ResearchPad - Nutrition and Dietetics https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Suppressive Effects of Vaccinium angustifolium Root Extract via Down-Regulation of Activation of Syk, Lyn, and NF-κB in FcεRI-Mediated Allergic Reactions]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b589054463d7e4bbcb756e1

Vaccinium angustifolium, reported as the lowbush blueberry, has a rich polyphenolic content with which biological activities have been closely associated. In this study, the effects of V. angustifolium root extract (VAE) on the anti-FcɛRI α chain antibody (CRA-1)-induced FcɛRI-mediated signaling factors, protein tyrosine kinases (PTK), Lyn, Syk, and nuclear factor kappa-B cells (NF-κB) in KU812F cells were investigated. The total phenolic content of VAE was found to be 170±1.9 mg gallic acid equivalents/g. Western blot analysis revealed that VAE dose-dependently inhibited FcɛRI-mediated phosphorylation of PTK involving Lyn and Syk. Evaluation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) by spectrofluorometric analysis using 2′7′-dichlorofluorescin-diacetate revealed that they were reduced by VAE in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, VAE reduced the levels of β-hexosaminidase released from CRA-1-stimulated KU812F cells. It was identified that VAE suppressed CRA-1-induced activation of NF-κB by Western blot analysis. Our results show that VAE may contribute to the inhibition of allergic actions via inactivation of basophils through the inhibition of β-hexosaminidase release and ROS production, which occurs as a result of inhibition of PTK, Syk, Lyn, and NF-κB.

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<![CDATA[Biochemical properties of cholesterol aldehyde secosterol and its derivatives]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b4cd4f1463d7e0fba429df5

Elevated levels of cholesterol aldehyde, 3β-hydroxy-5-oxo-5,6-secocholestan-6-al (secosterol-A, also called 5,6-secosterol), and its aldolization product (secosterol-B) have been detected in human atherosclerotic plaques and tissues samples of brains affected by neurodegeneration, such as Alzheimer’s disease and Lewy body dementia suggesting that increased formation of these compounds may be associated with inflammation-related diseases. Secosterol-A and secosterol-B, and also further oxidized products seco-A-COOH and seco-B-COOH induce several pro-inflammatory activities in vitro. Accumulating evidences demonstrate that the covalent bindings of these secosterols to target proteins seem to be critical to trigger their pro-inflammatory activities. One of the molecular mechanisms of protein adduct formations is that aldehydic function of secosterol-A and secosterol-B is reactive and form Schiff bases with ε- or N-terminal amino groups of proteins. In other cases, it is recently suggested that Michael acceptor moiety formed by the dehydration of not only secosterol-A and secosterol-B but also seco-A-COOH may react with nucleophilic site on target proteins. In this review, I summarize and provide an overview of formation mechanism of secosterols in in vitro and in vivo, patho- or physiological concentrations in biological and clinical samples, and molecular mechanisms of pro-inflammatory activities of secosterols.

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<![CDATA[Effect of weight loss on circulating fatty acid profiles in overweight subjects with high visceral fat area: a 12-week randomized controlled trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b4b26f4463d7e737c241d5f

Background

Significant associations between visceral fat and alterations in plasma fatty acids have been identified in overweight individuals. However, there are scant data regarding the relationships of the visceral fat area (VFA) with the plasma fatty acid profiles and desaturase activities following weight loss. We investigated the effect of weight loss with mild calorie restriction on the circulating fatty acid profiles and desaturase activities in nondiabetic overweight subjects with high VFA.

Methods

Eighty overweight subjects with high VFA (L4 VFA ≥100 cm2) were randomized into the 12-week mild-calorie-restriction (300 kcal/day) or control groups.

Results

Comparison of the percent of body weight changes between groups revealed that the weight-loss group had greater reductions in body weight. The VFA decreased by 17.7 cm2 from baseline in the weight-loss group (P < 0.001). At follow-up, the weight-loss group showed greater reductions in serum triglycerides, insulin, and HOMA-IR than the control group. Significantly greater reductions in total saturated fatty acids, palmitic acid, stearic acid, total monounsaturated fatty acids, palmitoleic acid, oleic acid, eicosadienoic acid, and dihomo-γ-linolenic acid levels were detected in the weight-loss group compared with the control group after adjusting for baseline values. Following weight loss, C16 Δ9-desaturase activity was significantly decreased and Δ5-desaturase activity was significantly increased, and the changes were greater in the weight-loss group than in the control group.

Conclusions

The results suggest that mild weight loss improves abdominal obesity, overall fatty acid profiles, and desaturase activities; therefore, mild calorie restriction has potential health benefits related to obesity-related diseases in overweight subjects with high VFA.

Trial registration

NCT02992639. Retrospectively registered 11 December 2016.

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<![CDATA[Correction to: World-wide research architecture of vitamin D research: density-equalizing mapping studies and socio-economic analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b4b2512463d7e737c241d58 ]]> <![CDATA[Feasibility of a commercial smartphone application for dietary assessment in epidemiological research and comparison with 24-h dietary recalls]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bf2b9c4d5eed0c48412c7c4

Background

Dietary assessment methods that can provide high quality data while limiting participant burden and resource requirements in epidemiological research are highly sought after and continue to evolve. The use of mobile phone technology in research has increased rapidly over the last decade and offers multiple advantages to the researcher over traditional data collection methods. This study tested the acceptability and relative validity of a commercial smart phone application (app) for use as an epidemiological dietary assessment tool, compared with a traditional dietary assessment method.

Methods

Study participants completed a 4-d food diary using a modified version of the Easy Diet Diary app and two 24-h dietary recalls during the same week, for comparison. At the end of data collection, participants completed a questionnaire on their experience with both methods. Average proportions of energy from macronutrients and fibre, iron, and calcium densities from the app and 24-h recalls were compared after log transformation, by calculating mean agreement, limits of agreement (LOA), and Pearson’s correlations. The prevalence of dietary under-reporting was compared in each method using the Goldberg method.

Results

A total of 50 adults (82% women) provided data for analysis (mean age, 31 y; mean BMI, 22.4 kg/m2; 14% overweight or obese). Participant feedback showed high levels of acceptance of the app; 83% preferred using the app to completing 24-h dietary recalls. The average difference in energy intake (mean agreement) between methods was 268 kJ/d. For all intakes except alcohol, the average difference between methods was not significantly different from zero. Most limits of agreement were within an acceptable range. The prevalence of dietary misreporting was similar in both methods.

Conclusions

These findings demonstrate good feasibility for applying this commercially-developed smartphone app in epidemiological research.

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (10.1186/s12937-018-0315-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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<![CDATA[Broccoli (Brassica oleracea) Reduces Oxidative Damage to Pancreatic Tissue and Combats Hyperglycaemia in Diabetic Rats]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b4784c4463d7e71e4ceaa79

Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the development of diabetes and hyperglycaemia. The protective effects of natural extracts against diabetes are mainly dependent on their antioxidant and hypoglycaemic properties. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea) exerts beneficial health effects in several diseases including diabetes; however, the mechanism has not been elucidated yet. The present study was carried out to evaluate the potential hypoglycaemic and antioxidant properties of aqueous broccoli extracts (BEs) in diabetic rats. Streptozotocin (STZ) drug was used as a diabetogenic agent in a single intraperitoneal injection dose of 50 mg/kg body weight. The blood glucose level for each rat was measured twice a week. After 8 weeks, all animals were fasted overnight and sacrificed; pancreatic tissues were homogenized and used for measuring oxidative DNA damage, biochemical assessment of glutathione (GSH), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) as well as histopathological examination for pancreatic tissues was examined. Diabetic rats showed significantly higher levels of DNA damage, GSH depletion, and impaired TAC levels in comparison to non-diabetics (P<0.05). The treatment of diabetic rats with BE significantly reduced DNA damage and conserved GSH and TAC values (P<0.01). BE attenuated pancreatic histopathological changes in diabetic rats. The results of this study indicated that BE reduced the STZ mediated hyperglycaemia and the STZ-induced oxidative injury to pancreas tissue. The used in vivo model confirmed the efficacy of BE as an anti-diabetic herbal medicine and provided insights into the capacity of BE to be used for phytoremediation purposes for human type 2 diabetes.

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<![CDATA[Positive association between musclin and insulin resistance in obesity: evidence of a human study and an animal experiment]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b40ab52463d7e5ac5b6a8d8

Background

Musclin is a novel skeletal muscle-derived secretory factor considered to be a potent regulator of the glucose metabolism and therefore may contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity and insulin resistance (IR).

Methods

To test this hypothesis, we examined the plasma musclin levels in overweight/obese subjects and lean controls. Rats on a high fat diet (HFD) were used as the annimal model of obesity. Radioimmunoassay and western blot were used to determine musclin levels in plasma and skeletal muscle.

Results

According to radioimmunoassays,the overweight/obese subjects exhibited elevated musclin plasma levels compared with the lean controls (89.49 ± 19.00 ng/L vs 80.39 ± 16.35 ng/L, P < 0.01). The musclin levels were positively correlated with triglyceride, fasting plasma glucose, and homeostasis model assessment of IR levels. These observations were confirmed with a high-fat diet(HFD) rat model. HFD rats also exhibited increased musclin immunoreactivity in plasma (P < 0.01) and in skeletal muscle (P < 0.05), as well as increased musclin mRNA levels in skeletal muscle (P < 0.01). Musclin incubation significantly inhibited muscles 3H-2-DG uptake in the normal diet(ND) group (P < 0.01). The protein expression of glucose transporter type 4 was significantly down regulated by 30% (P < 0.05) in the ND group after soleusmuscle was incubated with musclin compared with the control. Musclin incubation also increased the protein levels of glucose-regulated protein (GRP)78 and GRP94 by 146.8 and 54% (both P < 0.05), respectively, in ND rats.

Conclusions

Our data support the hypothesis that musclin has a strong relationship with obesity-associated IR by impairing the glucose metabolism and, at least in part, through causing endoplasmic reticulum stress.

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12986-017-0199-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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<![CDATA[Feeling ‘too fat’ rather than being ‘too fat’ increases unhealthy eating habits among adolescents – even in boys]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bc7dbd340307c631822d4b2

Background

Adolescence is a period of gender-specific physical changes, during which eating habits develop. To better understand what factors determine unhealthy eating habits such as dieting to lose weight, skipping meals, and consumption of unhealthy foods, we studied how physical measurements and body perception relate to eating habits in boys and girls, before and during adolescence.

Methods

For this cross-sectional study, we obtained data from both written questionnaires and physical measurements of height, weight, and waist circumference (WC).

Results

Dieting to lose weight and skipping breakfast were more common among adolescents than among younger boys and girls (p<0.05). The strongest risk factor for dieting in both boys and girls was perception of overweight, which persisted after adjusting for age and for being overweight (p<0.01). Another independent risk factor for dieting behaviour was overweight, as defined by body mass index (BMI) among boys (p<0.01) and WC among girls (p<0.05). In both boys and girls, skipping breakfast was associated with both a more negative body perception and higher BMI (p<0.05). Skipping breakfast was also associated with age- and gender-specific unhealthy eating habits such as skipping other meals, lower consumption of fruits and vegetables, and higher consumption of sweets and sugary drinks (p<0.05).

Conclusion

Body perception among adolescents is an important factor relating to unhealthy eating habits, not only in girls, but even in boys. Focus on body perception and eating breakfast daily is crucial for the development of healthy food consumption behaviours during adolescence and tracking into adulthood.

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<![CDATA[ω-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation as a Potential Therapeutic Aid for the Recovery from Mild Traumatic Brain Injury/Concussion1,2]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bbe1a5f40307c4aae138f09

Sports-related concussions or mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBIs) are becoming increasingly recognized as a major public health concern; however, no effective therapy for these injuries is currently available. ω-3 (n–3) fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have important structural and functional roles in the brain, with established clinical benefits for supporting brain development and cognitive function throughout life. Consistent with these critical roles of DHA in the brain, accumulating evidence suggests that DHA may act as a promising recovery aid, or possibly as a prophylactic nutritional measure, for mTBI. Preclinical investigations demonstrate that dietary consumption of DHA provided either before or after mTBI improves functional outcomes, such as spatial learning and memory. Mechanistic investigations suggest that DHA influences multiple aspects of the pathologic molecular signaling cascade that occurs after mTBI. This review examines the evidence of interactions between DHA and concussion and discusses potential mechanisms by which DHA helps the brain to recover from injury. Additional clinical research in humans is needed to confirm the promising results reported in the preclinical literature.

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<![CDATA[Toward Body Composition Reference Data for Infants, Children, and Adolescents123]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bbe1a7a40307c4aae138f13

Growth charts for weight and height have provided the basis for assessment of children’s nutritional status for over half a century, with charts for body mass index (BMI) introduced in the 1990s. However, BMI does not provide information on the proportions of fat and lean mass; and within the past decade, growth charts for children’s body composition have been produced by using techniques such as skinfold thicknesses, body circumferences, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). For public health research, BIA and skinfold thicknesses show negligible average bias but have wider limits of agreement than specialized techniques. For patients, DXA is the best individual method, but multicomponent models remain ideal because they address perturbations in lean mass composition. Data can be expressed in age- and sex-specific SD scores, in some cases adjusting for height. Most such reference data derive from high-income countries, but techniques such as air-displacement plethysmography allow infant body composition growth charts to be developed in low- and middle-income settings, where the data may improve understanding of the effects of low birth weight, wasting, and stunting on body composition. Recent studies suggest that between-population variability in body composition may derive in part from genetic factors, suggesting a universal human body composition reference may not be viable. Body composition growth charts may be extended into adult life to evaluate changes in fat and lean mass through the entire life course. These reference data will improve the understanding of the association between growth, body composition, health, and disease.

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<![CDATA[The FINUT Healthy Lifestyles Guide: Beyond the Food Pyramid123]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bbe1a8840307c4aae138f18

The WHO has proposed that health be promoted and protected through the development of an environment that enables sustainable actions at individual, community, national, and global levels. Indeed, food-based dietary guidelines, i.e., food pyramids, have been developed in numerous countries to disseminate nutritional information to the general population. However, wider recommendations are needed, with information on an active healthy lifestyle, not just healthy eating. The objective of the present work is to propose a three-dimensional pyramid as a new strategy for promoting adequate nutrition and active healthy lifestyles in a sustainable way. Indeed, the Iberoamerican Nutrition Foundation (FINUT) pyramid of healthy lifestyles has been designed as a tetrahedron, with its 3 lateral faces corresponding to the facets of food and nutrition, physical activity and rest, and education and hygiene. Each lateral face is divided into 2 triangles. These faces show the following: 1) food-based guidelines and healthy eating habits as related to a sustainable environment; 2) recommendations for rest and physical activity and educational, social, and cultural issues; and 3) selected hygiene and educational guidelines that, in conjunction with the other 2 faces, would contribute to better health for people in a sustainable planet. The new FINUT pyramid is addressed to the general population of all ages and should serve as a guide for living a healthy lifestyle within a defined social and cultural context. It includes an environmental and sustainability dimension providing measures that should contribute to the prevention of noncommunicable chronic diseases.

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<![CDATA[LDL-cholesterol reduction in patients with hypercholesterolemia by modulation of adenosine triphosphate-citrate lyase and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5ba6fb6240307c4d1c2820a8

Purpose of review

To review the profile of ETC-1002, as shown in preclinical and clinical studies, including LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C)-lowering activity and beneficial effects on other cardiometabolic risk markers as they relate to the inhibition of adenosine triphosphate-citrate lyase and the activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase.

Recent findings

ETC-1002 is an adenosine triphosphate-citrate lyase inhibitor/adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase activator currently in Phase 2b clinical development. In seven Phase 1 and Phase 2a clinical studies, ETC-1002 dosed once daily for 2–12 weeks has lowered LDL-C and reduced high-sensitivity C-reactive protein by up to 40%, with neutral to positive effects on glucose levels, blood pressure, and body weight. Importantly, use of ETC-1002 in statin-intolerant patients has shown statin-like lowering of LDL-C without the muscle pain and weakness responsible for discontinuation of statin use by many patients. ETC-1002 has also been shown to produce an incremental benefit, lowering LDL-C as an add-on therapy to a low-dose statin. In over 300 individuals in studies of up to 12 weeks, ETC-1002 has been well tolerated with no serious adverse effects.

Summary

Because adenosine triphosphate-citrate lyase and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase play central roles in regulating lipid and glucose metabolism, pharmacological modulation of these two enzymes could provide an important therapeutic alternative for statin-intolerant patients with hypercholesterolemia.

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<![CDATA[Lutein Supplementation Increases Breast Milk and Plasma Lutein Concentrations in Lactating Women and Infant Plasma Concentrations but Does Not Affect Other Carotenoids123]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5ba6b80940307c2ed2511c89

Lutein is a carotenoid that varies in breast milk depending on maternal intake. Data are lacking with regard to the effect of dietary lutein supplementation on breast milk lutein concentration during lactation and subsequent plasma lutein concentration in breast-fed infants. This study was conducted to determine the impact of lutein supplementation in the breast milk and plasma of lactating women and in the plasma of breast-fed infants 2–3 mo postpartum. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in the infant brain and the major carotenoid found in the retina of the eye. Eighty-nine lactating women 4–6 wk postpartum were randomly assigned to be administered either 0 mg/d of lutein (placebo), 6 mg/d of lutein (low-dose), or 12 mg/d of lutein (high-dose). The supplements were consumed for 6 wk while mothers followed their usual diets. Breast milk carotenoids were measured weekly by HPLC, and maternal plasma carotenoid concentrations were measured at the beginning and end of the study. Infant plasma carotenoid concentrations were assessed at the end of the study. No significant differences were found between dietary lutein + zeaxanthin intake and carotenoid concentrations in breast milk and plasma or body mass index at baseline. Total lutein + zeaxanthin concentrations were greater in the low- and high-dose–supplemented groups than in the placebo group in breast milk (140% and 250%, respectively; P < 0.0001), maternal plasma (170% and 250%, respectively; P < 0.0001), and infant plasma (180% and 330%, respectively; P < 0.05). Lutein supplementation did not affect other carotenoids in lactating women or their infants. Lactating women are highly responsive to lutein supplementation, which affects plasma lutein concentrations in the infant. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01747668.

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<![CDATA[Evaluation of biochemical effects of Casuarina equisetifolia extract on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats. Phytochemical analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5ba00ac840307c48d3f3cd79

Nephrotoxicity is defined as renal dysfunction that arises as result of exposure to external agents such as drugs and environmental chemicals. The present work was undertaken to carry out the phytochemical study and nephroprotective activity of methanolic extract of Casuarina equisetifolia leaves in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in Wistar rats. Flavonoids and phenolic acids were identified and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography. Subcutaneous injection of rats with gentamicin (80 mg/kg body weight/day) for six consecutive days induced marked acute renal toxicity, manifested by a significant increase in serum urea, creatinine and uric acid levels, along with a significant depletion of serum potassium level, compared to normal controls. Also oxidative stress was noticed in renal tissue as evidenced by a significant decrease in glutathione level, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase activities, also a significant increase in malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels when compared to control group. Administration of plant extract at a dose of 300 mg/kg once daily for 4 weeks restored normal renal functions and attenuated oxidative stress. In conclusion, Casuarina equisetifolia leaves extract ameliorates gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative damage by scavenging oxygen free radicals, decreasing lipid peroxidation and improving intracellular antioxidant defense, thus extract may be used as nephroprotective agent.

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<![CDATA[Induction of the hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 gene in offspring after isocaloric administration of high fat sucrose diet during gestation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5ba00ace40307c48d3f3cd7c

Adverse early nutrition leads to metabolic aberrations in adulthood. Molecular and cellular mechanisms responsible are emerging; specific nutritional causes remain unclarified. We investigated gestational dietary intake and its influences on metabolism in offspring. Three groups of pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either AIN93G standard diet as control, isocaloric high fat sucrose diet or calorie restriction diet (50% of control) until delivery. All dams were fed control diet ad libitum during lactation. Offsprings’ metabolic parameters were assessed at three weeks. Visceral fat and plasma triglycerides of high fat sucrose diet offspring were significantly higher than those of control diet and calorie restriction diet offspring. Plasma leptin level was higher in high fat sucrose diet than control offspring. Conversely, plasma adiponectin was lower in high fat sucrose diet and calorie restriction diet offspring compared to controls. Significant inductions of hepatic mRNA expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase1 and Δ-5 desaturase genes, were observed in high fat sucrose diet and calorie restriction diet offspring. Gestational high sugar and fat intake even without over energy intake would be more detrimental to metabolisms of offspring compared to calorie restriction.

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<![CDATA[Validation study to compare effects of processing protocols on measured Nɛ-(carboxymethyl)lysine and Nɛ-(carboxyethyl)lysine in blood]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5ba00ad040307c48d3f3cd7d

Epidemiological studies show that elevated plasma levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are associated with diabetes, kidney disease, and heart disease. Thus AGEs have been used as disease progression markers. However, the effects of variations in biological sample processing procedures on the level of AGEs in plasma/serum samples have not been investigated. The objective of this investigation was to assess the effect of variations in blood sample collection on measured Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), the best characterised AGE, and its homolog, Nε-(carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL). The investigation examined the effect on CML and CEL of different blood collection tubes, inclusion of a stabilising cocktail, effect of freeze thaw cycles, different storage times and temperatures, and effects of delaying centrifugation on a pooled sample from healthy volunteers. CML and CEL were measured in extracted samples by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Median CML and CEL ranged from 0.132 to 0.140 mM/M lys and from 0.053 to 0.060 mM/M lys, respectively. No significant difference was shown CML or CEL in plasma/serum samples. Therefore samples collected as part of epidemiological studies that do not undergo specific sample treatment at collection are suitable for measuring CML and CEL.

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<![CDATA[2,2'-Azobis(isobutyronitrile)-derived alkylperoxyl radical scavenging activity assay of hydrophilic antioxidants by employing EPR spin trap method]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5ba00aca40307c48d3f3cd7a

As interest in the study of antioxidant intake from foods and other agricultural products increases, methods for performing radical scavenging activity assays based on the electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopic method, in which there is no interference from the sample color and turbidity, are required. In this study, we have developed a rapid and simple electron paramagnetic resonance based assay to evaluate the alkylperoxyl radical scavenging activity of several antioxidants. The alkylperoxyl radical species was generated by the photolysis of azo-radical initiator 2,2'-azobis(isobutyronitrile), in which the radical generation rate and period were controlled by the illumination light. The relative alkylperoxyl radical scavenging activity was obtained by a simple formula of competing reaction of antioxidant and spin trap toward the oxygen radical. The scavenging activities toward alkylperoxyl radical and alkoxy radical species were evaluated in six antioxidants. Although quercetin showed the highest activity toward both radicals, the order of the relative activities in the other antioxidants was different mutually between the alkylperoxyl radical and the alkoxyl radical. This alkylperoxyl radical scavenging activity assay based on electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy is useful for evaluation of colored and turbid food samples.

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<![CDATA[Dmbt1 does not affect a Western style diet-induced liver damage in mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5ba00acc40307c48d3f3cd7b

In the last three decades the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has markedly increased. Results from epidemiologic studies indicate that not only a general overnutrition but rather a diet rich in sugar, fat and cholesterol (= Western style diet) maybe a risk factor for the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Concerning liver diseases, it is known that Deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 is amongst others related to liver injury and repair. In addition Deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 seems to play a role in regard to the maintenance of the intestinal homeostasis and the regulation of food intake. Starting from this background the aim of the present study was to investigate if Dmbt1 plays a role in Western style diet-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in mice. Dmbt1+/+ and Dmbt1−/− mice were fed a Western style diet or control diet ad libitum for 12 weeks. Both Western style diet fed groups gained significant more weight than the controls and developed a mild non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. The presence/absence of functional Deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 had no effect on parameters like food intake, weight gain, fasting glucose, and liver damage. These results suggest that Deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 plays a minor part on the development of a diet-induced liver damage in mice.

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<![CDATA[Mesenchymal stem cells administered in the early phase of tumorigenesis inhibit colorectal tumor development in rats]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5ba00ad540307c48d3f3cd80

To investigate the differences between the effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) administered in the early and late phases of tumorigenesis, MSCs were isolated from bone marrow and colorectal tumors were produced by exposing 7-week-old F344 rats to 1,2-dimethylhydrazine and dextran sulfate sodium. We evaluated tumor number and volume (week 25), MSC localization, number of aberrant crypt foci (ACF), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 protein levels in the rectum after administration of MSCs (week 5 or 15), and the effects of MSC-conditioned medium on ACL15 cell proliferation. Administered MSCs labeled with PKH26 were observed in the rectum. Administered MSCs in the early phase (week 5) before tumor occurrence (week 12) significantly decreased tumor number and volume (1.5 vs 4 and 21 mm3 vs 170 mm3; p<0.01), but not administered MSCs in the late phase (week 15). Administered MSCs in the early phase reduced ACF number on days 14 and 35 (1.9 vs 4.1 and 3.7 vs 7.3; p<0.01). Rectal TGF-β1 increased 1.3 fold on day 3, and MSC-conditioned medium containing TGF-β1 abundantly inhibited ACL15 cell proliferation. MSCs administered in the early phase but not late phase inhibited colorectal tumor development in a rat model.

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<![CDATA[SERPINE1, PAI-1 protein coding gene, methylation levels and epigenetic relationships with adiposity changes in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome features under dietary restriction]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5ba00ad340307c48d3f3cd7f

Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) has been associated with metabolic disorders, through different mechanisms, which could involve changes in DNA methylation. This work aimed to assess the potential relationships of the cytosine methylation levels within SERPINE1 gene transcriptional regulatory region, which codes for PAI-1, in peripheral white blood cells with anthropometrical, metabolic and inflammatory features. Forty-six obese subjects with metabolic syndrome features followed Control or Metabolic Syndrome Reduction in Navarra (RESMENA) energy-restricted (−30%E) diets for 8 weeks. SERPINE1 transcriptional regulatory region methylation at baseline was analyzed by a microarray technical. Both dietary strategies reduced anthropometric and biochemical parameters. The Control group significantly reduced plasma PAI-1 concentrations but not the RESMENA group. Participants from both nutritional interventions with higher SERPINE1 methylation levels at baseline showed significantly major reductions in body weight, total fat mass, android fat mass, total cholesterol and triglycerides, as compared with those with lower initial SERPINE1 methylation levels. In conclusion, the DNA methylation levels of SERPINE1 transcriptional regulatory region were associated with some metabolic and anthropometric changes in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome under energy restriction, suggesting a complex epigenetic network in the regulation of this recognized pro-inflammatory marker. (www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT01087086)

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