ResearchPad - Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Effect of childhood BMI on asthma: a systematic review and meta-analysis of case-control studies]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b5941f7463d7e5a17cb09ff

Background

Asthma is a multifactorial syndrome that threatens the health of children. Body mass index (BMI) might be one of the potential factors but the evidence is controversial. The aim of this study is to perform a comprehensive meta-analysis to investigate the association between asthma and BMI.

Methods

Electronic databases including, Web of Science, Pubmed, Scopus, Science Direct, ProQuest, up to April 2017, were searched by two researchers independently. The keywords “asthma, body mass index, obesity, overweight, childhood and adolescence” were used. Random and fixed effects models were applied to obtain the overall odds ratios (ORs) and standardized mean difference (SMD). Heterogeneity between the studies was examined using I2 and Cochrane Q statistics.

Results

After reviewing 2511 articles, 16 studies were eligible for meta-analysis according to inclusion/exclusion criteria. A meta-analysis from 11 case-control studies revealed OR of asthma and overweight as OR = 1.64; (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.13–2.38) and from 14 case-control studies, OR for asthma and obesity was OR = 1.92 (95% CI: 1.39–2.65), which indicated that risk of asthma in overweight and obese children and adolescence was significantly higher (1.64 and 1.92 times) than that of individuals with (p-value < 0.01 for underweight/normal weight in both cases). Furthermore, there was a significant relationship between asthma and BMI > 85 percentile according to SMD SMD = 0.21; (95%CI: 0.03–0.38; p-value = 0.021).

Conclusions

The results showed a significant relationship between BMI (obesity/overweight) and asthma among children and adolescents. It is important to study the confounding factors that affect the relationship between asthma and BMI in future epidemiological researches.

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (10.1186/s12887-018-1093-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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<![CDATA[Establishment of age- and gender-specific pediatric reference intervals for liver function tests in healthy Han children]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b591762463d7e552e09627d

Background

The development and growth of children influence values of liver function tests. This study aims to establish age- and gender-specific pediatric reference intervals of liver function among Han children in Changchun, China.

Methods

A total of 1394 healthy Han children, aged 2–14 years, were recruited from communities and schools with informed parental consent in Changchun. The levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), total bilirubin (TBIL) and direct bilirubin (DBIL) were measured on Hitachi 7600-210 automatic biochemical analyzer. The age- and gender-specific reference intervals were partitioned using Harris and Boyd’s test and calculated using nonparametric rank method. The pediatric reference intervals were validated in five representative hospitals located in different areas in Changchun.

Results

All the analytes required some levels of age partitioning. Proteins (TP, ALB) and bilirubins (TBIL, DBIL) required no gender partitioning. In contrast, considerable gender partitioning was required for serum ALT, AST, GGT, and ALP. TP, TBIL, and DBIL showed steady increases, and AST showed apparent decreases over time, whereas ALT, GGT, ALP, and ALB demonstrated complex trends of change. ALT and GGT increased sharply in males from 11 to 14 years old. However, ALP declined in females from 13 to 14 years. All five laboratories passed the validation of reference intervals.

Conclusions

There were apparent age or gender variations of the reference intervals for liver function. When establishing pediatric reference intervals, partitioning according to age and gender is necessary.

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<![CDATA[Efficacy of levetiracetam for neonatal seizures in preterm infants]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b587218463d7e489147c59f

Background

Neonatal seizures remain a significant clinical problem, and therapeutic options are still not diverse with limited efficacy. Levetiracetam (LEV) is a relatively new and wide spectrum anti-seizure medication with favorable pharmacokinetics and safety profile. In the recent decades, LEV has been increasingly used for the treatment of neonatal seizures. The aim of this study was to describe the experience of using LEV as the first line anti-seizure medication for preterm infants.

Methods

A retrospective analysis of 37 preterm infants who were treated with LEV as the first-line anti-seizure medication was performed.

Results

Mean gestational age of the 37 preterm infants was 31.5 ± 1.9 weeks (range, 26 to 36+ 6 weeks). Twenty-one infants (57%) were seizure-free while given LEV at the end of the first week, and no additional anti-seizure medication was required. Loading doses of LEV ranged from 40 to 60 mg/kg (mean 56 mg/kg) and the maintenance dose ranged from 20 to 30 mg/kg (mean 23 mg/kg). No adverse effect was observed.

Conclusions

Levetiracetam can be a good and safe choice for treatment of neonatal seizures in preterm infants. Prospective double blind controlled studies are needed in the future.

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<![CDATA[CONSUMO DE BEBIDAS AÇUCARADAS, LEITE E SUA ASSOCIAÇÃO COM O ÍNDICE DE MASSA CORPORAL NA ADOLESCÊNCIA: UMA REVISÃO SISTEMÁTICA]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b4bef06463d7e7f7e212c49

ABSTRACT

Objective: To systematize literature references addressing the association of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) and milk intake with body mass index (BMI) in adolescents.

Data source:

A search was carried out in PubMed (US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health) and BVS (Virtual Library in Health). The descriptors used were: adolescents, young adult, beverages, drinking, obesity, overweight, BMI, and nutritional status. The following filters were applied: age ranging from 10 to 19 years, studies published in Portuguese or English language between 2011-2015.

Data synthesis:

Thirty studies were selected (22 cross-sectional studies, 4 cohort studies, 1 randomized clinical trial, 1 case-control study, and 1 quasi-experimental study). There was association between the intake of these beverages and increase in BMI in 55% of all 20 studies that dealt with sugary drinks. When it came to soft drinks, 100% of studies reported association with increase in BMI. As to milk intake, only one article showed association with increased BMI. Three articles reported milk as a protection factor against increase in BMI; three studies found no association between this intake and BMI. Nineteen studies had representative samples and 20 surveys reported random samples. Among papers using questionnaires, 84% had been validated.

Conclusions:

There is no consensus in the literature about the association between SSB or milk intake and BMI in adolescents.

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<![CDATA[Health care quality measures for children and adolescents in Foster Care: feasibility testing in electronic records]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b4b2669463d7e737c241d5d

Background

Preventive quality measures for the foster care population are largely untested.

The objective of the study is to identify healthcare quality measures for young children and adolescents in foster care and to test whether the data required to calculate these measures can be feasibly extracted and interpreted within an electronic health records or within the Statewide Automated Child Welfare Information System.

Methods

The AAP Recommendations for Preventive Pediatric Health Care served as the guideline for determining quality measures. Quality measures related to well child visits, developmental screenings, immunizations, trauma-related care, BMI measurements, sexually transmitted infections and depression were defined. Retrospective chart reviews were performed on a cohort of children in foster care from a single large pediatric institution and related county. Data available in the Ohio Statewide Automated Child Welfare Information System was compared to the same population studied in the electronic health record review. Quality measures were calculated as observed (received) to expected (recommended) ratios (O/E ratios) to describe the actual quantity of recommended health care that was received by individual children.

Results

Electronic health records and the Statewide Automated Child Welfare Information System data frequently lacked important information on foster care youth essential for calculating the measures. Although electronic health records were rich in encounter specific clinical data, they often lacked custodial information such as the dates of entry into and exit from foster care. In contrast, Statewide Automated Child Welfare Information System included robust data on custodial arrangements, but lacked detailed medical information. Despite these limitations, several quality measures were devised that attempted to accommodate these limitations.

Conclusions

In this feasibility testing, neither the electronic health records at a single institution nor the county level Statewide Automated Child Welfare Information System was able to independently serve as a reliable source of data for health care quality measures for foster care youth. However, the ability to leverage both sources by matching them at an individual level may provide the complement of data necessary to assess the quality of healthcare.

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<![CDATA[The comparison of perceived health-related quality of life between Australian children with severe specific language impairment to age and gender-matched peers]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b4aef1c463d7e6db07a9e2d

Background

Children with specific language impairment often present with multiple comorbidities, which may adversely affect both participation in play and academic performance, potentially impacting a child’s health-related quality of life. This study 1) explored the suitability of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ Version 4.0 Generic Core Scales (PedsQL™) for use with a typically developing Australian control group, and 2) compared the health-related quality of life between a control group and Australian children with severe specific language impairment.

Methods

Health-related quality of life data collected as part of a broader study of 43 children with severe specific language impairment (males = 35, age range 5–16, mean age = 8.79+/− 2.92) enrolled at a special school were used to explore previously unreported findings. Typically developing gender and age matched (+/− 3 months) peers were recruited from local schools. The PedsQL™ child self-report and proxy-report were individually or interviewer-administered to the control group as required, and then compared to the group with specific language impairment.

Results

The PedsQL™ was reliable and feasible for use with the control group (N = 43, males = 35, age range = 5–16 years, mean age = 8.74+/− 2.94 years). Control group performance was as expected as per the manual. Parents of the control group scored their children significantly higher than did the children themselves on all scales except the emotional functioning scale. Both the control group children and their parents scored themselves significantly higher on all scales, compared to children with severe specific language impairment and their parents.

Conclusions

The PedsQL™ was suitable for use with the control group. Further, the recruitment of a control group provided additional clarity on the extent a severe specific language impairment impacts on an Australian child’s perceived health-related quality of life, compared to the manual cut-off scores. Severe specific language impairment significantly impacts negatively on the health-related quality of life of Australian children across all domains, particularly when compared to an age and gender-matched group of peers. These results warrant the inclusion of health-related quality of life evaluations in the assessment of these children along with a multidisciplinary approach.

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<![CDATA[Delayed initiation of breastfeeding in Bukavu, South Kivu, eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo: a cross-sectional study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b4aeaf3463d7e6db07a9e1e

Background

Timely initiation of breastfeeding can decrease neonatal mortality. However, about 50% of newborns are not breastfeed within 1 h of birth in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with delayed initiation of breastfeeding in an urban and rural area of Bukavu, South Kivu province, Democratic Republic of Congo.

Methods

We interviewed 396 mother-newborn pairs (185 in the urban area and 211 in the rural area) between 20 July and 10 October 2016. We used descriptive statistics to demonstrate the prevalence of early initiation of breastfeeding. Variables that showed association with delayed initiation of breastfeeding in the bivariate models were entered in a multivariable logistic model.

Results

Overall, the rate of early initiation of breastfeeding was 65.9% (69.7% in the rural area, 61.6% in the rural area). Two hundred and seventy-four (62.9%) mothers (159 in rural area and 115 in urban area) were counselled on early initiation of breastfeeding during prenatal care. Most mothers, 65.2% received counselling by a health professional. On multivariable regression analyses after adjusting for other variables in the model, unmarried mothers [Odds Ratio (OR): 1.5 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.13, 1.95)], cesarean delivery [OR: 2.24 (95% CI: 1.74, 2.88)], no counselling on timely initiation of breastfeeding [OR: 1.71 (95% CI: 1.29, 2.20)] and counselling by a non-health professional [OR: 1.84 (95% CI: 1.08, 3.12)] were associated with delayed initiation of breastfeeding.

Conclusion

Systemic changes are needed for women having caesarean births to experience skin-to-skin and early initiation. In addition, information, education and communication on the importance of timely initiation of breastfeeding must be supported to improve maternal and infant wellbeing.

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<![CDATA[Adherence to guidelines for testing and treatment of children with pharyngitis: a retrospective study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b4adfa2463d7e6cefa31ecd

Background

Group A streptococcus (GAS) is the most common bacterial etiology of pharyngitis but is difficult to distinguish clinically from viral pharyngitis. There are benefits to early antibacterial treatment of GAS pharyngitis, but administering antibiotics to children with viral pharyngitis is ineffective and costly. We evaluated adherence to guidelines that were developed to help clinicians distinguish between viral and GAS pharyngitis and guide management.

Methods

Retrospective cohort study of patients ages 3–18 who had a rapid streptococcal test and/or throat culture performed in an outpatient setting. We collected data on documentation of components of the McIsaac score and classified tests as indicated if the score was ≥2. Based on McIsaac score and GAS test results, we determined whether each antibiotic course prescribed was indicated according to the Infectious Diseases Society of America guideline.

Results

Among 291 eligible children, 87 (30%) had all five components of the McIsaac score documented. There was sufficient data to classify the score as either < 2 or ≥2 in 234 (80%); among these, 96% of tests were indicated. Twenty-nine patients (10%) were prescribed antibiotics. Eight (28%) of these prescriptions were not indicated according to guidelines.

Conclusions

The majority of GAS tests in children with pharyngitis are indicated, although providers do not regularly document all elements of a validated pharyngitis scoring tool. Over one quarter of children prescribed antibiotics for pharyngitis did not require antibiotics according to guidelines. There remains a role for targeted antimicrobial stewardship education regarding pharyngitis management in pediatric outpatient settings.

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<![CDATA[Global Polio Eradication – Way Ahead]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bf44e7ad5eed0c4846e6800

In 1988, the World Health Assembly resolved to eradicate poliomyelitis by the year 2000. Although substantial progress was achieved by 2000, global polio eradication proved elusive. In India, the goal was accomplished in 2011, and the entire South-East Asia Region was certified as polio-free in 2014. The year 2016 marks the lowest wild poliovirus type 1 case count ever, the lowest number of polio-endemic countries (Afghanistan, Nigeria and Pakistan), the maintenance of wild poliovirus type 2 eradication, and the continued absence of wild poliovirus type 3 detection since 2012. The year also marks the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) moving into the post-cessation of Sabin type 2, after the effort of globally synchronized withdrawal of Sabin type 2 poliovirus in April 2016. Sustained efforts will be needed to ensure polio eradication is accomplished, to overcome the access and security issues, and continue to improve the quality and reach of field operations. After that, surveillance (the “eyes and ears”) will move further to the center stage. Sensitive surveillance will monitor the withdrawal of all Sabin polioviruses, and with facility containment, constitute the cornerstones for eventual global certification of wild poliovirus eradication. An emergency response capacity is essential to institute timely control measures should polio still re-emerge. Simultaneously, the public health community needs to determine whether and how to apply the polio-funded infrastructure to other priorities (after the GPEI funding has stopped). Eradication is the primary goal, but securing eradication will require continued efforts, dedicated resources, and a firm commitment by the global public health community.

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<![CDATA[Partial trisomy 16q21➔qter due to an unbalanced segregation of a maternally inherited balanced translocation 46,XX,t(15;16)(p13;q21): a case report and review of literature]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b47772f463d7e707169a44e

Background

Partial trisomy is often the result of an unbalanced segregation of a parental balanced translocation. Partial trisomy16q is characterized by a common, yet non-specific group of craniofacial dysmorphic features, and systemic malformations with limited post-natal survival. Most of the cases of partial trisomy 16q described in the scientific literature have reported only one, or less frequently two cardiac defects in the affected babies. Herein, we report a case of partial trisomy 16q21➔qter with multiple and complex cardiac defects that have not previously been reported in association with this condition.

Case presentation

We report the phenotypic and cytogenetic features of a Sri Lankan female infant with partial trisomy 16q21➔qter. The baby had a triangular face with downslanting eyes, low set ears and a cleft palate. Systemic abnormalities included multiple cardiac defects, namely double outlet right ventricle, ostium secundum atrial septal defect, mild pulmonary stenosis, small patent ductus arteriosus, and bilateral superior vena cavae. An anteriorly placed anus was also observed. The proband was trisomic for 16q21➔qter chromosomal region with a karyotype, 46,XX,der(15)t(15;16)(p13;q21)mat. The chromosomal anomaly was the result of an unbalanced segregation of a maternal balanced translocation; 46,XX,t(15;16)(p13;q21). Partial trisomy 16q was established by fluorescence in-situ hybridization analysis.

Conclusions

The craniofacial dysmorphic features and the presence of cardiac and anorectal malformation in the proband are consistent with the phenotypic spectrum of partial trisomy 16q reported in the scientific literature. More proximal breakpoints in chromosome 16q are known to be associated with multiple cardiac abnormalities and poor long-term survival of affected cases. This report presents a unique case with multiple, complex cardiac defects that have not previously been described in association with a distal breakpoint in 16q. These findings have important diagnostic and prognostic implications.

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<![CDATA[Body Image and Quality of Life and Brace Wear Adherence in Females With Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5beeed29d5eed0c48460d8c1 <![CDATA[Prevalence and Epidemiological Characteristics of Endoscopically Proven Reflux Esophagitis in Children in Korea]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b442093463d7e340f01fc8a

Purpose

The prevalence of reflux esophagitis (RE) has increased recently in Korea. Little is known concerning the prevalence and characteristics of RE in pediatric patients. This study investigated the prevalence and influence of risk factors in endoscopically proven RE in Korea in pediatric patients over a period of 14 years.

Methods

A retrospective chart review of all patients between the ages of 1 month and 20 years who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy at Samsung Medical Center between 2001 and 2014 was carried out. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to identify independent risk factors for RE.

Results

The prevalence rate of endoscopically proven RE in this study was 28.7% (978/3,413). The prevalence of RE increased from 11.8% from 2001 to 2007 to 37.7% from 2008 to 2014. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that residency in the Greater Gangnam area (odds ratio [OR], 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.44) and age (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.11-1.15) were significant predictive factors for the presence of RE.

Conclusion

The prevalence rate of endoscopically proven pediatric RE has increased over the past 14 years. Residency and older age are more important independent risk factors for pediatric RE in Korea.

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<![CDATA[Early characteristics of infants with pulmonary hypertension in a referral neonatal intensive care unit]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b40b5c3463d7e5b83f4c61c

Background

Approximately 8–23% of premature infants develop pulmonary hypertension (PH), and this diagnosis confers a higher possibility of mortality. As a result, professional societies recommend PH screening in premature infants. However, the risk factors for and the outcomes of PH may differ depending on the timing of its diagnosis, and little evidence is available to determine at-risk infants in the referral neonatal population. The objective of this study was to define clinical and echocardiographic characteristics of infants with pulmonary hypertension during the neonatal hospital course and at or near-term.

Methods

Infants who had the following billing codes: < 32 weeks, birth weight < 1500 g, neonatal unit, and echocardiograph had records abstracted from a data warehouse at Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta. The outcome was defined as late PH on the final echocardiogram for all patients, and, separately, for patients with multiple studies. Descriptive statistics, univariable, and multivariable models were evaluated, and odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals are expressed below as (OR, CI).

Results

556 infants were included in the overall study, 59 had PH on their final echocardiogram (11%). In multivariable analyses, atrial septal defect (2.9, 1.4–6.1), and intrauterine growth restriction (2.7, 1.2–6.3) increased the odds of late PH, whereas caffeine therapy decreased PH (0.4, 0.2–0.8). When the analyses were restricted to 32 infants who had multiple echocardiograms during their hospitalization, the association between atrial septal defect (5.9, 2.0–16.5) and growth restriction (3.7, 1.3–10.7) and late PH was strengthened, but the effect of caffeine therapy was no longer significant. In this smaller subgroup, infants with late PH had their final echocardiogram at a median of 116 days of life, and 42–74% of them had right ventricular pathology.

Conclusions

Early clinical variables are associated with PH persistence in a referral neonatal population. Identification of early clinical factors may help guide the ascertainment of infant risk for late PH, and may aid in targeting sub-groups that are most likely to benefit from PH screening.

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<![CDATA[Reply; Testotoxicosis: Report of Two Cases, One with a Novel Mutation in LHCGR Gene]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bd01eee40307c4bb55ef6e6 ]]> <![CDATA[Evaluation of Serum Adenosine Deaminase in Cystic Fibrosis Patients in an Iranian Referral Hospital]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bcee6f840307c3d4e349c4b <![CDATA[Physical Activity Is Prospectively Associated With Adolescent Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bcb7c2840307c237eda41f9 <![CDATA[Parental, Prenatal, and Neonatal Associations With Ball Skills at Age 8 Using an Exposome Approach]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bc27a5840307c2017bbda3b

There is little consistency in the literature concerning factors that influence motor coordination in children. A hypothesis-free “exposome” approach was used with 7359 children using longitudinal information covering 3 generations in regard to throwing a ball accurately at age 7 years. The analyses showed an independent robust negative association with mother’s unhappiness in her midchildhood (6-11 years). No such association was present for study fathers. The offspring of parents who described themselves as having poor eyesight had poorer ability. This hypothesis-free approach has identified a strong negative association with an unhappy childhood. Future studies of this cohort will be used to determine whether the mechanism is manifest through differing parenting skills, or a biological mechanism reflecting epigenetic effects.

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<![CDATA[A Gentle Introduction to Bayesian Analysis: Applications to Developmental Research]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5ba7030d40307c673e9ec8cc

Bayesian statistical methods are becoming ever more popular in applied and fundamental research. In this study a gentle introduction to Bayesian analysis is provided. It is shown under what circumstances it is attractive to use Bayesian estimation, and how to interpret properly the results. First, the ingredients underlying Bayesian methods are introduced using a simplified example. Thereafter, the advantages and pitfalls of the specification of prior knowledge are discussed. To illustrate Bayesian methods explained in this study, in a second example a series of studies that examine the theoretical framework of dynamic interactionism are considered. In the Discussion the advantages and disadvantages of using Bayesian statistics are reviewed, and guidelines on how to report on Bayesian statistics are provided.

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<![CDATA[An inventory of European data sources for the long-term safety evaluation of methylphenidate]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5ba032b540307c5409701fa4

To compile an inventory of European healthcare databases with potential to study long-term effects of methylphenidate (MPH) in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Potential databases were identified through expert opinion, the website of the European Network of Centres for Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacovigilance, and literature search. An online survey was conducted among database providers/coordinators to ascertain the databases’ appropriateness for inclusion into the inventory. It included questions about database characteristics, sample size, availability of information on drug exposure, clinical data and accessibility. Forty-two databases from 11 countries were identified and their coordinators invited to participate; responses were obtained for 22 (52.4 %) databases of which 15 record ADHD diagnoses. Eleven had sufficient data on ADHD diagnosis, drug exposure, and at least one type of outcome information (symptoms/clinical events, weight, height, blood pressure, heart rate) to assess MPH safety. These were Aarhus University Prescription Database, Danish National Birth Cohort (Denmark); German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents; Health Search Database Thales, Italian ADHD Register, Lombardy Region ADHD Database (Italy); Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, General Practice Research Database, The Health Improvement Network, QResearch (UK) and IMS Disease Analyzer (UK, Germany, France). Of the 20 databases with no responses, information on seven from publications and/or websites was obtained; Pedianet and the Integrated Primary Care Information database were considered suitable. Many European healthcare databases can be used for multinational long-term safety studies of MPH. Methodological research is underway to investigate the feasibility of their pooling and analysis.

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<![CDATA[Moebius-Poland syndrome and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b7d9dee463d7e25ac565304 ]]>