol‐creatinine and protein‐creatinine ratios in urine samples from healthy dogs collected at home and in hospital]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N029afea0-969a-462a-a96b-cb5d72af0a44

Abstract

Background

Recently, urine protein:creatinine ratios (UPC) were shown to be lower in urine samples from dogs collected at home (AH) as compared to those collected in hospital (IH). Stress‐inducing procedures and travel to the hospital have been hypothesized to cause prerenal proteinuria.

Objectives

Evaluate patient stress using urine cortisol:creatinine ratios (UCCr) and correlate UCCr to UPC in urine samples obtained AH and IH.

Animals

Thirty‐six healthy, client‐owned dogs.

Methods

Prospective, non‐masked study. Two voided urine samples were obtained (AH and IH). Complete urinalysis as well as UPC and UCCr were performed. Clients graded their dogs' stress level AH, in transport, and IH.

Results

The UCCr was significantly higher in IH samples than in AH samples (P < .0001), but UPC was not significantly different between AH and IH urine samples (P = .14). In all samples and in both collection settings, UCCr was not significantly correlated with UPC. Travel time and time IH were not correlated with change in UCCr or UPC. In 8 dogs with borderline or overt proteinuria, no significant difference was found in UPC between settings, but UCCr was significantly higher in IH samples.

Conclusions and Clinical Importance

The UPC was not higher when measured in urine samples collected IH compared to AH. Dogs had higher UCCr IH, but UCCr was not associated with UPC. Stress, as estimated by UCCr, did not affect proteinuria. Further evidence is needed to support the claim that stress may result in proteinuria in healthy dogs.

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<![CDATA[Characteristics associated with bacterial growth in urine in 451 proteinuric dogs (2008‐2018)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd1a629ec-e60b-4b95-88fe-bc95b571e638

Abstract

Background

Urine cultures are frequently recommended to rule out infection as a postrenal cause of proteinuria.

Objective

Identify characteristics associated with bacterial growth in urine in proteinuric dogs.

Animals

Four hundred and fifty‐one dogs admitted to a teaching hospital between January 2008 and January 2018 with urine protein‐to‐creatinine ratios (UPCs) >0.5.

Methods

Retrospective study included dogs with a UPC, urinalysis, and quantitative urine culture (QUC) performed within a 72‐hour period by searching electronic records. Dogs with recent antimicrobial therapy, urine collected by methods other than cystocentesis, or UPC ≤0.5 were excluded. Signalment, comorbidities, serum BUN and creatinine concentrations, urinalysis findings, and QUC results were recorded. The association between these characteristics and presence of bacterial growth in urine was assessed by univariable and multivariable analysis.

Results

Thirty of four hundred fifty‐one dogs (6.7%) had bacterial growth in urine. Of these, 18 (60.0%) had active urine sediment. Bacterial growth in urine was associated with pyuria (odd ratio [OR] 25.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 7.9‐79.6, P < .001), bacteriuria (OR 11.1, 95% CI 3.2‐39.1, P < .001), and lower urinary tract disease (OR 6.7, 95% CI 1.9‐23.0; P = .0028). If QUC was prompted based on these criteria, 8/451 (1.8%) of proteinuric dogs would have had undetected bacterial growth.

Conclusions and Clinical Importance

The proportion of proteinuric dogs with both inactive urine sediment and bacterial growth in urine was low, suggesting that QUC might not be necessary in the evaluation of all proteinuric dogs. An active urine sediment or lower urinary tract disease should prompt QUC for proteinuric dogs.

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<![CDATA[Acute kidney injury due to Leptospira interrogans in 4 foals and use of renal replacement therapy with intermittent hemodiafiltration in 1 foal]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N4b811237-ab44-41c0-a809-faa6e33df7d4

Abstract

Four 2‐month‐old foals were presented to an equine hospital with acute kidney injury caused by Leptospira interrogans infection. Clinical signs were nonspecific and included lethargy, fever, and unwillingness to nurse. The most important hematologic and clinicopathologic findings were azotemia, anemia, thrombocytopenia, hyponatremia, and hypochloremia. The diagnosis was based on urinary real‐time PCR, serology using a microscopic agglutination test, or both. The most important serovars involved were L. interrogans serogroup australis serovar Bratislava and Australis. Treatment consisted of IV fluid therapy and antimicrobial treatment. Renal replacement therapy with hemodiafiltration was performed in 1 of the foals. All foals survived to discharge. This report highlights the importance of early diagnosis and treatment in foals with acute kidney injury caused by L. interrogans infection.

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<![CDATA[Renal expression and urinary excretion of liver‐type fatty acid‐binding protein in cats with renal disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N9612d178-09b4-4a29-8745-f2a0052639a2

Abstract

Background

Liver‐type fatty acid‐binding protein (L‐FABP) is a biomarker for early detection of renal disease in humans. Liver‐type fatty acid‐binding protein is cytotoxic oxidation products secreted from proximal tubules under ischemia and oxidative stress.

Objective

To examine renal expression and quantify urinary excretion of L‐FABP in catswith renal disease.

Animals

One hundred and thirty‐four client‐owned cats including 34 cats with serum creatinine (sCre) values >1.6 mg/dL and 10 other cats that died in clinics.

Methods

Tissue expressions of L‐FABP were examined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Urinary L‐FABP (uL‐FABP) and serum L‐FABP (sL‐FABP) levels were determined by enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay. Anti‐liver‐type fatty acid‐binding protein antibody immunostained renal sections.

Results

Feline kidneys express L‐FABP. Strong L‐FABP signals were observed in the lumens of proximal tubular cells in 5 cats with high uL‐FABP excretion, but not in 5 cats with low uL‐FABP excretion. In 9 normal cats, uL‐FABP index was <1.2 μg/g urinary creatinine (uCre). High uL‐FABP indexes (>10.0 μg/g uCre) were detected in 7 of 100 cats with low sCre (<1.6 mg/dL) and 18 of 44 cats with high sCre (>1.6 mg/dL). There was a weak correlation between L‐FABP index and sCre, serum symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), or blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and these correlation coefficients were increased by analyzing only data of cats with sCre >1.6 mg/dL. There was a weak correlation between u L‐FABP index and sL‐FABP in all tested cats, but not in cats with high sCre.

Conclusions and Clinical Importance

This study demonstrates correlations between L‐FABP and current renal biomarkers for chronic kidney disease in cats, such as sCre and SDMA. Liver‐type fatty acid‐binding protein may be a potential biomarker to predict early pathophysiological events in feline kidneys.

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<![CDATA[Measurement of preprandial and postprandial urine calcium to creatinine ratios in male Miniature Schnauzers with and without urolithiasis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne6b2effd-0997-4eaa-9be3-20306831cf87

Abstract

Background

We aimed to identify a simple test for excessive calciuresis and predict calcium oxalate (CaOx) disease in Miniature Schnauzers. We investigated the impact of postprandial time on the urine calcium to creatinine ratio (UCa/Cr) in male dogs of this breed, with the goal of improving the utility of the UCa/Cr.

Hypotheses

(1) Significant differences will exist in preprandial and postprandial UCa/Cr between CaOx urolith‐forming and control Schnauzers. (2) The UCa/Cr will increase significantly from the first morning baseline at 1 postprandial time point(s) in both control and CaOx urolith‐forming dogs. (3) Biochemical abnormalities and other variables may be associated with urolith status.

Animals

Twenty‐four male Miniature Schnauzer dogs, consisting of 9 with (urolith formers) and 15 without (controls) CaOx uroliths.

Methods

Urine was collected before and 1, 2, 4, and 8 hours after feeding a standardized diet. Receiver operator characteristic curve analysis was performed to identify the UCa/Cr cutoff that most accurately differentiates dogs based on urolith status.

Results

Urolith formers had significantly higher mean UCa/Cr over the course of 8 hours. The postprandial change in UCa/Cr was not significant at any time point between or within groups. The cutoff UCa/Cr value of 0.06 had a specificity of 93% (95% confidence interval [CI], 80%‐100%) and a sensitivity of 56% (95% CI, 21%‐86%) for identifying CaOx urolithiasis.

Conclusions and Clinical Importance

Urolith‐forming male Miniature Schnauzers have excessive calciuresis, and the postprandial sampling time up to 8 hours is not critical. This simple urine measurement has potential as a marker of CaOx disease.

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<![CDATA[Transurethral cystoscopy in dogs with recurrent urinary tract infections: Retrospective study (2011‐2018)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N6534702e-96c5-4964-b648-36fa033c9cdf

Abstract

Background

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in female dogs and recurrent infections often require investigation by transurethral cystoscopy.

Hypothesis/Objectives

Describe the findings of transurethral cystoscopy in dogs presented for recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI).

Animals

Fifty‐three client‐owned dogs with RUTI were included in the study.

Methods

Retrospective study. Data collected from medical records included signalment, clinical findings, bladder wall culture, cystoscopic, and histopathologic findings. UTI was defined as: presence of compatible clinical signs and at least 2 out of 3 of the following criteria: (1) pyuria, (2) positive urine culture, (3) resolution of clinical signs with antibiotic treatment. Recurrence of UTI was defined as at least 2 episodes of UTI within 6 months or at least 3 or more in 1 year.

Results

The mean age at presentation was 3.8 years with a majority of female dogs (48/53), 40/48 of which were spayed. Main breeds were Labrador (10/53), Australian Shepherd (4/53), and Miniature Schnauzer (3/53). A hooded vulva was noted in 33/48 of females. Transurethral cystoscopy showed anomalies in 45/53 of cases: mucosal edema (19/53), vestibulovaginal septal remnant (15/48), lymphoid follicles (8/53), short urethra (6/53), and ectopic ureter (5/53). Urine culture at the time of cystoscopy was positive in 13/49. Bladder wall edema and ulceration were the most common findings on histopathology (25/39).

Conclusion and Clinical Importance

RUTI occurred more frequently in spayed female dogs. Transurethral cystoscopy is useful in the diagnosis and treatment of anomalies in dogs with RUTIs.

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