ResearchPad - Neurology Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Autoantibody-Negative Immune-Mediated Necrotizing Myopathy Responds to Early and Aggressive Treatment: A Case Report]]> Immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM) is a rare idiopathic disease that is further classified by the presence of serum antibodies. A modicum of patients lack serum autoantibodies. Significantly elevated creatine kinase (CK) is highly characteristic of IMNM. The pathophysiology of IMNM is partially understood, and effective treatment options are limited, particularly in patients without serum autoantibodies. In this case, we report a 76-year-old male presenting with a four-month history of proximal muscle weakness. Muscle biopsy and serology confirmed the diagnosis of autoantibody-negative IMNM. Early and aggressive treatment with high-dose steroids and a course of intravenous immunoglobulin significantly reduced the patient’s symptoms and CK within three months. This case serves as an example of an effective treatment outcome in a patient with this rare idiopathic necrotizing myopathy.

<![CDATA[Guillain-Barre Syndrome, Neuroborreliosis, or Both]]> Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is an acute paralytic neuropathy. Limited reports of GBS caused by tick-borne pathogens exist. Lyme disease is a tick-borne infectious disease that is commonly caused by Borrelia burgdorferi. The nervous system may be involved and is called neuroborreliosis.

In this case, we report a 30-year-old female who presented to the emergency department with one week of diffuse, increasing weakness in the upper/lower extremities and face after a recent gastrointestinal illness and travel to the Northeastern United States. Areflexia was noted in bilateral lower extremities. Lumbar puncture results together with clinical presentation were consistent with a diagnosis of GBS. Lab results later revealed a possible Lyme infection in cerebrospinal fluid, which along with recent travel to endemic area gave high suspicion for Lyme disease. The patient was treated for both diseases with significant improvement.

Taking a good history is an essential first step in diagnosis, as travel history was key in testing for Lyme.

<![CDATA[Unilateral Hydrocephalus Due to Lateral Ventricle Colloid Cyst Treated by Neuroendoscopic Approach]]> Colloid cysts (CCs) are rare brain tumors that cause nonspecific neurological signs associated with acute or chronic increased intracranial pressure. They are usually located in the third ventricle and rarely in the lateral ventricle. This is a report of an unusual case of CC located in the lateral ventricle. A 36-year-old male patient presented a story of progressive holocranial headache that would get worse with head mobilization and cough. Radiological analysis demonstrated enlargement of the right lateral ventricle due to a cyst blocking the right foramen of Monro. The patient underwent endoscopic neurosurgery and the cyst was totally resected. Histological evaluation diagnosed a CC. Postoperative images showed no cyst remaining and normalized ventricular size. The patient evolved with total improvement of the symptoms. Literature review shows that it is a very uncommon entity. Lateral ventricle CCs as a cause for unilateral hydrocephalus is a very rare entity. Neuroendoscopic approach is a first-line treatment option for this condition.

<![CDATA[G-CSF (filgrastim) treatment for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: protocol for a phase II randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group, multicentre clinical study (STEMALS-II trial)]]> Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal progressive neurological disorder characterised by a selective degeneration of motor neurons (MNs). Stem cell transplantation is considered as a promising strategy in neurological disorders therapy and the possibility of inducing bone marrow cells (BMCs) to circulate in the peripheral blood is suggested to investigate stem cells migration in degenerated ALS nerve tissues where potentially repair MN damage. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a growth factor which stimulates haematopoietic progenitor cells, mobilises BMCs into injured brain and it is itself a neurotrophic factor for MN. G-CSF safety in humans has been demonstrated and many observations suggest that it may affect neural cells. Therefore, we decided to use G-CSF to mobilise BMCs into the peripheral circulation in patients with ALS, planning a clinical trial to evaluate the effect of G-CSF administration in ALS patients compared with placebo.Methods and analysisSTEMALS-II is a phase II multicentre, randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group clinical trial on G-CSF (filgrastim) and mannitol in ALS patients. Specifically, we investigate safety, tolerability and efficacy of four repeated courses of intravenous G-CSF and mannitol administered in 76 ALS patients in comparison with placebo (indistinguishable glucose solution 5%). We determine increase of G-CSF levels in serum and cerebrospinal fluid as CD34+ cells and leucocyte count after treatment; reduction in ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised Score, forced vital capacity, Scale for Testing Muscle Strength Score and quality of life; the adverse events/reactions during the treatment; changes in neuroinflammation biomarkers before and after treatment.Ethics and disseminationThe study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria ‘Città della Salute e della Scienza’, Torino, Italy. Results will be presented during scientific symposia or published in scientific journals.Trial registration numberEudract 2014-002228-28. ]]> <![CDATA[Participant and informant memory-specific cognitive complaints predict future decline and incident dementia: Findings from the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study]]> Subjective Cognitive Complaints (SCCs) may represent one of the earliest stages of preclinical dementia. The objective of the present study was to extend previous work by our group to examine the relationship between participant-reported and informant-reported memory and non-memory SCCs, cognitive decline and incident dementia, over a six-year period. Participants were 873 community dwelling older adults (Mage = 78.65, SD = 4.79) without dementia and 843 informants (close friends or family) from the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study. Comprehensive neuropsychological testing and diagnostic assessments were carried out at baseline and biennially for six years. Linear mixed models and Cox proportional hazard models were performed to determine the association of SCCs, rate of cognitive decline and risk of incident dementia, controlling demographics and covariates of mood and personality. Participant and informant memory-specific SCCs were associated with rate of global cognitive decline; for individual cognitive domains, participant memory SCCs predicted decline for language, while informant memory SCCs predicted decline for executive function and memory. Odds of incident dementia were associated with baseline participant memory SCCs and informant memory and non-memory SCCs in partially adjusted models. In fully adjusted models, only informant SCCs were associated with increased risk of incident dementia. Self-reported memory-specific cognitive complaints are associated with decline in global cognition over 6-years and may be predictive of incident dementia, particularly if the individual is depressed or anxious and has increased neuroticism or decreased openness. Further, if and where possible, informants should be sought and asked to report on their perceptions of the individual’s memory ability and any memory-specific changes that they have noticed as these increase the index of diagnostic suspicion.

<![CDATA[Pooling individual participant data from randomized controlled trials: Exploring potential loss of information]]> Pooling individual participant data to enable pooled analyses is often complicated by diversity in variables across available datasets. Therefore, recoding original variables is often necessary to build a pooled dataset. We aimed to quantify how much information is lost in this process and to what extent this jeopardizes validity of analyses results.MethodsData were derived from a platform that was developed to pool data from three randomized controlled trials on the effect of treatment of cardiovascular risk factors on cognitive decline or dementia. We quantified loss of information using the R-squared of linear regression models with pooled variables as a function of their original variable(s). In case the R-squared was below 0.8, we additionally explored the potential impact of loss of information for future analyses. We did this second step by comparing whether the Beta coefficient of the predictor differed more than 10% when adding original or recoded variables as a confounder in a linear regression model. In a simulation we randomly sampled numbers, recoded those < = 1000 to 0 and those >1000 to 1 and varied the range of the continuous variable, the ratio of recoded zeroes to recoded ones, or both, and again extracted the R-squared from linear models to quantify information loss.ResultsThe R-squared was below 0.8 for 8 out of 91 recoded variables. In 4 cases this had a substantial impact on the regression models, particularly when a continuous variable was recoded into a discrete variable. Our simulation showed that the least information is lost when the ratio of recoded zeroes to ones is 1:1.ConclusionsLarge, pooled datasets provide great opportunities, justifying the efforts for data harmonization. Still, caution is warranted when using recoded variables which variance is explained limitedly by their original variables as this may jeopardize the validity of study results. ]]> <![CDATA[Plasma Galectin-3 predicts deleterious vascular dysfunction affecting post-myocardial infarction patients: An explanatory study]]> In a previous analysis of a post-myocardial infarction (MI) cohort, abnormally high systemic vascular resistances (SVR) were shown to be frequently revealed by MRI during the healing period, independently of MI severity, giving evidence of vascular dysfunction and limiting further recovery of cardiac function. The present ancillary and exploratory analysis of the same cohort was aimed at characterizing those patients suffering from high SVR remotely from MI with a large a panel of cardiovascular MRI parameters and blood biomarkers.MethodsMRI and blood sampling were performed 2–4 days after a reperfused MI and 6 months thereafter in 121 patients. SVR were monitored with a phase-contrast MRI sequence and patients with abnormally high SVR at 6-months were characterized through MRI parameters and blood biomarkers, including Galectin-3, an indicator of cardiovascular inflammation and fibrosis after MI. SVR were normal at 6-months in 90 patients (SVR-) and abnormally high in 31 among whom 21 already had high SVR at the acute phase (SVR++) while 10 did not (SVR+).ResultsWhen compared with SVR-, both SVR+ and SVR++ exhibited lower recovery in cardiac function from baseline to 6-months, while baseline levels of Galectin-3 were significantly different in both SVR+ (median: 14.4 (interquartile range: 12.3–16.7) ng.mL-1) and SVR++ (13.0 (11.7–19.4) ng.mL-1) compared to SVR- (11.7 (9.8–13.5) ng.mL-1, both p < 0.05). Plasma Galectin-3 was an independent baseline predictor of high SVR at 6-months (p = 0.002), together with the baseline levels of SVR and left ventricular end-diastolic volume, whereas indices of MI severity and left ventricular function were not. In conclusion, plasma Galectin-3 predicts a deleterious vascular dysfunction affecting post-MI patients, an observation that could lead to consider new therapeutic targets if confirmed through dedicated prospective studies. ]]> <![CDATA[Post-stroke infections associated with spleen volume reduction: A pilot study]]> Spleen volume reduction followed by re-expansion has been described in acute ischemic stroke in both animal and human studies. Splenic contraction might be partially due to sympathetic hyperactivity and might be accompanied by release of splenocytes in the peripheral circulation, leading to immunodepression.AimsTo investigate whether spleen volume changes in the first week after stroke are associated with post-stroke infections, changes in lymphocytes count and autonomic dysfunction.MethodsIn patients with acute ischemic stroke, spleen sizes were calculated from abdominal CT images on day one and day seven. Spleen size reduction was defined as > 10% spleen size reduction between day one and day seven. Post stroke infections were diagnosed during the first seven days after stroke onset using the modified criteria of the US Center of Disease Control and Prevention. We assessed the time course of leukocyte subsets and analysed pulse rate variability (PRV) indices.ResultsPost-stroke infections occurred in six out of 11 patients (55%) with spleen size reduction versus in five out of 27 patients (19%) without spleen size reduction (p = 0,047). Spleen size reduction was associated with a drop in lymphocytes and several lymphocyte subsets from admission to day one, and a higher NIHSS at admission and at day three (p = 0,028 and p = 0,006 respectively). No correlations could be found between spleen volume change and PRV parameters.ConclusionPost-stroke infections and a drop in lymphocytes and several lymphocyte subsets are associated with spleen volume reduction in acute ischemic stroke. ]]> <![CDATA[Effect of experimental, morphological and mechanical factors on the murine spinal cord subjected to transverse contusion: A finite element study]]> Finite element models combined with animal experimental models of spinal cord injury provides the opportunity for investigating the effects of the injury mechanism on the neural tissue deformation and the resulting tissue damage. Thus, we developed a finite element model of the mouse cervical spinal cord in order to investigate the effect of morphological, experimental and mechanical factors on the spinal cord mechanical behavior subjected to transverse contusion. The overall mechanical behavior of the model was validated with experimental data of unilateral cervical contusion in mice. The effects of the spinal cord material properties, diameter and curvature, and of the impactor position and inclination on the strain distribution were investigated in 8 spinal cord anatomical regions of interest for 98 configurations of the model. Pareto analysis revealed that the material properties had a significant effect (p<0.01) for all regions of interest of the spinal cord and was the most influential factor for 7 out of 8 regions. This highlighted the need for comprehensive mechanical characterization of the gray and white matter in order to develop effective models capable of predicting tissue deformation during spinal cord injuries.

<![CDATA[Orbital Magnetic Resonance Imaging May Contribute to the Diagnosis of Optic Nerve Lymphoma]]> Background: Optic nerve lymphoma can present a diagnostic challenge because of its confusing clinical features and the difficulty of obtaining lesion tissue for biopsy. The objective of this study was to find some flags of lymphomatous infiltration of optic nerves.

Methods: We report two cases of optic nerve lymphoma and conduct a literature review to determine whether a common diagnostic characteristic can be identified.

Results: We examined 22 optic nerve lymphoma cases. Thirteen cases were systemic lymphoma infiltration of the optic nerve, five were primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), and four were primary isolated optic nerve lymphoma. Twenty patients manifested significant enlargement of the lesions in orbital/brain MRI. Seventeen contrast-enhanced MRIs showed abnormal enhancement of the optic nerve. All PCNSL and isolated optic nerve lymphoma patients in the series showed marked enhancement. Moderate and subtle enhancement was found in systemic lymphoma patients only. At the enhancement site, six isolated optic nerve lymphoma and PCNSL patients presented intrinsic enhancement, ten systemic patients showed both optic nerve and sheath enhancement, and one demonstrated sheath enhancement. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tests showed elevated protein levels in six patients, and a neoplasm in one patient. We found abnormality of CSF immunity in both of our patients.

Conclusion: Combined characteristics of orbital MRI and CSF tests may facilitate expeditious suspicion establishment of optic nerve lymphoma.

<![CDATA[Severe Acute Flaccid Myelitis Associated With Enterovirus in Children: Two Phenotypes for Two Evolution Profiles?]]> Acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) is an acute paralysis syndrome defined by a specific inflammation of the anterior horn cells of the spinal cord. From 2014, worrying waves of life-threatening AFM consecutive to enterovirus infection (EV-D68 and EV-A71) have been reported. We describe 10 children displaying an AFM with an EV infection, the treatments performed and the 1 to 3-years follow-up. Two groups of patients were distinguished: 6 children (“polio-like group”) had severe motor disability whereas 4 other children (“brainstem group”) displayed severe brainstem weakness requiring ventilation support. Electrodiagnostic studies (n = 8) support the presence of a motor neuronopathy associated to myelitis. The best prognosis factor seems to be the motor recovery after the first 4 weeks of the disease.

<![CDATA[Cytoarchitectonic Mapping of MRI Detects Rapid Changes in Alzheimer's Disease]]> The clinical and pathological progression of Alzheimer's disease often proceeds rapidly, but little is understood about its structural characteristics over short intervals. This study evaluated the short temporal characteristics of the brain structure in Alzheimer's disease through the application of cytoarchitectonic probabilistic brain mapping to measurements of gray matter density, a technique which may provide advantages over standard volumetric MRI techniques. Gray matter density was calculated using voxel-based morphometry of T1-weighted MRI obtained from Alzheimer's disease patients and healthy controls evaluated at intervals of 0.5, 1.5, 3.5, 6.5, 9.5, 12, 18, and 24 months by the MIRIAD study. The Alzheimer's disease patients had 19.1% less gray matter at 1st MRI, and this declined 81.6% faster than in healthy controls. Atrophy in the hippocampus, amygdala, and basal forebrain distinguished the Alzheimer's disease patients. Notably, the CA2 of the hippocampus was found to have atrophied significantly within 1 month. Gray matter density measurements were reliable, with intraclass correlation coefficients exceeding 0.8. Comparative atrophy in the Alzheimer's disease group agreed with manual tracing MRI studies of Alzheimer's disease while identifying atrophy on a shorter time scale than has previously been reported. Cytoarchitectonic mapping of gray matter density is reliable and sensitive to small-scale neurodegeneration, indicating its use in the future study of Alzheimer's disease.

<![CDATA[Short-Term Test-Retest Reliability of Electrically Evoked Cortical Auditory Potentials in Adult Cochlear Implant Recipients]]> Background: Late latency auditory evoked potentials (LLAEPs) provide objective evidence of an individual's central auditory processing abilities. Electrically evoked cortical auditory evoked potentials (eCAEPs) are a type of LLAEP that provides an objective measure of aided speech perception and auditory processing abilities in cochlear implant (CI) recipients.

Aim: To determine the short-term test-retest reliability of eCAEPs in adult CI recipients.

Design: An explorative, within-subject repeated measures research design was employed.

Study Sample: The study sample included 12 post-lingually deafened, unilaterally implanted adult CI recipients with at least 9 months of CI experience.

Method: eCAEPs representing basal, medial and apical cochlear regions were recorded in the implanted ears of each participant. Measurements were repeated 7 days after the initial assessment.

Results: No significant differences between either median latencies or amplitudes at test and retest sessions (p > 0.05) were found when results for apical, medial and basal electrodes were averaged together. Mean intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) scores averaged across basal, medial and apical cochlear stimulus regions indicated that both consistency and agreement were statistically significant and ranged from moderate to good (ICC = 0.58–0.86, p < 0.05). ICC confidence intervals did demonstrate considerable individual variability in both latency and amplitudes.

Conclusion: eCAEP latencies and amplitudes demonstrated moderate to good short-term test-retest reliability. However, confidence intervals indicated individual variability in measurement consistency which is likely linked to attention and listening effort required from the CI recipients.

<![CDATA[The Biomechanics of Indirect Traumatic Optic Neuropathy Using a Computational Head Model With a Biofidelic Orbit]]> Indirect traumatic optic neuropathy (ITON) is an injury to the optic nerve due to head trauma and usually results in partial or complete loss of vision. In order to advance a mechanistic understanding of the injury to the optic nerve, we developed a head model with a biofidelic orbit. Head impacts were simulated under controlled conditions of impactor velocity. The locations of impact were varied to include frontal, lateral, and posterior parts of the head. Impact studies were conducted using two types of impactors that differed in their rigidity relative to the skull. The simulated results from both the impactors suggest that forehead impacts are those to which the optic nerve is most vulnerable. The mode and location of optic nerve injury is significantly different between the impacting conditions. Simulated results using a relatively rigid impactor (metal cylinder) suggest optic nerve injury initiates at the location of the intracranial end of the optic canal and spreads to the regions of the optic nerve in the vicinity of the optic canal. In this case, the deformation of the skull at the optic canal, resulting in deformation of the optic nerve, was the primary mode of injury. On the other hand, simulated results using a relatively compliant impactor (soccer ball) suggest that primary mode of injury comes from the brain tugging upon the optic nerve (from where it is affixed to the intracranial end of the optic canal) during coup countercoup motion of the brain. This study represents the first published effort to employ a biofidelic simulation of the full length of the optic nerve in which the orbit is integrated within the whole head.

<![CDATA[miR-155 Regulates the Proliferation of Glioma Cells Through PI3K/AKT Signaling]]> Objective: Micro-RNA plays a critical role in the pathological process of gliomas. Previous research showed that the level of miR-155 was significantly increased in many cancers, including gliomas. However, the mechanism of glioma is still unknown.

Method: To investigate the regulatory function of miR-155 on glioma U87-MG cells and its effects on related signaling pathways. After transfection of miR-155 mimic and inhibitor, the level of miR-155 were applied to detect cell proliferation, apoptosis, senescence index, invasive ability and cell migration at different time points (0, 24, 24 h, respectively) by CCK8 assay, flow cytometry, β-galactosidase (β-gal) staining, transwell and scratch test, respectively. The effect of miR-155 on PI3K/AKT signal pathway was observed at meantime.

Results: Compared with the control group, after miR-155 mimic transfection, U87-MG cell viability, cell migration rate and invasiveness were increased, while apoptosis and senescence were significantly decreased, which was the opposite on miR-155 inhibitor transfection. The phosphorylation levels of miR-155, PI3K, AKT, PI3K, and AKT in U87-MG cells intervened with miR-155 mimic also increased significantly, while the levels of PTEN, Caspase-3, Caspase-9 mRNA, and protein declined significantly, with statistically significant difference. Meanwhile, compared with the control group, miR-155 inhibitor group were on the contrary.

Conclusion: The study indicated that miR-155 take charge a key function in regulating the proliferation, migration, and invasion of glioma U87-MG cells through PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, and has anti-glioma effects by inhibition of miR-155, which provided ideas for further clinical treatment of glioma patients.

<![CDATA[Altered Resting-State Functional Connectivity of Multiple Networks and Disrupted Correlation With Executive Function in Major Depressive Disorder]]> Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most common and costly psychiatric disorders. In addition to significant changes in mood, MDD patients face an increased risk of developing cognitive dysfunction. It is important to gain an improved understanding of cognitive impairments and find a biomarker for cognitive impairment diagnosis in MDD.

Methods: One hundred MDD patients and 100 normal controls (NCs) completed resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) scan, in which 34 MDD patients and 34 NCs had scores in multiple cognitive domains (executive function, verbal fluency, and processing speed). Twenty-seven regions of interest from the default mode network (DMN), central executive network (CEN), salience network (SN), and limbic system (LS) were selected as seeds for functional connectivity (FC) analyses with the voxels in the whole brain. Finally, partial correlations were conducted for cognitive domain scores and FCs with significant differences between the MDD and NC groups.

Results: Significant FC differences between groups were identified among the seeds and clusters in the DMN, CEN, LS, visual network, somatomotor network, ventral attention network, and dorsal attention network. In the MDD patients, the magnitude of the Stroop interference effect was positively correlated with the illness duration, and the illness duration was negatively correlated with the FC between the right ventral hippocampal gyrus and the left inferior frontal gyrus. However, the correlation between the Stroop interference effect and the FC of the right anterior prefrontal cortex with the left cerebellum_4_5 was disrupted in these patients.

Conclusions: The MDD patients have altered FCs among multiple brain networks and a disrupted correlation between the FC of prefrontal cortex and executive function. The disrupted correlation could present before the symptoms develop and may be the core process in the development of executive function impairment.

<![CDATA[Microscopic Polyangiitis With Selective Involvement of Central and Peripheral Nervous System: A Case Report]]> Background: Microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) is a necrotizing vasculitis that affects predominantly small-sized vessels in many organ systems. The disease generally causes glomerulonephritis, pulmonary damage, arthritis, and neuropathy. An exclusive involvement of both central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS) is extremely rare.

Case Presentation: A 62-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a 3 months history of right foot drop, recently complicated by intense myalgia, arthralgia, and allodynia to tactile, vibratory, and pressure stimuli. Since blood tests revealed elevated inflammatory indexes, we suspected either infectious or immune-mediated disorders. Chest radiograph, blood culture series, and echocardiogram revealed normal findings, while urinalysis showed a bacterial infection that was successfully treated. The neurophysiological findings were compatible with multiple mononeuritis, and a brain MRI evidenced ischemic lesions of both basal ganglia and thalamus. A wide-spectrum autoantibody assay revealed the presence of high-titer perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies specific for myeloperoxidase (MPO-ANCA). According to these findings, the diagnosis of MPA was made, and the patient was successfully treated with intravenous (IV) methylprednisolone, followed by two doses of rituximab.

Conclusions: An assessment of both CNS and PNS should be included in the diagnostic evaluation of MPA. The involvement of the PNS may raise the risk of a relapsing course and treatment failure, therefore it should be considered in the choice of induction and maintenance therapy.

<![CDATA[Circadian Rhythms and Epilepsy: A Suitable Case for Absence Epilepsy]]> Many physiological processes such as sleep, hormonal secretion, or thermoregulation, are expressed as daily rhythms orchestrated by the circadian timing system. A powerful internal clock mechanism ensures proper synchronization of vital functions within an organism on the one hand, and between the organism and the external environment on the other. Some of the pathological processes developing in the brain and body are subjected to circadian modulation as well. Epilepsy is one of the conditions which symptoms often worsen at a very specific time of a day. Variation in peak occurrence depends on the syndrome and localization of the epileptic focus. Moreover, the timing of some types of seizures is closely related to the sleep-wake cycle, one of the most prominent circadian rhythms. This review focuses on childhood absence epilepsy (CAE), a genetic generalized epilepsy syndrome, in which both, the circadian and sleep influences play a significant role in manifestation of symptoms. Human and animal studies report rhythmical occurrence of spike-wave discharges (SWDs), an EEG hallmark of CAE. The endogenous nature of the SWDs rhythm has been confirmed experimentally in a genetic animal model of the disease, rats of the WAG/Rij strain. Well-known detrimental effects of circadian misalignment were demonstrated to impact the severity of ongoing epileptic activity. SWDs are vigilance-dependent in both humans and animal models, occurring most frequently during passive behavioral states and light slow-wave sleep. The relationship with the sleep-wake cycle seems to be bidirectional, while sleep shapes the rhythm of seizures, epileptic phenotype changes sleep architecture. Circadian factors and the sleep-wake states dependency have a potential as add-ons in seizures' forecasting. Stability of the rhythm of recurrent seizures in individual patients has been already used as a variable which refines existing algorithms for seizures' prediction. On the other hand, apart from successful pharmacological approach, circadian hygiene including sufficient sleep and avoidance of internal desynchronization or sleep loss, may be beneficial for patients with epilepsy in everyday management of seizures.

<![CDATA[Normative Observational Nerve Ultrasound Values in School-Age Children and Adolescents and Their Application to Hereditary Neuropathies]]> Backgrounds: We have aimed to establish nerve ultrasound reference data in 8 to 17-year-old children and adolescents and to compare those data to younger children, adults, and age-matched children with polyneuropathies.

Methods: High-resolution ultrasounds of the nerves were performed in 117 healthy children and adolescents at 20 predefined landmarks in the neck and the extremities of both sides. Mean values, side-to-side differences and intraneural ratios, as well as upper limits have been calculated. In a second step, a comparison between 25 children and adolescents of the same age range with proven hereditary and acquired neuropathies and lysosomal storage diseases has been carried out.

Results: Nerve growth correlates significantly with age and reaches adult values at the age of around 15 years. The influence of body mass index and gender is negligible at most segments. By the use of age-specific upper limits, nerve enlargement could be seen in distinct types of neuropathies, particularly in demyelinating hereditary and inflammatory types, which is comparable to findings in adults, but also in rare lysosomal storage diseases.

Conclusion: Nerve size correlates with age during childhood and reaches a climax in younger adults. Age-matched reference data are inevitable to differ between hypertrophic and non-hypertrophic nerve damage, e.g., in neuropathies.

<![CDATA[Editorial: Patient Empowerment and Person-Centered Care in Movement Disorders]]>