ResearchPad - Otorhinolaryngology https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Awareness and experiences of cosmetic treatment providers with body dysmorphic disorder in Saudi Arabia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N5ba30790-9b1d-4904-ae3c-e9b929bfd50a

Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) is defined as a constant obsession with one’s external appearance and flaws, and it falls under the criteria of neuropsychiatric disorders. Individuals suffering from this disorder may seek unnecessary cosmetic procedures from cosmetic treatment providers such as dermatologists or plastic surgeons. Cosmetic treatments have become readily available, which has led to an influx of undiagnosed BDD patients electing to undergo such treatments. Therefore, physicians should have the clinical knowledge about BDD to diagnose and manage these cases to avoid psychological and physical harm to these patients. However, there were no studies conducted in our region to assess the awareness of BDD among physicians who provide cosmetic treatments with regards to their attitude toward such cases and how they would manage it. This study aims to assess the awareness of Body Dysmorphic Disorder among Saudi physicians who provide cosmetic treatments. We conducted an observational cross-sectional study among physicians practicing in hospitals and cosmetic clinics in Riyadh and Jeddah city (Saudi Arabia), who perform cosmetic procedures, namely dermatologists, plastic surgeons, and otorhinolaryngologists. A paper-based questionnaire consisting of multiple-choice questions was distributed among them. The total number of participants was 155 physicians: 113 (72.9%) males and 42 (27.1%) females. Eighty-two (52.9%) participants reported that they have been familiar with the diagnostic criteria of BDD for a long time and ninety-nine (63.8%) reported being familiar with the clinical picture of BDD. Sixty-three (40.6%) participants estimated the prevalence of BDD cases seen in cosmetic practice to range from 1%-5%, and most agreed on an equal prevalence of BDD among female and male patients. Half of the participants (n = 76) (49%) reported that they sometimes share knowledge about BDD with patients whom they suspect to suffer from this condition. In conclusion, cosmetic treatment providers in Saudi Arabia are aware of BDD, but we have identified a discrepancy between the self-reported participant knowledge of diagnostic criteria and their ability to accurately estimate the prevalence of BDD cases seen in clinical practice.

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<![CDATA[Misophonia: Phenomenology, comorbidity and demographics in a large sample]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N4224db8b-e824-4eb2-b1dc-d3c3ccfee32c

Objective

Analyze a large sample with detailed clinical data of misophonia subjects in order to determine the psychiatric, somatic and psychological nature of the condition.

Methods

This observational study of 779 subjects with suspected misophonia was conducted from January 2013 to May 2017 at the outpatient-clinic of the Amsterdam University Medical Centers, location AMC, the Netherlands. We examined DSM-IV diagnoses, results of somatic examination (general screening and hearing tests), and 17 psychological questionnaires (e.g., SCL-90-R, WHOQoL).

Results

The diagnosis of misophonia was confirmed in 575 of 779 referred subjects (74%). In the sample of misophonia subjects (mean age, 34.17 [SD = 12.22] years; 399 women [69%]), 148 (26%) subjects had comorbid traits of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder, 58 (10%) mood disorders, 31 (5%) attention-deficit (hyperactivity) disorder, and 14 (3%) autism spectrum conditions. Two percent reported tinnitus and 1% hyperacusis. In a random subgroup of 109 subjects we performed audiometry, and found unilateral hearing loss in 3 of them (3%). Clinical neurological examination and additional blood test showed no abnormalities. Psychological tests revealed perfectionism (97% CPQ>25) and neuroticism (stanine 7 NEO-PI-R). Quality of life was heavily impaired and associated with misophonia severity (rs (184) = -.34 p = < .001, p = < .001).

Limitations

This was a single site study, leading to possible selection–and confirmation bias, since AMC-criteria were used.

Conclusions

This study with 575 subjects is the largest misophonia sample ever described. Based on these results we propose a set of revised criteria useful to diagnose misophonia as a psychiatric disorder.

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<![CDATA[Variants encoding a restricted carboxy-terminal domain of SLC12A2 cause hereditary hearing loss in humans]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nd1837fa5-7737-42fc-aa07-ce2092d99c03

Hereditary hearing loss is challenging to diagnose because of the heterogeneity of the causative genes. Further, some genes involved in hereditary hearing loss have yet to be identified. Using whole-exome analysis of three families with congenital, severe-to-profound hearing loss, we identified a missense variant of SLC12A2 in five affected members of one family showing a dominant inheritance mode, along with de novo splice-site and missense variants of SLC12A2 in two sporadic cases, as promising candidates associated with hearing loss. Furthermore, we detected another de novo missense variant of SLC12A2 in a sporadic case. SLC12A2 encodes Na+, K+, 2Cl cotransporter (NKCC) 1 and plays critical roles in the homeostasis of K+-enriched endolymph. Slc12a2-deficient mice have congenital, profound deafness; however, no human variant of SLC12A2 has been reported as associated with hearing loss. All identified SLC12A2 variants mapped to exon 21 or its 3’-splice site. In vitro analysis indicated that the splice-site variant generates an exon 21-skipped SLC12A2 mRNA transcript expressed at much lower levels than the exon 21-included transcript in the cochlea, suggesting a tissue-specific role for the exon 21-encoded region in the carboy-terminal domain. In vitro functional analysis demonstrated that Cl influx was significantly decreased in all SLC12A2 variants studied. Immunohistochemistry revealed that SLC12A2 is located on the plasma membrane of several types of cells in the cochlea, including the strial marginal cells, which are critical for endolymph homeostasis. Overall, this study suggests that variants affecting exon 21 of the SLC12A2 transcript are responsible for hereditary hearing loss in humans.

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<![CDATA[Sarcopenia in male patients with head and neck cancer receiving chemoradiotherapy: a longitudinal pilot study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N7165119a-ee16-4afd-a46c-f8d8b59ea91b

Introduction

Muscle wasting conditions such as sarcopenia may be highly prevalent in advanced head and neck cancer (HNC) patients (16–71%), with these prevalence rates substantially greater in those who have received chemo-radiotherapy (CRT). According to the updated European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People consensus statement, sarcopenia is defined as the age-related loss of muscle strength, muscle mass and physical performance. The high prevalence of sarcopenia in HNC patients is concerning as it has been associated with substantially increased risk of CRT toxicity, respiratory complications and early mortality. With the high prevalence of HNC and sarcopenia in India and the strong link between sarcopenia and poor HNC patient outcomes, it is important to screen for the presence of sarcopenia in Indian patients receiving CRT for HNC.

Methods

This longitudinal pilot study aimed to routinely monitor 19 men receiving CRT for their HNC for a variety of sarcopenic-related outcomes over three time points during their 7 weeks of CRT. Participants were required to be male, with a minimum age of 30 years, with a Stage III, IVa or IVb diagnosis of HNC and be currently undergoing a 7 weeks course of CRT in an oncology department. Outcomes included probable sarcopenic diagnosis were estimated by the SARC-F, handgrip strength, skeletal muscle mass was estimated by bioelectrical impedance and physical performance was assessed by the Timed Up and Go. Repeated measures ANOVA and Bonferroni post-hoc tests were used to identify significant differences at the three time points with a p < 0.05.

Results

The 19 participants in this trial at a mean age of 56.5 ± 10.2 years (range = 39–75 years), with most (n = 13, 68.4%) employed in laboring occupations. At baseline, 31.5% (n = 6) of the participants already had probable sarcopenia based on their total SARC-F score, with this increasing to 89.4% (n = 17) at the end of 7 weeks CRT. In addition, significant decreases in strength, skeletal muscle mass and Timed Up and Go performance were observed, with these declines significantly greater at 7 weeks than 3 weeks after commencing CRT.

Conclusions

Patients with HNC undergoing 7 weeks of CRT showed clinically significant increases in the incidence of probable sarcopenia based on their total SARC-F score as well as clinically significant declines in handgrip strength, skeletal muscle mass and Timed Up and Go performance. Due to the relationship between sarcopenia and a host of adverse events related to CRT in HNC patients, these results suggest that oncologists and their allied health teams should routinely monitor these patients during CRT and provide the relevant exercise therapy and nutritional support to those patients in need.

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<![CDATA[Optimization of tissue sampling for Borrelia burgdorferi in white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nff220985-8630-4822-8507-6b577103a931

Peromyscus leucopus (the white-footed mouse) is a known reservoir of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Sampling of white-footed mice allows for year-round B. burgdorferi surveillance as well as opportunities to establish the diversity of the different variants in a geographic region. This study explores the prevalence of B. burgdorferi infections in the tissues of white-footed mice, investigates the correlations between B. burgdorferi infected tissues, and determines the optimum field methods for surveillance of B. burgdorferi in P. leucopus. A total of 90 mice and 573 tissues (spleen, liver, ear, tongue, tail, heart, and kidney) were screened via nested PCR for B. burgdorferi infections. A large number of infections were found in the 90 mice as well as multiple infections within individual mice. Infections in a single mouse tissue (spleen, liver, ear, tongue and tail) were predictive of concurrent infection in other tissues of the same mouse at a statistically significant level. Ear tissue accounted for 68.4% of detected infections, which increased to 78.9% of the infected mice with the inclusion of tail samples. The use of ear punch or tail snip samples (used individually or in tandem) have multiple advantages over current Lyme disease ecological studies and surveillance methodologies, including lower associated costs, minimization of delays, year-round B. burgdorferi testing opportunities, as well as longitudinal monitoring of B. burgdorferi in defined geographic regions. In the absence of an effective vaccine, personal prevention measures are currently the most effective way to reduce Lyme disease transmission to humans. Thus, the identification and monitoring of environmental reservoirs to inform at-risk populations remains a priority. The sampling methods proposed in this study provide a reasonable estimate of B. burgdorferi in white-footed mice in a timely and cost-effective manner.

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<![CDATA[Comparison of acute vertigo diagnosis and treatment practices between otolaryngologists and non-otolaryngologists: A multicenter scenario-based survey]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c9902a2d5eed0c484b982b9

Acute vertigo is a common problem in emergency departments. However, clinical strategies of acute vertigo care vary among care providers. The aim of the study was to investigate differences in diagnosis [Dix-Hallpike test, the head impulse, nystagmus, and the test of skew (HINTS) procedure, and imaging modalities] and treatment (pharmacological treatments and the Epley maneuver) by otolaryngologists and non-otolaryngologists in emergency medicine settings. We used a multicenter case-based survey for the study. Four clinical vignettes of acute vertigo (posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, vestibular neuritis, Meniere disease, and nonspecific vertigo) were used. Total 151 physicians from all study sites participated in the study. There were 84 non-otolaryngologists (48 emergency physicians and 36 internists) and 67 otolaryngologists. The multivariate analysis indicated that otolaryngologists ordered fewer CT scans (odds ratio (OR), 0.20; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.07–0.53) and performed fewer HINTS procedures (OR, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.06–0.46), but used the Dix-Hallpike method more often (OR, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.01–5.52) for diagnosis compared to non-otolaryngologists. For treatment, otolaryngologists were less likely to use the Epley method (OR, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.07–0.53) and metoclopramide (OR, 0.09; 95% CI, 0.01–0.97) and more likely to use sodium bicarbonate (OR, 20.50; 95% CI, 6.85–61.40) compared to non-otolaryngologists. We found significant differences in the acute vertigo care provided by non-otolaryngologists and otolaryngologists from a vignette-based research. To improve acute vertigo care, educational systems focusing on acute vertigo are needed.

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<![CDATA[Speech perception in noise: Impact of directional microphones in users of combined electric-acoustic stimulation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c8977a1d5eed0c4847d31f3

Objectives

Combined electric-acoustic stimulation (EAS) is a well-accepted therapeutic treatment for cochlear implant (CI) users with residual hearing in the low frequencies but severe to profound hearing loss in the high frequencies. The recently introduced SONNETeas audio processor offers different microphone directionality (MD) settings and wind noise reduction (WNR) as front-end processing. The aim of this study was to compare speech perception in quiet and noise between two EAS audio processors DUET 2 and SONNETeas, to assess the impact of MD and WNR on speech perception in EAS users in the absence of wind. Furthermore, subjective rating of hearing performance was registered.

Method

Speech perception and subjective rating with SONNETeas or DUET 2 audio processor were assessed in 10 experienced EAS users. Speech perception was measured in quiet and in a diffuse noise setup (MSNF). The SONNETeas processor was tested with three MD settings omnidirectional/natural/adaptive and with different intensities of WNR. Subjective rating of auditory benefit and sound quality was rated using two questionnaires.

Results

There was no significant difference between DUET 2 and SONNETeas processor using the omnidirectional microphone in quiet and in noise. There was a significant improvement in SRT with MD settings natural (2.2 dB) and adaptive (3.6 dB). No detrimental effect of the WNR algorithm on speech perception was found in the absence of wind. Sound quality was rated as “moderate” for both audio processors.

Conclusions

The different MD settings of the SONNETeas can provide EAS users with better speech perception compared to an omnidirectional microphone. Concerning speech perception in quiet and quality of life, the performance of the DUET 2 and SONNETeas audio processors was comparable.

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<![CDATA[The Bos taurus maternal microbiome: Role in determining the progeny early-life upper respiratory tract microbiome and health]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c89770cd5eed0c4847d233e

Natural transference of maternal microbes to the neonate, especially at birth via the vaginal canal, has recently been recognized in humans and cows; however, its microbial influence on calf health has not yet been documented. We compared the bacterial communities in vaginal and fecal samples from 81 pregnant dairy cows versus those in nasopharyngeal and fecal samples collected at 3, 14 and 35 days of life from their respective progeny. The microbiota of the calf upper respiratory tract (URT), regardless of calf age, was found to be highly similar to the maternal vaginal microbiota. Calf fecal microbiota clustered closely to the maternal fecal microbiota, progressing toward an adult-like state over the first 35 days when relative abundances of taxa were considered. Sixty-four, 65 and 87% of the detected OTUs were shared between cow and calf fecal microbiota at days 3, 14 and 35 respectively, whereas 73, 76 and 87% were shared between maternal vaginal microbiome and calf URT microbiota at days 3, 14 and 35, respectively. Bacteroidetes, Ruminococcus, Clostridium, and Blautia were the top four genera identified in maternal and calf fecal samples. Mannheimia, Moraxella, Bacteroides, Streptococcus and Pseudomonas were the top five genera identified in maternal vaginal and calf URT samples. Mannheimia was relatively more abundant in the vaginal microbiota of cows whose progeny were diagnosed with respiratory and middle ear disease. Our results indicate that maternal vaginal microbiota potentially influences the initial bacterial colonization of the calf URT, and that might have an important impact on the health of the calf respiratory tract and middle ear.

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<![CDATA[Effects of frontal-executive dysfunction on self-perceived hearing handicap in the elderly with mild cognitive impairment]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c897757d5eed0c4847d2a69

It is increasingly agreed upon that cognitive and audiological factors are associated with self-perceived hearing handicap in old adults. This study aimed to compare self-perceived hearing handicap among mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subgroups and a cognitively normal elderly (CNE) group and determine which factors (i.e., demographic, audiometric, or neuropsychological factors) are correlated with self-perceived hearing handicap in each group. A total of 46 MCI patients and 39 hearing threshold-matched CNE subjects participated in this study, and their age ranged from 55 to 80 years. The MCI patients were reclassified into two groups: 16 with frontal-executive dysfunction (FED) and 30 without FED. All subjects underwent audiometric, neuropsychological, and self-perceived hearing handicap assessments. The Korean version of the Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly (K-HHIE) was administered to obtain the hearing handicap scores for each subject. After controlling for age, years of education, and depression levels, we found no significant differences in the K-HHIE scores between the MCI and the CNE groups. However, after we classified the MCI patients into the MCI with FED and MCI without FED groups, the MCI with FED group scored significantly higher than did both the MCI without FED and the CNE groups. In addition, after controlling for depression levels, significant partial correlations of hearing handicap scores with frontal-executive function scores and speech-in-noise perception performance were found in the MCI groups. In the CNE group, the hearing handicap scores were related to peripheral hearing sensitivity and years of education. In summary, MCI patients with FED are more likely to experience everyday hearing handicap than those without FED and cognitively normal old adults. Although educational level and peripheral hearing function are related to self-perceived hearing handicap in cognitively normal old adults, speech-in-noise perception and frontal-executive function are mainly associated with hearing handicap in patients with MCI.

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<![CDATA[A comparison of the Muenster, SIOP Boston, Brock, Chang and CTCAEv4.03 ototoxicity grading scales applied to 3,799 audiograms of childhood cancer patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c6f1527d5eed0c48467ae60

Childhood cancer patients treated with platinums often develop hearing loss and the degree is classified according to different scales globally. Our objective was to compare concordance between five well-known ototoxicity scales used for childhood cancer patients. Audiometric test results (n = 654) were evaluated longitudinally and graded according Brock, Chang, International Society of Pediatric Oncology (SIOP) Boston, Muenster scales and the U.S. National Cancer Institute Common Technology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 4.03. Adverse effects of grade 2, 3 and 4 are considered to reflect a degree of hearing loss sufficient to interfere with day-to-day communication (> = Chang grade 2a; > = Muenster grade 2b). We term this “deleterious hearing loss”. A total number of 3,799 audiograms were evaluated. The prevalence of deleterious hearing loss according to the last available audiogram of each patient was 59.3% (388/654) according to Muenster, 48.2% (315/653) according to SIOP, 40.5% (265/652) according to Brock, 40.3% (263/652) according to Chang, and 57.5% (300/522) according to CTCAEv4.03. Overall concordance between the scales ranged from ĸ = 0.636 (Muenster vs. Chang) to ĸ = 0.975 (Brock vs. Chang). Muenster detected hearing loss the earliest in time, followed by Chang, SIOP and Brock. Generally good concordance between the scales was observed but there is still diversity in definitions of functional outcomes, such as differences in distribution levels of severity of hearing loss, and additional intermediate scales taking into account losses <40 dB as well. Regardless of the scale used, hearing function decreases over time and therefore, close monitoring of hearing function at baseline and with each cycle of platinum therapy should be conducted.

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<![CDATA[Subunits of the mechano-electrical transduction channel, Tmc1/2b, require Tmie to localize in zebrafish sensory hair cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c648d15d5eed0c484c81f40

Mutations in transmembrane inner ear (TMIE) cause deafness in humans; previous studies suggest involvement in the mechano-electrical transduction (MET) complex in sensory hair cells, but TMIE’s precise role is unclear. In tmie zebrafish mutants, we observed that GFP-tagged Tmc1 and Tmc2b, which are subunits of the MET channel, fail to target to the hair bundle. In contrast, overexpression of Tmie strongly enhances the targeting of Tmc1-GFP and Tmc2b-GFP to stereocilia. To identify the motifs of Tmie underlying the regulation of the Tmcs, we systematically deleted or replaced peptide segments. We then assessed localization and functional rescue of each mutated/chimeric form of Tmie in tmie mutants. We determined that the first putative helix was dispensable and identified a novel critical region of Tmie, the extracellular region and transmembrane domain, which is required for both mechanosensitivity and Tmc2b-GFP expression in bundles. Collectively, our results suggest that Tmie’s role in sensory hair cells is to target and stabilize Tmc channel subunits to the site of MET.

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<![CDATA[Acute rhinosinusitis among pediatric patients with allergic rhinitis: A nationwide, population-based cohort study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c6c75e2d5eed0c4843d03bf

Background

While chronic rhinosinusitis is a common complication of allergic rhinitis, the link between acute rhinosinusitis and allergic rhinitis is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of incident acute rhinosinusitis among pediatric patients with allergic rhinitis, using a nationwide, population-based health claims research database.

Methods

Newly diagnosed allergic rhinitis patients aged 5–18 years were identified from the health claim records of the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000 of Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database. A comparison cohort was assembled by randomly selecting patients from the same database with frequency matching by sex, age group, and index year. All patients were followed until a diagnosis of acute rhinosinusitis or the end of the follow-up period. Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the association between allergic rhinitis and acute rhinosinusitis.

Results

Of the 43,588 pediatric patients included in this study, 55.4% were male and 43.9% were between the ages of 5.0–7.9 years. The risk of acute rhinosinusitis was significantly higher in pediatric patients with allergic rhinitis compared to those without the condition (adjusted hazard ratio = 3.03, 95% confidence interval = 2.89–3.18). Similar hazard ratios were observed between male and female pediatric patients.

Conclusions

This secondary cohort study using a nationwide, population-based health claim data of the Taiwan’s NHIRD showed that allergic rhinitis was significantly associated with a higher risk of acute rhinosinusitis among pediatric patients.

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<![CDATA[San Antonio refugees: Their demographics, healthcare profiles, and how to better serve them]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c75abe5d5eed0c484d07e5c

Objective

The recent refugee crisis has resulted in the largest burden of displacement in history, with the US being the top resettlement country since 1975. Texas welcomed the second most US-bound refugees in 2016, with a large percentage arriving in San Antonio. Yet, the composition of the San Antonio refugees has not been described and their healthcare needs remain ill-defined. Through this study, we aim at elucidating their demographics and healthcare profiles, with the goal of devising recommendations to help guide refugee program development and guide other refugee resettlement programs.

Methods

Data from 731 charts belonging to 448 patients at the San Antonio Refugee Health Clinic (SARHC) were extracted and analyzed. Data included age, gender, country of origin, first language, interpretation need, health insurance status, medical history, vital signs, diagnoses, and prescribed medications.

Results

Women constituted the majority of patients (n = 267; 56.4%), and the median age of all patients was 39 (Q1:26, Q3:52). Nepali-speaking Bhutanese patients were the most represented group (n = 107, 43.1%), followed by Iraqi (n = 35, 14.1%), Burmese (n = 30, 12.1%), and Iranian (n = 19, 7.7%) refugees. Of those who responded, 200 (86.6%) did not have any form of health insurance. Additionally, 262 (50.9%) had a body-mass index (BMI) in the overweight or obese range. Further, 61.4% (n = 337) had blood pressures in the hypertensive range, while 9.3% (n = 51) had an elevated blood pressure. On average, each patient had 1.9 complaints, with abdominal pain, headaches, and cough being the predominant complaints. Allergic rhinitis, viral upper respiratory infections, and elevated blood pressure were the most common diagnoses. However, the list of common diagnoses differed per country of origin.

Conclusion

The SARHC demographics were different from those of other Texas refugees. The rate of the uninsured and the burden of non-communicable diseases were high. Furthermore, each refugee subgroup had a different set of common problems. These findings reveal important considerations for refugee healthcare providers and the unique approach that may be required for different communities.

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<![CDATA[Visual habituation in deaf and hearing infants]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c648d4bd5eed0c484c824a4

Early cognitive development relies on the sensory experiences that infants acquire as they explore their environment. Atypical experience in one sensory modality from birth may result in fundamental differences in general cognitive abilities. The primary aim of the current study was to compare visual habituation in infants with profound hearing loss, prior to receiving cochlear implants (CIs), and age-matched peers with typical hearing. Two complementary measures of cognitive function and attention maintenance were assessed: the length of time to habituate to a visual stimulus, and look-away rate during habituation. Findings revealed that deaf infants were slower to habituate to a visual stimulus and demonstrated a lower look-away rate than hearing infants. For deaf infants, habituation measures correlated with language outcomes on standardized assessments before cochlear implantation. These findings are consistent with prior evidence suggesting that habituation and look-away rates reflect efficiency of information processing and may suggest that deaf infants take longer to process visual stimuli relative to the hearing infants. Taken together, these findings are consistent with the hypothesis that hearing loss early in infancy influences aspects of general cognitive functioning.

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<![CDATA[Complex tone stimulation may induce binaural diplacusis with low-tone hearing loss]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c57e67ad5eed0c484ef339d

To clarify the possible mechanism causing binaural diplacusis with low-tone hearing loss, two psychoacoustic experiments were performed with 20 healthy subjects, using harmonic complex tones. In the first experiment, two tones were presented unilaterally, either from the right or left side. One of the tones presented was higher in frequency in terms of the fundamental component, but lower or equal in frequency in terms of the highest component, than the other tone. The subjects were asked which tone was higher in pitch after listening to both tones. They were also asked to compare tones in which low-tone components were eliminated. In the second experiment, the subjects heard these complex tones binaurally, with low-tone components eliminated in one ear. In the first experiment, most subjects perceived pitch direction, that is, higher or lower, in a reverse way when low-tone components were eliminated from the complex tones. In the second experiment, approximately half of all subjects heard the tones at different pitches in both ears. Under certain conditions, complex tone stimulation may induce binaural diplacusis when low-tone hearing is lost in one ear.

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<![CDATA[Bacterial causes of otitis media with spontaneous perforation of the tympanic membrane in the era of 13 valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c5df324d5eed0c484580d85

After pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) implementation, the number of acute otitis media (AOM) episodes has decreased, but AOM still remains among the most common diagnoses in childhood. From 2% to 17% of cases of AOM feature spontaneous perforation of the tympanic membrane (SPTM). The aim of this study was to describe the bacteriological causes of SPTM 5 to 8 years years after PCV13 implementation, in 2010. From 2015 to 2018, children with SPTM were prospectively enrolled by 41 pediatricians. Middle ear fluid was obtained by sampling spontaneous discharge. Among the 470 children with SPTM (median age 20.8 months), no otopathogen was isolated for 251 (53.4% [95% CI 48.8%;58.0%]): 47.1% of infants and toddlers, 68.3% older children (p<0.001). Among children with isolated bacterial otopathogens (n = 219), non-typable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) was the most frequent otopathogen isolated (n = 106, 48.4% [95% CI 41.6%;55.2%]), followed by Streptoccocus pyogenes (group A streptococcus [GAS]) (n = 76, 34.7% [95% CI 28.4%;41.4%]) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) (n = 61, 27.9% [95% Ci 22.0%;34.3%]). NTHi was frequently isolated in infants and toddlers (53.1%), whereas the main otopathogen in older children was GAS (52.3%). In cases of co-infection with at least two otopathogens (16.9%, n = 37/219), NTHi was frequently involved (78.4%, n = 29/37). When Sp was isolated, PCV13 serotypes accounted for 32.1% of cases, with serotype 3 the main serotype (16.1%). Among Sp strains, 29.5% were penicillin-intermediate and among NTHi strains, 16.0% were β-lactamase–producers. More than 5 years after PCV13 implementation, the leading bacterial species recovered from AOM with SPTM was NTHi for infants and toddlers and GAS for older children. In both age groups, Sp was the third most frequent pathogen and vaccine serotypes still played an important role. No resistant Sp strains were isolated, and the frequency of β-lactamase–producing NTHi did not exceed 16%.

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<![CDATA[Who gets lost and why: A representative cross-sectional survey on sociodemographic and vestibular determinants of wayfinding strategies]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c5b52bdd5eed0c4842bcf61

When we think of our family and friends, we probably know someone who is good at finding their way and someone else that easily gets lost. We still know little about the biological and environmental factors that influence our navigational ability. Here, we investigated the frequency and sociodemographic determinants of wayfinding and their association with vestibular function in a representative cross-sectional sample (N = 783) of the adult German-speaking population. Wayfinding was assessed using the Wayfinding Strategy Scale, a self-report scale that produces two scores for each participant representing to what degree they rely on route-based or orientation (map-based) strategies. We were interested in the following research questions: (1) the frequency and determinants of wayfinding strategies in a population-based representative sample, (2) the relationship between vestibular function and strategy choice and (3) how sociodemographic factors influence general wayfinding ability as measured using a combined score from both strategy scores. Our linear regression models showed that being male, having a higher education, higher age and lower regional urbanization increased orientation strategy scores. Vertigo/dizziness reduced the scores of both the orientation and the route strategies. Using a novel approach, we grouped participants by their combined strategy scores in a multinomial regression model, to see whether individuals prefer one strategy over the other. The majority of individuals reported using either both or no strategy, instead of preferring one strategy over the other. Young age and reduced vestibular function were indicative of using no strategy. In summary, wayfinding ability depends on both biological and environmental factors; all sociodemographic factors except income. Over a third of the population, predominantly under the age of 35, does not successfully use either strategy. This represents a change in our wayfinding skills, which may result from the technological advances in navigational aids over the last few decades.

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<![CDATA[Mutation screening in non-syndromic hearing loss patients with cochlear implantation by massive parallel sequencing in Taiwan]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c79b005d5eed0c4841e3c60

Objectives

To explore the molecular epidemiology of rare deafness genes in Taiwanese sensorineural hearing impairment (SNHI) patients with cochlear implantation (CI) by performing massive parallel sequencing (MPS) and correlating genetic factors and CI outcomes.

Methods

We enrolled 41 Taiwanese non-syndromic deafness patients with CI that lacked known mutations in common deafness genes. All probands were screened by a targeted exon amplification method that used massively parallel sequencing to screen a customized panel that included 40 relatively rare non-syndromic deafness genes.

Results

Thirteen candidate variants in nine relatively rare deafness genes (MYO15A, TMC1, MYH14, MYO3A, ACTG1, COL11A2, DSPP, GRHL2, and WFS1) were identified in 24.4% (10/41) of the non-syndromic deafness probands with CI. According to the ACMG Standards and Guidelines, five variants in MYO15A and ACTG1 were classified as likely pathogenic variants. Two of three multi-generational pedigrees exhibiting deafness were analyzed for the segregation of the disorder with the possible disease-causing variants. Patients with variants detected in most of the identified variant-bearing genes showed relatively good CI outcomes.

Conclusions

We successfully identified candidate variants in partially deaf Taiwanese probands who lacked the known mutations in common deafness genes. Comparing the progress of hearing rehabilitation in CI patients with their apparent causative variants and the expression profiles of their altered genes allowed us to speculate on how alterations in specific gene sets may influence outcomes in hearing rehabilitation after CI.

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<![CDATA[RecoverNow: A mobile tablet-based therapy platform for early stroke rehabilitation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c644889d5eed0c484c2e894

Introduction

Stroke survivors frequently experience a range of post-stroke deficits. Specialized stroke rehabilitation improves recovery, especially if it is started early post-stroke. However, resource limitations often preclude early rehabilitation. Mobile technologies may provide a platform for stroke survivors to begin recovery when they might not be able to otherwise. The study objective was to demonstrate the feasibility of RecoverNow, a tablet-based stroke recovery platform aimed at delivering speech and cognitive therapy.

Methods

We recruited a convenience sample of 30 acute stroke patients to use RecoverNow for up to 3 months. Allied health professionals assigned specific applications based on standard of care assessments. Participants were encouraged to take home the RecoverNow tablets upon discharge from acute care. The study team contacted participants to return for a follow-up interview 3 months after enrollment. The primary outcome of interest was feasibility, defined using 5 facets: recruitment rate, adherence rate, retention rate, the proportion of successful follow-up interventions, and protocol deviations. We tracked barriers to tablet-based care as a secondary outcome.

Results

We successfully recruited 30 of 62 eligible patients in 15 weeks (48% recruitment rate). Participants were non-adherent to tablet-based therapy inside and outside of acute care, using RecoverNow for a median of 12 minutes a day. Retention was high with 23 of 30 patients participating in follow-up interviews (77% retention rate) and all but 3 of the 23 interviews (87%) were successfully completed. Only 2 major protocol deviations occurred: one enrollment failure and one therapy protocol violation. Barriers to tablet-based care were frequently encountered by study participants with many expressing the assigned applications were either too easy or too difficult.

Conclusions

Acute stroke patients are interested in attempting tablet-based stroke rehabilitation and are easily recruited early post-stroke. However, tablet-based therapy may be challenging due to patient, device and system-related barriers. Reducing the frequency of common barriers will be essential to keeping patients engaged in tablet-based therapy.

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<![CDATA[Survey of suspected dysphagia prevalence in home-dwelling older people using the 10-Item Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c5217d3d5eed0c48479462b

Objective

This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of suspected dysphagia and its features in both independent and dependent older people living at home.

Materials and methods

The 10-Item Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10) questionnaire was sent to 1,000 independent older people and 2,000 dependent older people living at home in a municipal district of Tokyo, Japan. The participants were selected by stratified randomization according to age and care level. We set the cut-off value of EAT-10 at a score of ≥3. The percentage of participants with an EAT-10 score ≥3 was defined as the prevalence of suspected dysphagia. The chi-square test was used for analyzing prevalence in each group. Analysis of the distribution of EAT-10 scores, and comparisons among items, age groups, and care levels to identify symptom features were performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test.

Results

Valid responses were received from 510 independent older people aged 65 years or older (mean age 75.0 ± 7.2) and 886 dependent older people (mean age 82.3 ± 6.7). The prevalences of suspected dysphagia were 25.1% and 53.8%, respectively, and showed significant increases with advancing age and care level. In both groups, many older people assigned high scores to the item about coughing, whereas individuals requiring high-level care assigned higher scores to the items about not only coughing but also swallowing of solids and quality of life.

Conclusion

In independent people, approximately one in four individuals showed suspected dysphagia and coughing was the most perceivable symptom. In dependent people, approximately one in two individuals showed suspected dysphagia and their specifically perceivable symptoms were coughing, difficulties in swallowing solids and psychological burden.

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