ResearchPad - Orthodontics https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[A comparative evaluation between dermatoglyphic patterns and different terminal planes in primary dentition]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c5f1b39d5eed0c48469b2f0

Background

To assess the correlation between different dermatoglyphic patterns with the terminal planes in deciduous dentition.

Material and Methods

300 children who are 3-6 years old with complete primary dentition were recruited and the pattern of molar terminal plane was recorded in the proforma. Finger prints of the distal phalanges of these subjects were recorded using ink and roller method and were analysed for the finger print pattern by a forensic specialist. The pattern were classified based on classification given by Galton. The finger ridge counts were also measured.

Results

Ulnar loop pattern was the most predominant dermatoglyphic pattern. Absence of arch pattern in ring and little fingers of left hand and higher ridge count in left little finger when compared to the right hand were related to Mesial step. Presence of whorl pattern in both right and left middle finger and higher total finger ridge count in left hand when compared to the right hand were related to distal step. Flush terminal plane was related to absence of arc pattern in ring finger of left hand.

Conclusions

Dermatoglyphics can be used as a non invasive analytical tool to predict the terminal plane in primary dentition.

Key words:Dermatoglyphics, terminal planes, primary dentition.

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<![CDATA[Transcultural adaptation and validation of the Spanish language version of the questionnaire OQLQ for the assessment of quality of life in orthognathic patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c5f1b2cd5eed0c48469b27c

Background

Orthognathic surgery is the cornerstone of the treatment of dentofacial deformities, which have a great psychological and social impact on the life of the patient. Patient satisfaction and the impact on quality of life have recently become clinical parameters of growing importance. The aim of this study was to undertake a transcultural adaptation, translation to Spanish and validation of this version of the questionnaire OQLQ, used to measure quality of life in the context of Spanish culture.

Material and Methods

Validation of the OQLQ questionnaire to the Spanish language was carried out through the methodology of translation and back translation, conceptual equivalence and piloting. The Spanish version was applied through a cross-sectional study to a total of 50 patients undergoing orthognathic surgery.

Results

The adapted and validated version showed adequate metric properties of reliability, change sensitivity and validity. In this study, a positive impact of orthognathic surgery on the specific quality of life was evident in 96% of patients, with an average improvement of 58% with respect to the initial score.

Conclusions

Dentofacial deformities have a marked negative impact on the lives of patients, with orthognathic surgery being a therapeutic tool of great value in improving the quality of life in social, functional and aesthetic terms. The pilot test of this Spanish language version of the OQLQ proved valid for the assessment of quality of life in Spanish-speaking orthognathic patients or those with a Spanish culture.

Key words:Orthognathic surgery, quality of life, validation studies, dentofacial deformities, patient satisfaction, treatment outcome.

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<![CDATA[A sample of non-nutritive sucking habits (pacifier and digit) in portuguese children and its relation with the molar classes of angle]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c5f1b2ed5eed0c48469b2a2

Background

Little is known about the effect of non-nutritive sucking habits (pacifier and digital sucking) in the prevalence of molar Class in mixed dentition. The aim of this study was determinate the relation between non-nutritive sucking habits, and Angle´s molar Class, in the horizontal plane, and it´s relation with gender. A convenience sample of 326 children with ages between 6 and 12 years was selected from three schools of Oporto.

Material and Methods

To collect the epidemiologic data, was used a method recommended by the WHO. An indirect questionnaire about the medical history, dental habits, was used. It was adapted from Sanchez-Molins and validated by Clinical Dental III of Integrated Dental University Institute Health Sciences, Gandra, Portugal.

Results

In this study, 326 infants were examined in order to determine the prevalence of non-nutritive sucking habits. Only 45 observed children did not mentioned any kind of non-nutritive sucking habit; the remaining 281 children mentioned at least one potential bad habit. Children with non-nutritive sucking habits show a higher molar Class II percentage in females, while molar Class III is more frequent among males compared with children with no sucking habits.

Conclusions

Children with non-nutritive sucking habits, presented a higher-Class II prevalence with statistically significance. It was detected a direct relationship between Angle´s molar Class and gender.

Key words:Finger sucking, pacifier sucking, Angle Class malocclusion.

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<![CDATA[Facial analysis using a new clinical device: The Kattan Facio-meter]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c5f1b5ad5eed0c48469b400

Background

The aim of the study was to attempt to set average faciometric standards for Egyptians using the Kattan Facio-meter.

Material and Methods

The sample consisted of 180 faculty students with age range 17-25 years. It was divided into three groups; Angle Class I, II and III. Class II was further subdivided into divisions 1 and 2. Linear and angular facial measurements in relation to K plane were taken using the Kattan facio-meter. The measurements were correlated to Angle’s classification and between genders.

Results

On comparing the different classes, Class II division 1 showed the statistically highest mean value for Orbitale-soft tissue A; p=0.042, Class II divisions 1 and 2 for Orbitale- Labrale superius; p=0.002 and soft tissue ANB; p<0.001. Females showed significantly higher mean value than males for the upper incisor/K plane; p=0.031. Males showed significantly higher mean value for the inter-incisal angle than females; p=0.001.

Conclusions

Within the limitations of the current study, it was found that both linear and angular soft tissue measurements conformed to the antroposterior skeletal relation of the jaws and that Class II division 1 was due to protruded maxilla. Males had more prominent lips and deeper mentolabial sulcus. Egyptians had less prominent noses than Caucasians. The Kattan Facio-meter was a valuable tool for clinical analysis without the hazards of irradiation.

Key words:Kattan Facio-meter, Angle Class I, II and III.

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<![CDATA[Association between maxillary and mandibular apical base lengths and severity of dental crowding or spacing in Class II malocclusion subjects: An in-vitro study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c5f1b52d5eed0c48469b3c8

Background

Anterior crowding/ spacing are one of the major problems that inspire patients to undergo orthodontic treatment. Several factors associated with anterior crowding/ spacing includes arch width and length, mesio-distal tooth diameter and proportions. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship of maxillary and mandibular base lengths to the amount of anterior dental crowding/ spacing in patients with complete class II malocclusions.

Material and Methods

A retrospective study was done with 152 patients who were divided into four groups according to the severity of pre-treatment dental crowding/spacing present in the mandibular arch. Measurements were performed on the pre-treatment dental casts and lateral cephalograms. Statistical analysis was done using t-test and chi-square test.

Results

Subjects with complete class II malocclusion and moderate to severe mandibular crowding [≥3mm] have significantly smaller base lengths as compared to the subjects with slight crowding or spacing [<3mm].

Conclusions

There exists an inverse correlation between maxillary and mandibular base lengths and the severity of dental crowding and direct correlation with spacing.

Key words:Apical base lengths, Class II malocclusion, Crowding, Incisor inclination, Spacing.

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<![CDATA[Efficacy of swm appliance in the expression of first-, second- and third-order information in Class I and Class II]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c5f1b56d5eed0c48469b3e3

Background

To assess the efficacy of a multibracket appliance—Straight-wire Mirabella (SWM) prescription—in terms of achieving the ideal first-, second- and third-order values proposed by Andrews.

Material and Methods

A total sample of 46 Caucasian subjects was divided into two groups: 23 with class I malocclusion (Group 1), and 23 with class II malocclusion (Group 2). The treatment protocol involved fixed multibracket appliances—SWM prescription—for both groups, with the addition of class II elastics for Group 2. Values for ΔU1-PP, ΔIMPA, in-out, tip and torque were measured on digital scans, and the results obtained were compared with the ideal values proposed by Andrews.

Results

Statistically significant differences were revealed between the entire sample and Andrews’ values for: in-out on upper lateral incisors and upper canines; tip on the upper first premolars, upper second premolars, upper first molars and upper canines; and torque on the lower central incisors, lower lateral incisors, lower canines and lower first premolars. However, comparison of Groups 1 and 2 revealed statistically significant differences only at the lower lateral incisors. The use of class II elastics influenced ΔIMPA values, but not ΔU1-PP.

Conclusions

The efficacy of the multibracket appliance—SWM prescription—in expressing first- second- and, to a lesser extent, third-order information was demonstrated in both class I and class II malocclusions. Class II elastics only influenced the third-order expression on the lower lateral incisors and the ΔIMPA.

Key words:Straight wire fixed appliances, prescription efficacy, Class I malocclusions, Class II malocclusions.

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<![CDATA[Maximum occlusal bite force in pre-school children with different occlusal patterns]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c37bebad5eed0c4844a2efc

Background

This study was carried out to record maximum occlusal bite force (MOBF) in pre-school children with different occlusal patterns.

Material and Methods

A randomly selected sample of 1085 kindergarten children in primary dentition stage were selected. The age of subjects ranged between 3-6 years (averaged 4.90 ± 0.86 years). The subjects were divided into 3 groups according to molar relationship; flush terminal (n=335; 165 males and 170 females), distal step (n=450; 200 males and 250 females), mesial step (n=300; 150 males and 150 females) molar relationship. Clinical examination involved the record of molar relationship, overjet, overbite and the presence of wearing facets. Occlusal bite force was measured using a hydraulic occlusal force gauge.

Results

The means of MOBF for the different occlusal relationship were: - 193.47N (± 60.98), 179.20N (±56.80) and 245.11N (±69.45) for flush terminal, mesial and distal step molar relationships, respectively. Significant differences between studied groups were detected (P<0.01; P<0.001). MOBF were higher in subjects with distal step molar relationship, increased overjet and increased overbite. Gender differences were detected in flush terminal and distal step molar relationships.

Conclusions

MOBF was affected by the different occlusal relationships. Children with distal step and mesial step molar relationship had the highest and the lowest MOBF, respectively. MOBF was similar in children with/without wearing facets.

Key words:Occlusal, Bite force, primary, dentition, Pre-school.

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<![CDATA[Changes in buccal facial depth of female patients after extraction and nonextraction orthodontic treatments: A preliminary study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b593b4d463d7e595dfb7608

Objective

This study was performed to investigate buccal facial depth (BFD) changes after extraction and nonextraction orthodontic treatments in post-adolescent and adult female patients, and to explore possible influencing factors.

Methods

Twelve and nine female patients were enrolled in the extraction and nonextraction groups, respectively. Changes in BFD in the defined buccal region and six transverse and two coronal measuring planes were measured after registering pretreatment and posttreatment three-dimensional facial scans. Changes in posterior dentoalveolar arch widths were also measured. Treatment duration, changes in body mass index (BMI), and cephalometric variables were compared between the groups.

Results

BFD in the buccal region decreased by approximately 1.45 mm in the extraction group, but no significant change was observed in the nonextraction group. In the extraction group, the decrease in BFD was identical between the two coronal measuring planes, whereas this differed among the six transverse measuring planes. Posterior dentoalveolar arch widths decreased in the extraction group, whereas these increased at the second premolar level in the nonextraction group. The treatment duration of the extraction group was twice that of the nonextraction group. No differences were found in BMI and Frankfort horizontal-mandibular plane angle changes between the groups. BFD changes in the buccal region moderately correlated with treatment duration and dental arch width change.

Conclusions

BFD decreased in adult female patients undergoing extraction, and this may be influenced by the long treatment duration and constriction of dentoalveolar arch width. However, nonextraction treatment did not significantly alter BFD.

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<![CDATA[Autotransplantation: A biological treatment alternative for a patient after traumatic dental injury]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b4c25b3463d7e045e4d94b9

Traumatic dental injury is considered a public dental health problem because of a high childhood incidence, high treatment costs, and prolonged treatment time. Although management guidelines for traumatized teeth have been outlined, tooth loss following trauma is occasionally unavoidable. Here, we describe the successful interdisciplinary management of a traumatized central incisor in an 11-year old boy that was extracted because of a poor prognosis and restored by the autotransplantation of an immature donor tooth into the site. The patient underwent orthodontic treatment in order to close the donor site space and bring the autotransplanted tooth to an ideal position. Postorthodontic treatment radiographs and photographs revealed an esthetic and functional natural tooth replacing the lost tooth. The findings from this case suggest that autotransplantation offers unique advantages as a treatment modality for the restoration of missing teeth, particularly in growing children.

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<![CDATA[Force distribution is more important than its intensity!]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5addc668463d7e3c6a22ecc8

A common question about root resorption is raised in orthodontic practice: What is more important, the intensity of force or its distribution along the root, periodontal and alveolar structures? Diffuse distribution of forces applied to periodontal tissues during tooth movement tends not to promote neither extensive areas of cell matrix hyalinization nor significant death of cementoblasts that lead to root resorption. However, focal distribution or concentration of forces within a restricted area - as it occurs in tipping movements, even with forces of lower intensity - tend to induce extensive areas of hyalinization and focal death of cementoblasts, which is commonly associated with root resorption. In tipping movements, the apical regions tend to concentrate more forces in addition to wounding the cementoblasts due to the smaller dimension of their root structure as well as their cone shape. For this reason, there is an increase in root resorption. In the cervical region, on the other hand, the large area resulting from a large diameter and bone crown deflection tends to reduce the effects of forces, even when they are more concentrated, thus rarely inducing death of cementoblasts and root resorption.

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<![CDATA[A randomized controlled trial to assess the pain associated with the debond of orthodontic fixed appliances]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5ad8ba35463d7e5dccd660d3

Objective: To determine patient experience of pain during treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances, expectations of pain during debond and whether biting on a soft acrylic wafer during debond decreases pain experience.

Design: Multicentre randomized controlled trial.

Setting: Three UK hospital based orthodontic departments: Mid-Staffordshire NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham Dental Hospital and University Hospital of North Staffordshire.

Materials and methods: Ninety patients were randomly allocated to either the control (n = 45) or wafer group (n = 45). A visual analogue scale-based questionnaire was completed pre-debond to determine pain experience during treatment and expectations of pain during debond. The appliances were debonded and those in the wafer group bit on a soft acrylic wafer. A second questionnaire was completed post-debond to assess the pain experienced.

Results: Biting on an acrylic wafer significantly reduced the pain experienced when debonding the posterior teeth (P≤0·05). Thirty-nine per cent found the lower anterior teeth the most painful. The expected pain was significantly greater than that actually experienced (P≤0·0001). Greater pain during treatment correlated with increased expectations and increased actually experienced pain (P≤0·0001).

Conclusions: Biting on a soft acrylic wafer during debond of the posterior teeth reduces the pain experienced. The lower anterior teeth are the most painful. The pain expected is significantly greater than actually experienced. Patients who had greater pain during treatment expected and experienced greater pain at debond.

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<![CDATA[Fluoride penetration from three orthodontic adhesives: an experimental study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5aca3728463d7e71f3e8282e

Objective

To examine the prophylactic potential of 3 orthodontic bonding adhesives: Fuji Ortho SC, Illuminate, and Resilience.

Methods

Thirty-six Wistar Wag rats were randomly divided into 4 groups consisting of 9 rats each. One of the groups received no treatment and was used as a control. In the other groups, individual bands coated with one of the 3 adhesives were cemented to the lower incisors. Enamel samples were obtained after 6 and 12 weeks and analyzed using scanning electron microscopy in combination with energy dispersive spectrometry.

Results

Six weeks after band cementation, no fluoride was found in the enamel of the lower incisors. After 12 weeks, there was no fluoride in the enamel of teeth coated with the Resilience composite. However, in the case of the Illuminate composite and the resin-modified glass ionomer Fuji Ortho SC cement, the depth of fluoride penetration reached 2 µm and 4.8 - 5.7 µm, respectively.

Conclusions

Fluoride ions from orthodontic adhesives can be incorporated into the surface layer of the enamel. Orthodontists may apply orthodontic adhesives, such as the Fuji Ortho SC, to reduce the occurrence of caries during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances.

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<![CDATA[Lateral cephalometry: A simple and economical clinical guide for assessment of nasopharyngeal free airway space in mouth breathers]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5abf59cd463d7e16a8bff8b0

Nasopharyngeal obstruction by adenoid enlargement is one of the main causes of mouth breathing. Cephalometric radiographs and rhinomanometric tests to evaluate nasal obstruction have been available for several decades. Various lines and areas have been interpreted by number of investigators to implicate the enlarged adenoid in a casual relationship with mouth breathing and the subsequent effect on vertical facial growth. The aim of this paper is to review lateral cephalometric tracing methods combined with newer Auto-cad surface area measurement program so that assessment of the nasopharyngeal free airway space can be done based on it, before more rigorous ear-nose-throat follow up is needed for the patient.

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