ResearchPad - Pediatrics https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Massively Dilated Lower Pole Ectopic Megaureter with Involuted Lower Pole Renal Moiety and Collecting System: An Exception to the Meyer-Weigert Rule]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11609 Duplicated collecting systems have a predictable draining pattern that is described by the Meyer-Weigert rule. When there are abnormalities associated with duplicating collecting systems, the upper pole moiety drains inferomedially (most commonly associated with obstruction), and the lower pole moiety drains superolaterally (most commonly associated with vesicoureteral reflux). We present a case of an infant with a duplicated collecting system that violates the Meyer-Weigert rule with lower pole megaureter with massive dilation, ectopic insertion, and associated involuted lower pole renal moiety. To our knowledge, this is the only reported case of a lower pole ectopic ureter with an involuted lower pole renal moiety. 

]]>
<![CDATA[Clinical and Biochemical Assessment of Liver Function Test and Its Correlation with Serum Ferritin Levels in Transfusion-dependent Thalassemia Patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11605 Aims

The aim of our study was to correlate liver function tests with serum ferritin levels in multi-transfused thalassemia patients.

Methods 

This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in the department of hematology, Khyber Medical University, from January 2018 to December 2018. Thalassemia patients of either sex dependent on transfusion ≥ 1 year and having a confirmatory report of the disease were included in our study. The nonprobability convenience sampling technique was used. The Pearson correlation coefficient was applied to observe the correlation between serum ferritin level and liver function tests. A p-value of ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. SPSS version 23 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois) was used for data analysis.

Results

A total of 138 subjects of age range 2-23 years, with a mean age of 12.08 ± 6.02 years, were included in our study. The mean serum ferritin of patients in our study was 3278.64 ng/ml with the lowest of 285.2 ng/mL and the highest of 10940.2 ng/ml. With the increase in serum ferritin levels, a rapid increase in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels was seen. When serum ferritin levels were correlated with total bilirubin level, the bilirubin level remains static with a further increase in serum ferritin levels.

Conclusion

It was deduced that iron deposition is the ultimate reason for increased liver enzymes. There was a positive correlation between serum ferritin and ALT, AST, and ALP while a weak connection was found between serum ferritin and bilirubin levels.

]]>
<![CDATA[Cutaneous Myiasis: An Unusual Cause of Posterior Auricular and Occipital Lymphadenopathy in a Toddler]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11585 Cutaneous myiasis is a condition that involves an infestation of fly larvae into human tissue, most commonly caused by Dermatobia (D.) hominis or the bot fly. While this is a condition most commonly seen in tropical regions of the globe due to increased travel to endemic regions, physicians must increasingly be aware of this as a potential diagnosis. In addition, there is minimal literature on cutaneous myiasis in the pediatric patient and its potential associated symptoms. This case report thus highlights a toddler that presented to our facility with a raised, erythematous scalp lesion and associated preauricular and occipital lymphadenopathy. Of note, the patient had a recent travel history to Belize, an endemic area where she was likely infected. As there are multiple other differentials for not only scalp swellings in the pediatric population, in addition to regional adenopathy, a high index of suspicion was needed to make the diagnosis. Ultrasound was the imaging modality used to visualize the fly larva, and surgical excision was the mechanism of treatment. Thus, this case highlights a unique presentation of cutaneous myiasis in a toddler and aims to add to the growing body of literature on a condition likely to be encountered by physicians at a greater frequency.

]]>
<![CDATA[Fecal Calprotectin as a Useful Non-Invasive Screening Marker for Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disorder in Korean Children]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10900

]]>
<![CDATA[Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10713 Background

In the recent years, controversy has emerged regarding the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and the potential effects it could have on glycemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). This study investigates the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency in pediatric patients with T1D from a single, large volume practice.

Methods

This was a retrospective chart review that collected clinical/demographic data as well as serum 25(OH) D levels from medical records of 395 children between the ages of 3 and 18 years with T1D followed at Nemours Children’s Hospital. This data was compared to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) database. A Pearson’s Chi-square test was used between group associations. All statistical tests were two-sided and p < 0.05 was used for statistical significance.

Results

Of the 395 children included in these analyses, 4% were vitamin D deficient and 60% were vitamin D insufficient. There were no significant associations of vitamin D deficiency based on sex and age. Vitamin D deficiency was more common among White children when compared to Hispanic children and African American children (42% vs 29%; p < 0.001). Of those that were vitamin D insufficient (n = 235), most were Hispanic (51%), 36% White and 13% African American. There was a significant association between vitamin D deficiency and body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.035). In the summer, children were less likely to be vitamin D deficient (3% vs 6% in winter) and less likely to be vitamin D insufficient (55% vs 71% in winter) (p = 0.007).

Conclusions

Vitamin D insufficiency is highly prevalent among pediatric type 1 diabetics of Central Florida and statistically significant correlation was found between vitamin D status and ethnicity, BMI as well as seasonal variation.

]]>
<![CDATA[rhIGF-1/BP3 Preserves Lung Growth and Prevents Pulmonary Hypertension in Experimental Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10247 Rationale: Antenatal factors, such as chorioamnionitis, preeclampsia, and postnatal injury, are associated with an increased risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and pulmonary hypertension (PH) after preterm birth. IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor-1) is markedly decreased in normal preterm infants, but whether IGF-1 treatment can prevent BPD or PH is unknown.

Objectives: To evaluate whether postnatal treatment with rhIGF-1 (recombinant human IGF-1)/BP3 (binding peptide 3) improves lung growth and prevents PH in two antenatal models of BPD induced by intraamniotic exposure to endotoxin (ETX) or sFlt-1 (soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1), and in a postnatal model due to prolonged hyperoxia.

Methods: ETX or sFlt-1 were administered into the amniotic sac of pregnant rats at Embryonic Day 20 to simulate antenatal models of chorioamnionitis and preeclampsia, respectively. Pups were delivered by cesarean section at Embryonic Day 22 and treated with rhIGF-1/BP3 (0.02–20 mg/kg/d intraperitoneal) or buffer for 2 weeks. Study endpoints included radial alveolar counts (RACs), vessel density, and right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH). Direct effects of rhIGF-1/BP3 (250 ng/ml) on fetal lung endothelial cell proliferation and tube formation and alveolar type 2 cell proliferation were studied by standard methods in vitro.

Measurements and Main Results: Antenatal ETX and antenatal sFlt-1 reduced RAC and decreased RVH in infant rats. In both models, postnatal rhIGF-1/BP3 treatment restored RAC and RVH to normal values when compared with placebo injections. rhIGF-1/BP3 treatment also preserved lung structure and prevented RVH after postnatal hyperoxia. In vitro studies showed that rhIGF-1/BP3 treatment increased lung endothelial cell and alveolar type 2 cell proliferation.

Conclusions: Postnatal rhIGF-1/BP3 treatment preserved lung structure and prevented RVH in antenatal and postnatal BPD models. rhIGF-1/BP3 treatment may provide a novel strategy for the prevention of BPD in preterm infants.

]]>
<![CDATA[Therapeutic Drug Monitoring Characteristics in a Tertiary University Hospital in 2019]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9457 Introduction

Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is defined as measuring drug concentration in a biological sample to optimize pharmacotherapy. This study aims to evaluate TDM requests in a tertiary university hospital retrospectively.

Materials and methods

TDM requests were evaluated retrospectively for lithium, valproic acid, carbamazepine, and digoxin in 2019. The age and gender of the patient, requesting department, and measurement results were evaluated. Lower levels than the reference values were considered as subtherapeutic, while levels higher than the reference were considered as toxic.

Results 

A total of 415 drug level measurement records were found. The pediatric age sample ratio was 13.7%, and the elderly age sample ratio was 11.8%. When all samples were evaluated according to the relevant laboratory cut-off values, 72.8% of samples were within the therapeutic level range, 21.9% of samples were subtherapeutic, and 5.3% were toxic. The pediatric age group had a higher ratio of toxic levels for the four drugs studied (54.5%).

Conclusions

Tests for lithium, valproic acid, carbamazepine, and digoxin would not be considered sufficient for TDM. Multidisciplinary teamwork might be appropriate for further implementation and interpretation of TDM.

]]>
<![CDATA[Life within a limited radius: Investigating activity space in women with a history of child abuse using global positioning system tracking]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7709 Early experiences of childhood sexual or physical abuse are often associated with functional impairments, reduced well-being and interpersonal problems in adulthood. Prior studies have addressed whether the traumatic experience itself or adult psychopathology is linked to these limitations. To approach this question, individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and healthy individuals with and without a history of child abuse were investigated. We used global positioning system (GPS) tracking to study temporal and spatial limitations in the participants’ real-life activity space over the course of one week. The sample consisted of 228 female participants: 150 women with PTSD and emotional instability with a history of child abuse, 35 mentally healthy women with a history of child abuse (healthy trauma controls, HTC) and 43 mentally healthy women without any traumatic experiences in their past (healthy controls, HC). Both traumatized groups—i.e. the PTSD and the HTC group—had smaller movement radii than the HC group on the weekends, but neither spent significantly less time away from home than HC. Some differences between PTSD and HC in movement radius seem to be related to correlates of PTSD psychopathology, like depression and physical health. Yet group differences between HTC and HC in movement radius remained even when contextual and individual health variables were included in the model, indicating specific effects of traumatic experiences on activity space. Experiences of child abuse could limit activity space later in life, regardless of whether PTSD develops.

]]>
<![CDATA[Managing possible serious bacterial infection of young infants where referral is not possible: Lessons from the early implementation experience in Kushtia District learning laboratory, Bangladesh]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7649 Serious infections account for 25% of global newborn deaths annually, most in low-resource settings where hospital-based treatment is not accessible or feasible. In Bangladesh, one-third of neonatal deaths are attributable to serious infection; in 2014, the government adopted new policy for outpatient management of danger signs indicating possible serious bacterial infections (PSBI) when referral was not possible. We conducted implementation research to understand what it takes for a district health team to implement quality outpatient PSBI management per national guidelines.MethodsPSBI management was introduced as part of the Comprehensive Newborn Care Package in 2015. The study piloted this package through government health systems with limited partner support to inform scale-up efforts. Data collection included facility register reviews for cases seen at primary level facilities; facility readiness and provider knowledge and skills assessments; household surveys capturing caregiver knowledge of newborn danger signs and care-seeking for newborn illness; and follow-up case tracking, capturing treatment adherence and outcomes. Analysis consisted of descriptive statistics.ResultsOver the 15-month implementation period, 1432 young infants received care, of which 649 (45%) were classified as PSBI. Estimated coverage of care-seeking increased from 22% to 42% during the implementation period. Although facility readiness and providers’ skills increased, providers’ adherence to guidelines was not optimal. Among locally managed PSBI cases, 75% completed the oral antibiotic course and 15% received the fourth day follow-up. Care-seeking remained high among private providers (95%), predominantly village health doctors (over 80%).ConclusionsFacility readiness, including health care provider knowledge and skills were strengthened; future efforts should focus on improving provider adherence to guidelines. Social and behavior change strategies targeting families and communities should explore shifting care-seeking from private, possibly less-qualified providers. Strategies to improve private sector management of PSBI cases and improved linkages between private and public sector providers could be explored. ]]> <![CDATA[Predicting First-Year Growth in Response to Growth Hormone Treatment in Prepubertal Korean Children with Idiopathic Growth Hormone Deficiency: Analysis of Data from the LG Growth Study Database]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8430

]]>
<![CDATA[Risk Factors for Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Infants With Patent Arterial Duct. A Retrospective Matched Paired Analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7858 Background: The development of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in neonates with patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is not well-understood. Our aim was to find risk factors for NEC in children with a significant PDA and to assess differences in mortality and duration of hospital stay between patients with PDA and those with PDA and NEC.

Methods: We performed a retrospective single center case control study including infants with PDA scheduled for treatment. We compared multiple patient data between patients with PDA and those with PDA and NEC from 2004 to 2018 using 1:2 and 1:1 matching.

Results: We used 1:2 matching with 26 NEC patients (cases) and 52 PDA patients without NEC (controls) and 1:1 matching with 5 NEC patients and 5 PDA patients without NEC. NEC patients had lower Apgar score (1′), more congenital malformations, more suspected sepsis, less hypotension, higher minimum platelet count and higher CRP-values during the week before NEC (P < 0.05, respectively). The mortality was higher in NEC cases [29% (9/31)] compared to the control patients [2% (1/57), P < 0.001]. Lower Apgar score (1′) was correlated with an increased risk of NEC stage III. Hypotension was inversely correlated with the odds of NEC (OR 0.3).

Conclusions: NEC increased mortality in infants with PDA. Hypotension did not increase the risk of NEC in infants with PDA. Routine clinical parameters were not able to predict NEC in infants who suffer from PDA.

]]>
<![CDATA[The Impact of the Current SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic on Neonatal Care]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7602 <![CDATA[Silent Sinus Syndrome and Williams Syndrome: Two Rare Diseases Found in a Pediatric Patient]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7502 Silent sinus syndrome (SSS) is a rare disease process characterized by progressive enophthalmos and hypoglobus due to ipsilateral maxillary sinus hypoplasia and orbital floor resorption. Patients may also present with eye asymmetry, unilateral ptosis, or diplopia. Most reported cases in the literature describe its occurrence in adults, but it can also affect children. The etiology remains speculative, even though the most accepted theory is that during the first or second decade of life, occlusion of the maxillary ostium causes an interruption in normal sinus development. Williams syndrome (WS) is a rare genetic, multisystem disorder characterized by a constellation of distinctive phenotypic features, including psychomotor delay and cardiovascular abnormalities. We report a case of a 7-year-old female diagnosed at 1 year old with WS and who gradually developed SSS. This last condition was diagnosed at 7 years of age, when she started showing progressive facial asymmetry in addition to typical facial features of WS; subsequent neuroimaging definitively supported the diagnosis. This case report describes for the first time in the literature an uncommon situation in which SSS and WS, both rare syndromes, are present in the same pediatric patient. We speculate that the particular facial features typical of WS could either be the basis of the development of SSS in our patient or make the SSS clinical course more severe, with signs presenting at the age of 7 years. This case report shows for the first time that facial asymmetry in WS can be caused by SSS and highlights the need for early identification of this complication in patients with syndromes characterized by dysmorphic facial features. Further studies are needed to understand whether there is a link between the two syndromes as well as to evaluate the prevalence of SSS in patients with facial dysmorphisms and define the best management.

]]>
<![CDATA[Tobacco Smoking During Pregnancy Is Associated With Increased Risk of Moderate/Severe Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7432 Epidemiological evidence and animal studies support that intrauterine exposure to tobacco smoke disturbs lung development and has a negative effect in the pulmonary health of the offspring. Individual studies suggest an association between fetal exposure to maternal smoking and risk of developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). However, this association has not yet been systematically investigated. We aimed to conduct a systematic review of studies reporting on tobacco smoking during pregnancy as potential risk factor for BPD. PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched. BPD was defined as requirement of supplemental oxygen on postnatal day 28 (BPD28; all BPD), at the postmenstrual age (PMA) of 36 weeks (BPD36; moderate/severe BPD), or as requirement of more than 30% oxygen and/or positive pressure at 36 weeks PMA (severe BPD). Pooled risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using a random-effects model. Of 2,894 potentially relevant studies, 33 met the inclusion criteria. The included studies evaluated 171,772 infants and included 30,445 cases of exposure to maternal smoking and 25,340 cases of BPD of any severity. Meta-analysis showed a significant association between tobacco smoking during pregnancy and BPD36 (17 studies, RR 1.126, 95% CI 1.008–1.259, p = 0.036), but could not demonstrate a significant association between tobacco smoking during pregnancy and BPD28 (16 studies, RR 1.021, 95% CI 0.924–1.129, p = 0.681), or severe BPD (3 studies, RR 1.143, 95% CI 0.528–2.478, p = 0.734). In conclusion, our data suggest that tobacco smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of moderate/severe BPD. Our results highlight the detrimental effects of tobacco smoking and reinforce the hypothesis of the involvement of prenatal insults in the etiopathogenesis of BPD.

]]>
<![CDATA[Congenital Myasthenic Syndrome Caused by a Novel Hemizygous <i>CHAT</i> Mutation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7408 Congenital myasthenic syndrome (CMS) is a neuromuscular transmission disorder caused by mutations in genes encoding neuromuscular junction proteins. CMS due to choline acetyltransferase (CHAT) gene mutation is characterized by episodic apnoea. To date, 52 cases of CMS caused by CHAT gene mutations have been reported. Here, we report a neonate with the third hemizygous mutation [a 4.9 Mb deletion [10q11.22–10q11.23 (chr10: 46123781–51028772)] containing the whole CHAT gene and c.1976A>T (p.Gln659Leu in the CHAT gene)]. The c.1976A>T (p.Gln659Leu) variant had not been reported in the ExAC or gnomAD databases and was predicted to be pathogenic. The alignment of amino acid sequences revealed that glutamine at codon 659 is highly conserved in different species and causes structural changes in the substrate-binding site. Our female patient with neonate-onset CMS presented with apnoea, dyspnoea, feeding difficulties, weak crying, and seizure-like episodes, and her respiration was ventilator dependent. The prostigmine test was positive. This case may help to further elucidate clinical features and treatment methods in neonate-onset CMS caused by CHAT gene mutations.

]]>
<![CDATA[Developmental Mutators and Early Onset Cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7400 A new hypothesis suggests that somatic genome remodeling during normal development can cause mutations that explain many early onset cancers in children and adults.

]]>
<![CDATA[Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings and Their Association with Electroencephalogram Data in Children with Partial Epilepsy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb68fb722-9c5e-4a04-913e-5fc8fb7d0d92 Background

It is important to identify the neuroimaging features that are associated with partial epilepsy in children. Advances in technology have recently been made to localize focal epileptogenic lesions, especially high-resolution structural imaging with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The recommendation that electroencephalography (EEG) should be the gold standard and that MRI should be optional has been questioned. The present study aims to evaluate the efficacy of MRI in children with partial epilepsy and to compare the diagnostic yields of MRI and EEG data.

Methods

The present study was conducted among one hundred twelve 1- to 6-year-old children with partial epilepsy. All patients underwent EEG and brain MRI. The epileptogenic lesions were identified on the basis of the signal intensities and morphological abnormalities seen on MRI. The correlation between MRI and EEG abnormal findings was analyzed using a chi-square test.

Results

Abnormal MRI findings were present in 34.8% (n = 39) of the sample. The EEG and MRI data agreed with respect to classifications into abnormal or normal in 48.2% of the sample (n = 54). Of the 27 patients with normal EEG findings, six (22.2%) had abnormal MRI findings. Inter-rater agreement showed the compatibility between EEG and MRI not significant (weighted Kappa = 0.105).

Conclusion

A number of MRI abnormalities were found in our study of otherwise normal children, although the correlation between these results was not clear. The follow-up of these children will help us identify the important abnormalities. Despite the small sample size, our results showed that normal EEG findings do not predict normal brain MRI data in children with partial epilepsy.

]]>
<![CDATA[First Case of an Infant with COVID-19 in the Middle East]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne4acc4e9-1173-47a8-8498-161f3f81e2e5 The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has been declared a worldwide pandemic. It was initially thought to spare children and adolescents as significantly smaller number of cases have been reported in the pediatric population in comparison to adults. Here, we report the case of a 16-month-old female infant from Lebanon who presented with fever and severe diarrhea and tested positive for COVID-19. Her symptoms started six days prior to presentation with no cough, rhinorrhea, or other respiratory manifestations reported. Chest radiography showed lobar consolidation and bronchial infiltrates. Blood culture was positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae. Stool and urine cultures were negative. She was treated with ceftriaxone and metronidazole. Her RT-PCR test was negative after five days of treatment, suggesting that children can clear the virus faster than adults. The patient likely contracted the virus from her parents, who because of the fear of social stigma hide recent history of respiratory illness. These findings serve as a practical reference for the clinical diagnosis and medical treatment of children with COVID-19.

]]>
<![CDATA[The Spectrum of Sleep Disorders Among Children: A Cross-sectional Study at a South Indian Tertiary Care Hospital]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N55939edb-8af6-4644-a4dc-8ec6d9f99e5d Introduction

Sleep problems during infancy and early childhood are fairly common and rarely recognized in pediatric practice. These are mostly related to the initiation and maintenance of night-time sleep. Understanding sleep patterns and disorders associated with sleep is challenging, especially in the pediatric age group. This study was done to estimate the magnitude of sleep disorders in children and to evaluate the associated risk factors.

Methods

This cross-sectional study was carried out among 450 children visiting the pediatric outpatient department of Sri Ramachandra Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, India between November 2018 and June 2019. Children with chronic illnesses and a history of physical or mental trauma in the past six months were excluded. The Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC) was used to gather information regarding sleep disorders.

Results

It was observed that a majority of the participants (72.2%) slept 9-11 hours per day. Among 46.2% of the participants, the time lag between bedtime and sleep time was less than 15 minutes. Overall, sleep problems were present in 34% of the participants. History of sleep problems in infancy, absence of siblings, and parental presence while sleeping emerged as statistically significant risk factors for childhood sleep disorders (p: <0.05).

Conclusion

We believe our study provides a basis for exploring the pattern and problems associated with sleep behavior among children. There is a need for setting up routine screening measures in pediatric outpatient departments to facilitate early detection of sleep disorders in order to avoid complications.

]]>
<![CDATA[Factors Associated With Urgent Care Reliance and Outpatient Health Care Use Among Children Enrolled in Medicaid]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nff6a212c-e640-49db-b97f-e8baba63713c This cohort study examines factors associated with high usual care reliance among children enrolled in Medicaid and examines the association between usual care reliance and outpatient health care use.

]]>