ResearchPad - Orthopedics and Sports Medicine https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Dynamic stabilization for degenerative diseases in the lumbar spine: 2 years results]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c0068c9d5eed0c484d4d2f1

Following lumbar fusion, adjacent segment degeneration has been frequently reported. Dynamic systems are believed to reduce main fusion drawbacks. We conducted a retrospective study on patients with degenerative lumbar disease treated with posterior dynamic stabilization with monoaxial hinged pedicular screws and lumbar decompression. VAS and ODI were used to compare clinical outcomes. As radiological outcomes, LL and SVA were used. 51 patients were included with an average follow-up of 24 months. 13 patients were revised because of postoperative radiculopathy (n=4), subcutaneous hematoma (n=2), L5 screw malposition (n=1) and adjacent segment disease (n=6). The mean ODI score 41 preoperatively compared to 36 postoperatively. The mean VAS scores for back and leg pain were 5.3 and 4.2, respectively compared to 4.5 and 4.0 postoperatively. The mean SVA was 5.3 cm preoperatively, and 5.7 cm postoperatively. The mean LL was 47.5° preoperatively and 45.5° postoperatively. From our data, which fail to show significant improvements and reflect a high revision rate, we cannot generally recommend dynamic stabilization as an alternative to fusion. Comparative trials with longer follow-ups are required.

]]>
<![CDATA[Factors impacting arthroscopic rotator cuff repair operational throughput time at an ambulatory care center]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c0068ccd5eed0c484d4d362

Identifying patient factors influencing operational throughput time is becoming more imperative due to an increasing focus on value and cost savings in healthcare. The primary objective of this study was to determine patient factors influencing throughput time for primary rotator cuff repairs. Demographic information, medical history and operative reports of 318 patients from one ambulatory care center were retrospectively reviewed. Operating room set up, incision to closure and recovery room time were collected from anesthesia records. Univariate analysis was performed for both continuous and categorical variables. A stepwise, multivariable regression analysis was performed to determine factors associated with operating room time (incision to closure) and recovery room time. Of the 318 patients, the mean age was 54.4±10.0 and 197 (61%) were male. Male patients had a significantly longer OR time than females (115.5 vs. 100.8 minutes; P<0.001) Furthermore, patients set up in the beach chair position had a significantly longer OR time than patients positioned lateral decubitus (115.8 vs. 89.6 mins, P<0.0001). Number of tendons involved, and inclusion of distal clavicle excision, biceps tenodesis and labral debridement also added significant OR time. Type and number of support staff present also significantly affected OR time. Recovery room time was significantly longer patients who had surgery in the beach chair position (+9.61 minutes) and for those who had a cardiac-related medical comorbidity (+11.7 minutes). Our study found that patients positioned in a beach chair spent significantly more time in the operating and recovery rooms. While ease of set up has been a stated advantage of beach chair position, we found the perceived ease of set up does not result in more efficient OR throughput.

]]>
<![CDATA[The Top 50 most-cited articles on Total Ankle Arthroplasty: A bibliometric analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b59a398463d7e789700d0d8

Total Ankle Arthroplasty (TAA) is a relatively new and evolving field in Foot and Ankle surgery. We conducted a citation analysis to identify the characteristics of the top 50 most cited articles on total ankle arthroplasty. Using the Web of Science database and the search strategy total ankle arthroplasty OR total ankle replacement, we identified 2445 articles. After filtering for relevant articles, the top 50 cited articles on total ankle arthroplasty were retrieved for descriptive and statistical analysis. The publication years ranged from 1979 to 2013. USA was the most productive country in terms of research output, followed by the UK. Though citation analysis has its flaws, this is a comprehensive list of the top 50 articles significantly impacting literature on total ankle arthroplasty. Based on our study, we conclude that there is marked deficiency of high level articles with respect to the number of citations and future researches need to cater to this question to produce high quality studies.

]]>
<![CDATA[Biologic plating of unstable distal radial fractures]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b58beb2463d7e503db4cf2a

Background

Volar locking plating through the flexor carpi radialis is a well-established technique for treating unstable distal radial fractures, with few reported complications. In certain circumstances, including metaphyseal comminuted fractures, bridge plating through a pronator quadratus (PQ)-sparing approach may be required to preserve the soft tissue envelope. This study describes our prospective experience with bridge plating through indirect reduction.

Methods

Thirty-three wrists (four 23A2, six 23A3, 15 23C1, and eight 23C2) underwent bridge plating through a PQ-sparing approach with indirect reduction from June 2006 to December 2010. Mean patient age was 56.8 years (range, 25–83 years), and the mean follow-up period was 47.5 months (range, 36–84 months). Changes in radiologic parameters (volar tilt, radial inclination, radial length, and ulnar variance) were analyzed, and functional results at final follow-up were evaluated by measuring the Modified Mayo Wrist Score (MMWS) and Modified Gartland-Werley Score (MGWS).

Results

All wrists achieved bone healing without significant complications after a single operation. At final follow-up, radial length was restored from an average of 3.7 mm to 11.0 mm, as were radial inclination, from 16.4° to 22.5°, and volar tilt, from − 9.1° to 5.5°. However, radial length was overcorrected in three wrists, and two experienced residual dorsal tilt. Excellent and good results on the MGWS were achieved in 30 wrists (90.9%). The average MMWS outcome was 92.6 (range, 75–100).

Conclusion

Our experience with bridge plating was similar to that previously reported in the earlier publications. Compared with the conventional technique, bridge plating through a PQ-sparing approach may help in managing metaphyseal comminuted fractures of both cortices with a reduced radio-ulnar index.

]]>
<![CDATA[Handgrip force steadiness in young and older adults: a reproducibility study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b4cea1d463d7e11b2f07598

Background

Force steadiness is a quantitative measure of the ability to control muscle tonus. It is an independent predictor of functional performance and has shown to correlate well with different degrees of motor impairment following stroke. Despite being clinically relevant, few studies have assessed the validity of measuring force steadiness. The aim of this study was to explore the reproducibility of handgrip force steadiness, and to assess age difference in steadiness.

Method

Intrarater reproducibility (the degree to which a rating gives consistent result on separate occasions) was investigated in a test-retest design with seven days between sessions. Ten young and thirty older adults were recruited and handgrip steadiness was tested at 5%, 10% and 25% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) using Nintendo Wii Balance Board (WBB). Coefficients of variation were calculated from the mean force produced (CVM) and the target force (CVT). Area between the force curve and the target force line (Area) was also calculated. For the older adults we explored reliability using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and agreement using standard error of measurement (SEM), limits of agreement (LOA) and smallest real difference (SRD).

Results

A systematic improvement in handgrip steadiness was found between sessions for all measures (CVM, CVT, Area). CVM and CVT at 5% of MVC showed good to high reliability, while Area had poor reliability for all percentages of MVC. Averaged ICC for CVM, CVT and Area was 0.815, 0.806 and 0.464, respectively. Averaged ICC on 5%, 10%, and 25% of MVC was 0.751, 0.667 and 0.668, respectively. Measures of agreement showed similar trends with better results for CVM and CVT than for Area. Young adults had better handgrip steadiness than older adults across all measures.

Conclusion

The CVM and CVT measures demonstrated good reproducibility at lower percentages of MVC using the WBB, and could become relevant measures in the clinical setting. The Area measure had poor reproducibility. Young adults have better handgrip steadiness than old adults.

]]>
<![CDATA[What Is the Most Effective Eccentric Stretching Position in Lateral Elbow Tendinopathy?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b4c2489463d7e045e4d94b5

Background

A variety of treatment options suggest that the optimal treatment strategy for lateral elbow tendinopathy (LET) is not known, and further research is needed to discover the most effective treatment for LET. The purpose of the present study was to verify the most effective position of eccentric stretching for the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) in vivo using ultrasonic shear wave elastography.

Methods

A total of 20 healthy males participated in this study. Resting position was defined as 90° elbow flexion and neutral position of the forearm and wrist. Elongation of the ECRB was measured for four stretching maneuvers (forearm supination/pronation and wrist extension/flexion) at two elbow angles (90° flexion and full extension). The shear elastic modulus, used as the index of muscle elongation, was computed using ultrasonic shear wave elastography for the eight aforementioned stretching maneuverangle combinations.

Results

The shear elastic modulus was the highest in elbow extension, forearm pronation, and wrist flexion. The shear elastic moduli of wrist flexion with any forearm and elbow position were significantly higher than the resting position. There was no significant difference associated with elbow and forearm positions except for elbow extension, forearm pronation, and wrist flexion positions.

Conclusions

This study determined that elbow extension, forearm pronation, and wrist flexion was the most effective eccentric stretching for the ECRB in vivo.

]]>
<![CDATA[Six Sessions of Sprint Interval Training Improves Running Performance in Trained Athletes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bfaa659d5eed0c48473a746

Abstract

Koral, J, Oranchuk, DJ, Herrera, R, and Millet, GY. Six sessions of sprint interval training improves running performance in trained athletes. J Strength Cond Res 32(3): 617–623, 2018—Sprint interval training (SIT) is gaining popularity with endurance athletes. Various studies have shown that SIT allows for similar or greater endurance, strength, and power performance improvements than traditional endurance training but demands less time and volume. One of the main limitations in SIT research is that most studies were performed in a laboratory using expensive treadmills or ergometers. The aim of this study was to assess the performance effects of a novel short-term and highly accessible training protocol based on maximal shuttle runs in the field (SIT-F). Sixteen (12 male, 4 female) trained trail runners completed a 2-week procedure consisting of 4–7 bouts of 30 seconds at maximal intensity interspersed by 4 minutes of recovery, 3 times a week. Maximal aerobic speed (MAS), time to exhaustion at 90% of MAS before test (Tmax at 90% MAS), and 3,000-m time trial (TT3000m) were evaluated before and after training. Data were analyzed using a paired samples t-test, and Cohen's (d) effect sizes were calculated. Maximal aerobic speed improved by 2.3% (p = 0.01, d = 0.22), whereas peak power (PP) and mean power (MP) increased by 2.4% (p = 0.009, d = 0.33) and 2.8% (p = 0.002, d = 0.41), respectively. TT3000m was 6% shorter (p < 0.001, d = 0.35), whereas Tmax at 90% MAS was 42% longer (p < 0.001, d = 0.74). Sprint interval training in the field significantly improved the 3,000-m run, time to exhaustion, PP, and MP in trained trail runners. Sprint interval training in the field is a time-efficient and cost-free means of improving both endurance and power performance in trained athletes.

]]>
<![CDATA[Endoscopic Management of Calcaneofibular Impingement and Posterior Ankle Impingement Syndrome Caused by Malunion of Joint Depressed–Type Calcaneal Fracture]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b4bef9a463d7e7f7e212c4b

Identification of the correct source of symptoms is the key in formulating the correct treatment plan for heel pain after calcaneal malunion. Calcaneofibular and posterior ankle impingements can occur due to malunion of a joint depressed–type calcaneal fracture. The purpose of this Technical Note is to report the technical details of posterior and lateral decompression through the posteromedial and posterolateral portals using posterior ankle endoscopy.

]]>
<![CDATA[Analysis of Revision Surgery of Microsurgical Lumbar Discectomy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b4b8125463d7e779960fba7

Study Design

A retrospective study.

Purpose

Our objectives were to determine the association between the pathological changes of disc herniation and the interval between primary and revision surgeries and to investigate the frequency and site of the dural laceration in the primary and revision surgeries.

Overview of Literature

Among 382 patients who underwent microsurgical lumbar discectomy, we investigated 29 who underwent revision surgery to analyze recurrent herniation pathologies and complications to determine the manner in which lumbar disc herniation can be more efficiently managed.

Methods

Of 29 patients, 22 had recurrent disc herniation at the same level and site. The pathological changes associated with compression factors were classified into the following two types depending on intraoperative findings: (1) true recurrence and (2) minor recurrence with peridural fibrosis (>4 mm thickness). The sites of dural laceration were examined using video footage and operative records.

Results

The pathological findings and days between the primary and revision surgeries showed no statistical difference (p=0.14). Analysis of multiple factors, revealed no significant difference between the primary and revision surgery groups with regard to hospital days (p=0.23), blood loss (p=0.99), and operative time (p=0.67). Dural lacerations obviously increased in the revision surgery group (1.3% vs. 16.7%, p<0.01) and were mainly located near the herniated disc in the primary surgery group and near the root shoulder in the revision surgery group, where severe fibrosis and adhesion were confirmed. To avoid dural laceration during revision surgery, meticulous decompressive manipulation must be performed around the root sleeve.

Conclusions

We recommend that meticulous epidural dissection around the scar formation must be performed during revision surgery to avoid complications.

]]>
<![CDATA[Reliability and validity of a novel Kinect-based software program for measuring posture, balance and side-bending]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bf2b95bd5eed0c484129ef5

Background

Clinical examinations are subjective and often show a low validity and reliability. Objective and highly reliable quantitative assessments are available in laboratory settings using 3D motion analysis, but these systems are too expensive to use for simple clinical examinations. Qinematic™ is an interactive movement analyses system based on the Kinect camera and is an easy-to-use clinical measurement system for assessing posture, balance and side-bending. The aim of the study was to test the test-retest the reliability and construct validity of Qinematic™ in a healthy population, and to calculate the minimal clinical differences for the variables of interest. A further aim was to identify the discriminative validity of Qinematic™ in people with low-back pain (LBP).

Methods

We performed a test-retest reliability study (n = 37) with around 1 week between the occasions, a construct validity study (n = 30) in which Qinematic™ was tested against a 3D motion capture system, and a discriminative validity study, in which a group of people with LBP (n = 20) was compared to healthy controls (n = 17). We tested a large range of psychometric properties of 18 variables in three sections: posture (head and pelvic position, weight distribution), balance (sway area and velocity in single- and double-leg stance), and side-bending.

Results

The majority of the variables in the posture and balance sections, showed poor/fair reliability (ICC < 0.4) and poor/fair validity (Spearman <0.4), with significant differences between occasions, between Qinematic™ and the 3D–motion capture system. In the clinical study, Qinematic™ did not differ between people with LPB and healthy for these variables. For one variable, side-bending to the left, there was excellent reliability (ICC =0.898), excellent validity (r = 0.943), and Qinematic™ could differentiate between LPB and healthy individuals (p = 0.012).

Conclusion

This paper shows that a novel software program (Qinematic™) based on the Kinect camera for measuring balance, posture and side-bending has poor psychometric properties, indicating that the variables on balance and posture should not be used for monitoring individual changes over time or in research. Future research on the dynamic tasks of Qinematic™ is warranted.

]]>
<![CDATA[A systematic review investigating measurement properties of physiological tests in rugby]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b4733d4463d7e6c0337a13c

Background

This systematic review was conducted with the first objective aimed at providing an overview of the physiological characteristics commonly evaluated in rugby and the corresponding tests used to measure each construct. Secondly, the measurement properties of all identified tests per physiological construct were evaluated with the ultimate purpose of identifying tests with strongest level of evidence per construct.

Methods

The review was conducted in two stages. In all stages, electronic databases of EBSCOhost, Medline and Scopus were searched for full-text articles. Stage 1 included studies examining physiological characteristics in rugby. Stage 2 included studies evaluating measurement properties of all tests identified in Stage 1 either in rugby or related sports such as Australian Rules football and Soccer. Two independent reviewers screened relevant articles from titles and abstracts for both stages.

Results

Seventy studies met the inclusion criteria for Stage 1. The studies described 63 tests assessing speed (8), agility/change of direction speed (7), upper-body muscular endurance (8), upper-body muscular power (6), upper-body muscular strength (5), anaerobic endurance (4), maximal aerobic power (4), lower-body muscular power (3), prolonged high-intensity intermittent running ability/endurance (5), lower-body muscular strength (5), repeated high-intensity exercise performance (3), repeated-sprint ability (2), repeated-effort ability (1), maximal aerobic speed (1) and abdominal endurance (1). Stage 2 identified 20 studies describing measurement properties of 21 different tests. Only moderate evidence was found for the reliability of the 30–15 Intermittent Fitness. There was limited evidence found for the reliability and/or validity of 5 m, 10 m, 20 m speed tests, 505 test, modified 505 test, L run test, Sergeant Jump test and bench press repetitions-to-fatigue tests. There was no information from high-quality studies on the measurement properties of all the other tests identified in stage 1.

Conclusion

A number of physiological characteristics are evaluated in rugby. Each physiological construct has multiple tests for measurement. However, there is paucity of information on measurement properties from high-quality studies for the tests. This raises questions about the usefulness and applicability of these tests in rugby and creates a need for high-quality future studies evaluating measurement properties of these physiological tests.

Trial registrations

PROSPERO CRD 42015029747.

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (10.1186/s13102-017-0081-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

]]>
<![CDATA[Validity of sports watches when estimating energy expenditure during running]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bf1b212d5eed0c484d2ce23 <![CDATA[Body Image and Quality of Life and Brace Wear Adherence in Females With Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5beeed29d5eed0c48460d8c1 <![CDATA[Normal Age-Adjusted Sagittal Spinal Alignment Is Achieved with Surgical Correction in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b44e2c1463d7e40e68d76dc

Study Design

Retrospective analysis.

Purpose

Our hypothesis is that the surgical correction of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) maintains normal sagittal alignment as compared to age-matched normative adolescent population.

Overview of Literature

Sagittal spino-pelvic alignment in AIS has been reported, however, whether corrective spinal fusion surgery re-establishes normal alignment remains unverified.

Methods

Sagittal profiles and spino-pelvic parameters of thirty-eight postsurgical correction AIS patients ≤21 years old without prior fusion from a single institution database were compared to previously published normative age-matched data. Coronal and sagittal measurements including structural coronal Cobb angle, pelvic incidence, pelvic tilt, thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis, sagittal vertical axis, C2–C7 cervical lordosis, C2–C7 sagittal vertical axis, and T1 pelvic angles were measured on standing full-body stereoradiographs using validated software to compare preoperative and 6 months postoperative changes with previously published adolescent norms. A sub-group analysis of patients with type 1 Lenke curves was performed comparing preoperative to postoperative alignment and also comparing this with previously published normative values.

Results

The mean coronal curve of the 38 AIS patients (mean age, 16±2.2 years; 76.3% female) was corrected from 53.6° to 9.6° (80.9%, p<0.01). None of the thoracic and spino-pelvic sagittal parameters changed significantly after surgery in previously hypo- and normo-kyphotic patients. In hyper-kyphotic patients, thoracic kyphosis decreased (p=0.003) with a reciprocal decrease in lumbar lordosis (p=0.01), thus lowering pelvic incidence-lumbar lordosis mismatch mismatch (p=0.009). Structural thoracic scoliosis patients had slightly more thoracic kyphosis than age-matched patients at baseline and surgical correction of the coronal plane of their scoliosis preserved normal sagittal alignment postoperatively. A sub-analysis of Lenke curve type 1 patients (n=24) demonstrated no statistically significant changes in the sagittal alignment postoperatively despite adequate coronal correction.

Conclusions

Surgical correction of the coronal plane in AIS patients preserves sagittal and spino-pelvic alignment as compared to age-matched asymptomatic adolescents.

]]>
<![CDATA[Preliminary Results of Relationship between Preoperative Walking Ability and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Morphology in Patients with Lumbar Canal Stenosis: Comparison between Trefoil and Triangle Types of Spinal Stenosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b42afa3463d7e1bb4177856

Study Design

Cross-sectional.

Purpose

To examine the relationship between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) morphology stenosis grades and preoperative walking ability in patients with lumbar canal stenosis (LCS).

Overview of Literature

No previous study has analyzed the correlation between MRI morphology stenosis grades and walking ability in patients with LCS.

Methods

This prospective study included 98 consecutive patients with LCS who were candidates for surgery. Using features identified in T2-weighted axial magnetic, stenosis type was determined at the maximal stenosis level, and only trefoil and triangle stenosis grade types were considered because of sufficient sample size. Intraobserver and interobserver reliability were assessed by calculating weighted kappa coefficients. Symptom severity was evaluated via the Japanese Orthopedic Association Back Pain Evaluation Questionnaire (JOABPEQ). Walking ability was assessed using the Self-Paced Walking Test (SPWT) and JOABPEQ subscales. Demographic characteristics, SPWT scores, and JOABPEQ scores were compared between patients with trefoil and triangle stenosis types.

Results

The mean patient age was 58.1 (standard deviation, 8.4) years. The kappa values of the MRI morphology stenosis grade types showed a perfect agreement between the stenosis grade types. The trefoil group (n=53) and triangle group (n=45) showed similar preoperative JOABPEQ subscale scores (e.g., low back pain, lumbar function, and mental health) and were not significantly different in age, BMI, duration of symptoms, or lumbar stenosis levels (all p>0.05); however, trefoil stenosis grade type was associated with a decreased walking ability according to the SPWT and JOABPEQ subscale scores.

Conclusions

These findings suggest preoperative walking ability is more profoundly affected in patients with trefoil type stenosis than in those with triangle type stenosis.

]]>
<![CDATA[Pediatric Return to Sports After Spinal Surgery]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5be7367bd5eed0c48430c8da <![CDATA[A Multidisciplinary Workplace Intervention for Chronic Low Back Pain among Nursing Assistants in Iran]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b3e342c463d7e44234bb550

Study Design

Interventional research with a 6-month follow-up period.

Purpose

We aimed to establish the effectiveness of a multidisciplinary workplace intervention on reduction of work-related low back pain (WRLBP), using ergonomic posture training coupled with an educational program based on social cognitive theory.

Overview of Literature

WRLBP is a major occupational problem among healthcare workers, who are often required to lift heavy loads. Patient handling is a particular requirement of nurse aides, and has been reported as the main cause of chronic WRLBP.

Methods

We included 125 nursing assistants from two hospitals affiliated to Qom University of Medical Sciences from May to December 2015. There was an intervention hospital with a number of 63 nursing assistants who received four multidisciplinary educational sessions for 2 hours each plus ergonomic posture training over two days and a control hospital with a number of 62 nursing assistants who didn't receive educational intervention about low back pain. The outcomes of interest were reductions in WRLBP intensity and disability from baseline to the follow up at 6 months, which were measured using a visual analog scale and the Quebec Disability Scale. Descriptive and analytical statistics were used to analyze the data.

Results

The comparison tests showed significant change from baseline in reduction of WRLBP intensity following the multidisciplinary program, with scores of 5.01±1.97 to 3.42±2.53 after 6 months on the visual analog scale in the intervention group (p<0.001) and no significant change in control groups. There was no significant difference in the disability scores between the two groups (p=0.07).

Conclusions

We showed that our multidisciplinary intervention could reduce the intensity of WRLBP among nurse aides, making them suitable for implementation in programs to improve WRLBP among nursing assistants working in hospitals.

]]>
<![CDATA[Improving Diagnostic Accuracy and Efficiency of Suspected Bone Stress Injuries]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b3c1b9d463d7e1cb7092d8f

Context:

Lower extremity stress fractures among athletes and military recruits cause significant morbidity, fiscal costs, and time lost from sport or training. During fiscal years (FY) 2012 to 2014, 1218 US Air Force trainees at Joint Base San Antonio–Lackland, Texas, were diagnosed with stress fracture(s). Diagnosis relied heavily on bone scans, often very early in clinical course and often in preference to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), highlighting the need for an evidence-based algorithm for stress injury diagnosis and initial management.

Evidence Acquisition:

To guide creation of an evidence-based algorithm, a literature review was conducted followed by analysis of local data. Relevant articles published between 1995 and 2015 were identified and reviewed on PubMed using search terms stress fracture, stress injury, stress fracture imaging, and stress fracture treatment. Subsequently, charts were reviewed for all Air Force trainees diagnosed with 1 or more stress injury in their outpatient medical record in FY 2014.

Study Design:

Clinical review.

Level of Evidence:

Level 4.

Results:

In FY 2014, 414 trainees received a bone scan and an eventual diagnosis of stress fracture. Of these scans, 66.4% demonstrated a stress fracture in the symptomatic location only, 21.0% revealed stress fractures in both symptomatic and asymptomatic locations, and 5.8% were negative in the symptomatic location but did reveal stress fracture(s) in asymptomatic locations. Twenty-one percent (18/85) of MRIs performed a mean 6 days (range, 0- 21 days) after a positive bone scan did not demonstrate any stress fracture.

Conclusion:

Bone stress injuries in military training environments are common, costly, and challenging to diagnose. MRI should be the imaging study of choice, after plain radiography, in those individuals meeting criteria for further workup.

]]>
<![CDATA[Longitudinal Increases in Knee Abduction Moments in Females during Adolescent Growth]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bd1a96240307c7d3c921604

ABSTRACT

Purpose

Knee abduction moment (KAM) is an injury risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury that shows divergent incidence between males and females during adolescence. The objective of this study was to determine the relation between skeletal growth and increased KAM. The hypotheses tested were that females would demonstrate peak KAM during landing at peak height velocity (PHV) and that they would diverge from males at PHV.

Methods

The subject pool consisted of 674 females and 218 males (1387 female and 376 male assessments) who participated in a preseason testing session before their basketball or soccer seasons. They were tested longitudinally for multiple years (2 ± 1 yr) to capture maturation via estimates of percent (%) adult stature and biomechanical analysis during a drop vertical jump maneuver. Data were analyzed using three-dimensional motion analysis that used a 37 retroreflective marker body model and inverse dynamics to calculate segment joint centers and peak KAM.

Results

Mature females, as defined as 92% adult stature or greater, displayed increased peak KAM and knee abduction angles relative to growing (≤91% adult stature) adolescent females (P < 0.001). A significant sex–maturation (% adult stature) interaction (P < 0.001) in peak KAM was observed. Post hoc analyses showed consistent sex differences in groups greater than or equal to, but not less than, 92% adult stature, which is approximately at PHV. Hence, sex differences in peak KAM and PHV coincide.

Conclusions

Increases in peak KAM during and after PHV seem to coincide with increased risk of ACL injury in females. KAM peaked in females at PHV. Tracking longitudinal increases in peak KAM may be useful for the identification of females at increased risk of ACL injury.

]]>
<![CDATA[The feasibility of transpedicular screw fixation of the subaxial cervical spine in the Arab population: a computed tomography-based morphometric study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bcef87e40307c41ff0d07fc