ResearchPad - Phychiatric Mental Health https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[When is Sessional Monitoring More Likely in Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5afbb2e7463d7e3eef31f4b9

Sessional monitoring of patient progress or experience of therapy is an evidence-based intervention recommended by healthcare systems internationally. It is being rolled out across child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) in England to inform clinical practice and service evaluation. We explored whether patient demographic and case characteristics were associated with the likelihood of using sessional monitoring. Multilevel regressions were conducted on N = 2609 youths from a routinely collected dataset from 10 CAMHS. Girls (odds ratio, OR 1.26), older youths (OR 1.10), White youths (OR 1.35), and youths presenting with mood (OR 1.46) or anxiety problems (OR 1.59) were more likely to have sessional monitoring. In contrast, youths under state care (OR 0.20) or in need of social service input (OR 0.39) were less likely to have sessional monitoring. Findings of the present research may suggest that sessional monitoring is more likely with common problems such as mood and anxiety problems but less likely with more complex cases, such as those involving youths under state care or those in need of social service input.

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<![CDATA[Mental health first aid training for the Bhutanese refugee community in the United States]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989da7aab0ee8fa60b982d5

Background

The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training for Bhutanese refugee community leaders in the U.S. We hypothesized that training refugee leaders would improve knowledge of mental health problems and treatment process and decrease negative attitudes towards people with mental illness.

Methods

One hundred and twenty community leaders participated in MHFA training, of whom 58 had sufficient English proficiency to complete pre- and post-tests. The questionnaires assessed each participant's ability to recognize signs of depression, knowledge about professional help and treatment, and attitudes towards people with mental illness.

Results

Between the pre- and post-test, participants showed significant improvement in the recognition of symptoms of depression and expressed beliefs about treatment that became more concordant with those of mental health professionals. However, there was no reduction in negative attitudes towards people with mental illness.

Conclusions

MHFA training course is a promising program for Bhutanese refugee communities in the U.S. However, some adaptations may be necessary to ensure that MHFA training is optimized for this community.

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<![CDATA[Making the use of psychotropic drugs more rational through the development of GRADE recommendations in specialist mental healthcare]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989d9dcab0ee8fa60b67cb8

Introduction

In recent years the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology has often been used by international or national health authorities, or scientific societies, for developing evidence-based treatment recommendations. However, the GRADE approach has never been used by practicing physicians who aim at harmonizing their prescribing behaviours paying due attention to the best available evidence. This paper describes the experience of a working group of psychiatrists who adopted the GRADE approach to develop clinical recommendations on the use of psychotropic drugs in specialist mental healthcare.

Case description

The project was conducted in the Department of Mental Health of Verona, Italy, a city located in the north of Italy. At the beginning of 2012, psychiatrists with a specific interest in the rational use of psychotropic drugs were identified and appointed as members of a Guideline Development Group (GDG). The first task of the GDG was the identification of controversial areas in the use of psychotropic drugs, the definition of scoping questions, and the identification of outcomes of interest. The GDG was supported by a scientific secretariat, who searched the evidence, identified one or more systematic reviews matching the scoping questions, and drafted GRADE tables.

Discussion and evaluation

On the basis of efficacy, acceptability, tolerability and safety data, considering the risk of bias and confidence in estimates, and taking also into consideration preferences, values and practical aspects in favour and against the intervention under scrutiny, a draft recommendation with its strength was formulated and agreed by GDG members. Recommendations were submitted for consideration to all specialists of the Department, discussed in two plenary sessions open to the whole staff, and finally approved at the end of 2012.

Conclusion

The present project of guideline development raised several challenging and innovating aspects, including a “bottom-up” approach, as it was motivated by reasons that found agreement among specialists, those who developed the recommendations were those who were supposed to follow them, and values, preferences and feasibility issues were considered paying due attention to local context variables.

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<![CDATA[Mental health in hypertension: assessing symptoms of anxiety, depression and stress on anti-hypertensive medication adherence]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989da25ab0ee8fa60b803cf

Background

Patients with chronic conditions like hypertension may experience many negative emotions which increase their risk for the development of mental health disorders particularly anxiety and depression. For Ghanaian patients with hypertension, the interaction between hypertension and symptoms of anxiety, depression and stress remains largely unexplored. To fill this knowledge gap, the study sought to ascertain the prevalence and role of these negative emotions on anti-hypertensive medication adherence while taking into account patients’ belief systems.

Methods

The hospital-based cross-sectional study involving 400 hypertensive patients was conducted in two tertiary hospitals in Ghana. Data were gathered on patient’s socio-demographic characteristics, anxiety, depression and stress symptoms, spiritual beliefs, and medication adherence.

Results

Hypertensive patients experienced symptoms of anxiety (56%), stress (20%) and depression (4%). As a coping mechanism, a significant relation was observed between spiritual beliefs and anxiety (x2 = 13.352, p = 0.010), depression (x2 = 6.205, p = 0.045) and stress (x2 = 14.833, p = 0.001). Stress among patients increased their likelihood of medication non-adherence [odds ratio (OR) = 2.42 (95% CI 1.06 – 5.5), p = 0.035].

Conclusion

The study has demonstrated the need for clinicians to pay attention to negative emotions and their role in medication non-adherence. The recommendation is that attention should be directed toward the use of spirituality as a possible mechanism by which negative emotions could be managed among hypertensive patients.

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<![CDATA[Qualitative evaluation of mental health services for clients with limited English proficiency]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989da16ab0ee8fa60b7b747

Background

To meet federal requirements under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act, the state of California instituted policies requiring that comprehensive mental health services in native languages be made available to limited English proficiency (LEP) populations when concentrations exceed “threshold” levels.

Methods

This paper builds on promising results from quantitative evaluations by reporting on qualitative interviews with Latino and Vietnamese LEP clients in mental health services (N = 20) to examine the awareness, impact, and implications of these threshold language policies.

Results

Results suggest that, while individuals are often not aware of the policies themselves, the language-related services they receive that are prompted by the policies are critical to treatment initiation and retention. Results also convey the complexities of using interpreters for sensitive psychological topics, and suggest that, for LEP individuals seeking mental health treatment, providers who speak their native languages are generally preferred.

Conclusions

Access to language-appropriate services seems to be an important part of why LEP populations seek mental health treatment. However, there are multiple variables that factor into the usage and usefulness of such services.

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<![CDATA[Family networks to improve outcomes in children with intellectual and developmental disorders: a qualitative study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989d9d4ab0ee8fa60b652a0

Background

There are at least 50 million children with an intellectual or developmental disorder in South Asia. The vast majority of these children have no access to any service and there are no resources to develop such services. We aimed to explore a model of care-delivery for such children, whereby volunteer family members of affected individuals could be organized and trained to form an active, empowered group within the community that, a) using a task-sharing approach, are trained by specialists to provide evidence-based interventions to their children; b) support each other, with the more experienced FaNs i.e. family networks, providing peer-supervision and training to new family members who join the group; and c) works to reduce the stigma associated with the condition.

Methods

We used qualitative methods to explore carers’ perspectives about such a care-delivery model.

Results

The key findings of this research are that there is a huge gap between the needs of the carers and available services. Carers would welcome a volunteer-led service, and some community members would have time to volunteer. Raising community awareness in a culturally sensitive manner prior to launching such a service and linking it to the community health workers programme would increase the likelihood of success. Gender-matching would be important. It would be possible to form family networks around the more motivated volunteers, with support from local non-governmental organizations. The carers were receptive to the use of technology to assist the work of the volunteers as well as for networking.

Conclusions

We conclude that family volunteers delivering evidence-based packages of care after appropriate training is a feasible system that can help reduce the treatment gap for childhood intellectual and developmental disorders in under-served populations.

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<![CDATA[Community mental health in India: A rethink]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989db01ab0ee8fa60bc6907

Background

Community care of the chronic mentally ill has always been prevalent in India, largely due to family involvement and unavailability of institutions. In the 80s, a few mental health clinics became operational in some parts of the country. The Schizophrenia Research Foundation (SCARF), an NGO in Chennai had established a community clinic in 1989 in Thiruporur, which was functional till 1999. During this period various programmes such as training of the primary health center staff, setting up a referral system, setting up of a Citizen's Group, and self-employment schemes were initiated. It was decided to begin a follow up in 2005 to determine the present status of the schemes as well as the current status of the patients registered at the clinic. This we believed would lead to pointers to help evolve future community based programmes.

Methods

One hundred and eighty five patients with chronic mental illness were followed up and their present treatment status determined using a modified version of the Psychiatric and Personal History Schedule (PPHS). The resources created earlier were assessed and qualitative information was gathered during interviews with patient and families and other stakeholders to identify the reasons behind the sustenance or failure of these initiatives.

Results

Of the 185 patients followed up, 15% had continued treatment, 35% had stopped treatment, 21% had died, 12% had wandered away from home and 17% were untraceable. Of the patients who had discontinued treatment 25% were asymptomatic while 75% were acutely psychotic.

The referral service was used by only 15% of the patients and mental health services provided by the PHC stopped within a year. The Citizen's group was functional for only a year and apart from chicken rearing, all other self-employment schemes were discontinued within a period of 6 months to 3 years.

There were multiple factors contributing to the failure, the primary reasons being the limited access and associated expenses entailed in seeking treatment, inadequate knowledge about the illness, lack of support from the family and community and continued dependence by the family on the service provider to provide solutions.

Conclusion

Community based initiatives in the management of mental disorders however well intentioned will not be sustainable unless the family and the community are involved in the intervention program with support being provided regularly by mental health professionals.

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<![CDATA[Do competing demands of physical illness in type 2 diabetes influence depression screening, documentation and management in primary care: a cross-sectional analytic study in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary health care settings]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989dafaab0ee8fa60bc44e6

Background

Relatively little is known about how depression amongst people with chronic illness is identified and managed in diverse primary health care settings. We evaluated the role of complex physical needs in influencing current practice of depression screening, documentation and antidepressant prescriptions during a 12-month period, among adults with Type 2 diabetes attending Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary care health centres in Australia.

Methods

We analysed clinical audit data from 44 health centres participating in a continuous quality improvement initiative, using previously reported standard sampling and data extraction protocols. Eligible patients were those with Type 2 diabetes with health centre attendance within the past 12 months. We compared current practice in depression screening, documentation and antidepressant prescription between patients with different disease severity and co-morbidity. We used random effects multiple logistic regression models to adjust for potential confounders and for clustering by health centre.

Results

Among the 1174 patients with diabetes included, median time since diagnosis was 7 years, 19% of patients had a co-existing diagnosis of Ischaemic Heart Disease and 1/3 had renal disease. Some 70% of patients had HbAc1>7.0%; 65% had cholesterol >4.0 mmol1-1 and 64% had blood pressure>130/80 mmHg. Documentation of screening for depression and of diagnosed depression were low overall (5% and 6% respectively) and lower for patients with renal disease (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.21; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.14 to 0.31 and AOR 0.34; 95% CI 0.15 to 0.75), and for those with poorly controlled disease (HbA1c>7.00 (AOR 0.40; 95% CI 0.23 to 0.68 and AOR 0.51; 95% CI 0.30 to 84)). Screening for depression was lower for those on pharmaceutical treatment for glycaemic control compared to those not on such treatment. Antidepressant prescription was not associated with level of diabetes control or disease severity.

Conclusions

Background levels of depression screening and documentation were low overall and significantly lower for patients with greater disease severity. Strategies to improve depression care for vulnerable populations are urgently required. An important first step in the Australian Indigenous primary care context is to identify and address barriers to the use of current clinical guidelines for depression screening and care.

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<![CDATA[Preparedness of Lithuanian general practitioners to provide mental healthcare services: a cross-sectional survey]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989da95ab0ee8fa60ba1788

Background

A large unmet need for mental healthcare in Lithuania is partially attributable to a lack of primary care providers with skills in this area. The aim of this study was to assess general practitioners’ (GPs) experience in mental healthcare and their perceptions about how to increase their involvement in the field.

Methods

In this cross-sectional study, a 41-item questionnaire was distributed to a random sample of 797 Lithuanian GPs in order to investigate current practices in their provision of mental healthcare as well as their suggestions for the improvement of mental healthcare services in primary care.

Results

The response rate was 52.2%. Three-quarters of the GPs agreed that they feel responsible for the management of mental health problems, but only 8.8% of them agreed that “My knowledge in mental healthcare is sufficient”. Psychiatrists were identified as the mental healthcare team specialists with whom 32% of the respondents discuss the management of their patients with a mental disorder. Collaboration with psychologists and social workers was almost threefold lower (11.6% and 12.5%). Capacity-building of GPs was found to be among the most promising initiatives to improve mental health services in primary care. Other strategies mentioned were policy level and managerial measures as well as strengthening the teamwork approach in mental healthcare.

Conclusions

This study found a low self-reported competence of GPs in mental healthcare and low collaboration among GPs and other specialists in providing mental healthcare. For the situation to improve in the country, these findings point to a need for strategies to improve GPs’ expertise and teamwork in mental healthcare.

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<![CDATA[Mental health research and evaluation in multicultural Australia: developing a culture of inclusion]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989d9fdab0ee8fa60b72b32

Introduction

Cultural and linguistic diversity is a core feature of the Australian population and a valued element of national identity. The proportion of the population that will be overseas-born is projected to be 32% by 2050. While a very active process of mental health system reform has been occurring for more than two decades - at national and state and territory levels - the challenges presented by cultural and linguistic diversity have not been effectively met. A key area in which this is particularly an issue is in the collection, analysis and reporting of mental health data that reflect the reality of population diversity. The purpose of this study was to examine: what is known about the mental health of immigrant and refugee communities in Australia; whether Australian mental health research pays adequate attention to the fact of cultural and linguistic diversity in the Australian population; and whether national mental health data collections support evidence-informed mental health policy and practice and mental health reform in multicultural Australia.

Methods

The study consisted of three components – a brief review of what is known about mental health in, and mental health service use by, immigrant and refugee communities; an examination of national data collections to determine the extent to which relevant cultural variables are included in the collections; and an examination of Australian research to determine the extent to which immigrant and refugee communities are included as participants in such research.

Results

The review of Australian research on mental health of immigrant and refugee communities and their patterns of mental health service use generated findings that are highly variable. The work is fragmented and usually small-scale. There are multiple studies of some immigrant and refugee communities and there are no studies of others. Although there is a broadly consistent pattern of lower rates of utilisation of specialist public mental health services by immigrants and refugees the absence of adequate population epidemiological data prevents judgments about whether the observed patterns constitute under-utilisation. There are virtually no data on quality of service outcomes. The examination of national data collections revealed multiple gaps in these data collections. The review of papers published in four key Australian journals to determine whether immigrants and refugees are included in mental health research studies revealed a high rate (9.1%) of specific exclusion from studies (usually due to low English fluency) and a much higher rate of general neglect of the issue of population diversity in study design and reporting.

Conclusions

While there are many positive statements of policy intent in relation to immigrant and refugee communities in national mental health policies and strategies there is virtually no reporting by Commonwealth or State and Territory governments of whether policies that are relevant to immigrant and refugee communities are effectively implemented. It is not possible, on the basis of the data collected, to determine whether immigrant and refugee communities are benefiting from the mental health system reforms that are being actively carried out. The majority of Australian mental health research does not adequately include immigrant and refugee samples. On the basis of the findings of this study eight strategies have been recommended that will contribute to the development of a culture of inclusion of all Australians in the national mental health research enterprise.

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<![CDATA[The development of mental health services within primary care in India: learning from oral history]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989da3cab0ee8fa60b8874a

Background

In India very few of those who need mental health care receive it, despite efforts of the 1982 National Mental Health Programme and its district-level component the District Mental Health Programme (DMHP) to improve mental health care coverage.

Aims

To explore and unpack the political, cultural and other historical reasons for the DMHP’s failures and successes since 1947 (post-independence era), which may highlight issues for today’s current primary mental health care policy and programme.

Methods

Oral history interviews and documentary sourcing were conducted in 2010–11 with policy makers, programme managers and observers who had been active in the creation of the NMHP and DMHP.

Results

The results suggest that the widely held perception that the DMHP has failed is not entirely justified, insofar that major hurdles to the implementation of the plan have impacted on mental health coverage in primary care, rather than faults with the plan itself. These hurdles have been political neglect, inadequate leadership at central, state and district levels, inaccessible funding and improperly implemented delivery of services (including poor training, motivation and retention of staff) at district and community levels.

Conclusion

At this important juncture as the 12th Five Year Plan is in preparation, this historical paper suggests that though the model may be improved, the most important changes would be to encourage central and state governments to implement better technical support, access to funds and to rethink the programme leadership at national, state and district levels.

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<![CDATA[Implementing psychiatric day treatment for infants, toddlers, preschoolers and their families: a study from a clinical and organizational perspective]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989db3bab0ee8fa60bd4d9a

Background

An increasing number of empirical studies indicate that infants, toddlers and preschoolers may suffer from non-transient mental illnesses featuring developmental psychopathology. A few innovative child psychiatric approaches have been developed to treat infants, toddlers and preschoolers and their families, but have not yet been conceptually presented and discussed in the framework of different healthcare systems. The organizational and clinical experience gained while developing specific approaches may be important across disciplines and guide future developments in psychiatric treatment of infants, toddlers, preschoolers and their families.

Results

This article introduces the Preschool Family Day Hospital for Infants, Toddlers and Preschoolers and their Families at Münster University Hospital, Germany. This hospital is unique in the German healthcare system with regard to its social-service institution division of labor. Specifically, it uses an intermittent treatment approach and an integrated interactional family psychiatric approach to treat children and their parents as separate patients. This multidisciplinary, developmentally and family-oriented approach includes components of group treatments with children and separate treatments with parents. Specific techniques include video-assisted treatments of the parent–child interaction, psychiatric and psychotherapeutic treatments for parents, and conjoint family therapies that include both parents and siblings.

Conclusions

The Family Day Hospital for infants, toddlers and preschoolers and their families offers innovative family-oriented treatments for those who suffer from a wide range of severe child psychiatric disorders that cannot be sufficiently treated in outpatient settings. Treatment is based on the need for family-oriented approaches to the early psychiatric treatment of infants, toddlers and preschoolers. Family day hospitals are an innovative approach to preschool child psychiatry that requires further evaluation.

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<![CDATA[An investigation of economic costs of schizophrenia in two areas of China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989db1dab0ee8fa60bce774

Background

Schizophrenia is a severe psychotic disorder characterized by significant disturbances in thinking, perception, emotions and behavior. Even if it is not a very frequent disorder, but it is the most burdensome and costly illnesses worldwide. The total population was approximate 1.3 billion and there are approximate 8 million schizophrenic patients in China. Despite the wide-ranging financial and social burdens associated with schizophrenia, but there have been few cost-of-illness studies of this illness in China.

Objective

To evaluate the economic cost of schizophrenic patients in China.

Methodology

356 schizophrenic patients who met with DSM-IV criteria were enrolled and investigated with the Economic Burden Questionnaire(EBQ), 299 schizophrenic patients completed the study for 12 months. All the data were combined and classified by researcher. EBQ include all kinds of cost such as direct cost, indirect cost and total cost as well. It was filled in by patients and their close caregivers. Comparison of cost was made between not only out-patients and in-patients but also urban patients and rural patients. Multiple stepwise regression analysis was made to identify the main influence factors of total cost.

Results

(i) The per case per annum total costs, direct costs and indirect costs of schizophrenia amounted to US$2586.21, US$862.81(33.4%) and US$1723.40(66.6%) respectively. The per case total cost, direct cost and direct medical cost of in-patients were more higher than out-patients (P < 0.05). (ii) There was significant difference in per case per annum total cost, direct cost, direct medical cost, cost due to lost working-days and disability between urban and rural schizophrenic patients (P < 0.05), the former is higher than the latter. (iii) The results of multivariate stepwise regression analysis show that five variables were significantly correlated with higher cost: professional status(cadre), diagnostic subtype(residual schizophrenia), urban or rural patients(urban patients), in-patients or out-patients(in-patients) and researcher centre(southern center). The standardized regression coefficient were 0.308, 0.218, 0.212, 0.156 and 0.149 respectively, the correlation of determination R square was 0.2741, F = 15.651, P < 0.0000. These characteristics explain 27.41% of the variability in the total cost.

Conclusion

(i) Economic cost of schizophrenia were serious, we must pay close attention to it. (ii) The indirect cost are the majority of the total cost. The cost of urban patients are more higher than the cost of rural patients, the cost of in-patients are more higher than the cost of out-patients.

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<![CDATA[Mental health and psychiatric care in Bolivia: what do we know?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989db29ab0ee8fa60bd0eb5

Background

Recently Bolivia has implemented a universal health system, but their mental health policy is still emerging.

Objectives

To investigate the current state of the mental health care system in Bolivia and discuss challenges for structuring a coordinated network of services that can effectively meet the needs of the Bolivian population.

Methods

This review was conducted by searching for scholarly articles through the databases Lilacs, Medline OPS, HISA and IBECS REPIDISCA via the search portal in the Virtual Health Library - NLM (http://www.bireme.br).

Results

Bolivia has a National Mental Health Plan that is intended to guide mental health promotion, prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of mental illness, but the resources for this area of health are limited. There are 1.06 psychiatrists and 0.46 psychologists per 100, 000 inhabitants. Information on psychiatric morbidity in Bolivia and the impact of mental disorders on the global burden of disease is scarce. Admission statistics reported by psychiatric hospitals in the country show that the main cause of hospitalization is substance abuse (30%). Alcohol consumption is responsible for 90% of these admissions, in addition to being a major cause of deaths in traffic and one of the main risk factors for domestic violence. Almost one in two women in Bolivia (47%) experienced some form of violence from their partner in the last year. Nineteen percent of women living with a partner reported being physically abused, while 7% were sexually abused by their partners. Isolated studies report that suicide rates are disproportionately high in Bolivia.

Conclusions

Although there is a shortage of epidemiological data in Bolivia, it is clear the impact of alcohol addiction in psychiatric admissions, domestic violence and traffic accidents. Violence against women and suicides are important issues to be tackled. Among the proposed strategies to afford human resources for mental health in Bolivia, “task shifting”, the delegation of tasks to non-specialists should be extensively adopted in the country to improve mental health care.

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<![CDATA[Short structured general mental health in service training programme in Kenya improves patient health and social outcomes but not detection of mental health problems - a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989d9ebab0ee8fa60b6c8de

Trial design

A pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial.

Methods

Participants: Clusters were primary health care clinics on the Ministry of Health list. Clients were eligible if they were aged 18 and over. Interventions: Two members of staff from each intervention clinic received the training programme. Clients in both intervention and control clinics subsequently received normal routine care from their health workers. Objective: To examine the impact of a mental health inservice training on routine detection of mental disorder in the clinics and on client outcomes. Outcomes: The primary outcome was the rate of accurate routine clinic detection of mental disorder and the secondary outcome was client recovery over a twelve week follow up period. Randomisation: clinics were randomised to intervention and control groups using a table of random numbers. Blinding: researchers and clients were blind to group assignment.

Results

Numbers randomised: 49 and 50 clinics were assigned to intervention and control groups respectively. 12 GHQ positive clients per clinic were identified for follow up. Numbers analysed: 468 and 478 clients were followed up for three months in intervention and control groups respectively. Outcome: At twelve weeks after training of the intervention group, the rate of accurate routine clinic detection of mental disorder was greater than 0 in 5% versus 0% of the intervention and control groups respectively, in both the intention to treat analysis (p = 0.50) and the per protocol analysis (p =0.50). Standardised effect sizes for client improvement were 0.34 (95% CI = (0.01,0.68)) for the General Health Questionnaire, 0.39 ((95% CI = (0.22, 0.61)) for the EQ and 0.49 (95% CI = (0.11,0.87)) for WHODAS (using ITT analysis); and 0.43 (95% CI = (0.09,0.76)) for the GHQ, 0.44 (95% CI = (0.22,0.65)) for the EQ and 0.58 (95% CI = (0.18,0.97)) for WHODAS (using per protocol analysis). Harms: None identified.

Conclusion

The training programme did not result in significantly improved recorded diagnostic rates of mental disorders in the routine clinic consultation register, but did have significant effects on patient outcomes in routine clinical practice.

Trial registration

International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number Register ISRCTN53515024.

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<![CDATA[The sustainability of an Australian initiative designed to improve interdisciplinary collaboration in mental health care]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989da6fab0ee8fa60b941b2

Background

The Australian Mental Health Professionals Network (MHPN) is fostering a collaborative, interdisciplinary approach to mental health care through the establishment of local interdisciplinary networks of mental health professionals. This paper reports on those factors seen by MHPN participants and staff as having affected the formation and continuation of interdisciplinary networks, and therefore the likely sustainability of these groups.

Method

The paper draws on qualitative data from focus groups with mental health professionals participating in MHPN activities and MHPN staff.

Results

The findings suggest that MHPN’s approach to establishing sustainable interdisciplinary networks has been influenced by a number of factors at the micro-, meso-and macro levels. At the micro-level, factors such as clarity and structure of ongoing meetings, individual dynamics and the role of ‘champions’ can promote or constrain sustainability of ongoing networks. Those networks that had established following an initial workshop and had continued to meet as an interdisciplinary network tended to be led by well-respected co-ordinators, involve members who are enthusiastic and keen to learn from each other, have a flexible structure and meet regularly for a well-defined purpose. These features are underpinned by good communication between network members and with MHPN administration. At the meso- and macro-levels, the key issue relates to resourcing, as well as the wider policy context.

Conclusions

The support and practical resources provided by MHPN have been crucial in guiding successful networks as they form and continue to meet on a regular basis. The networks have also required internal leadership and support, and a clear purpose in order to form and to continue their activities. These findings are consistent with the literature, which states that sustainability of programs is reliant on factors at the project design and implementation level, as well as on factors inherent within the host organization and at the wider community level.

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<![CDATA[Development of forensic mental health services in Japan: working towards the reintegration of offenders with mental disorders]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989da7aab0ee8fa60b9827f

Background

Until the recent enactment of the Medical Treatment and Supervision Act (MTSA) in 2005, neither legislations nor facilities for mentally disordered offenders were available in Japan. The aim of the country’s forensic mental health services, based on this new law, is to improve the social reintegration of mentally disordered offenders. In order to provide optimal psychiatric care to these individuals, specialised court proceedings, treatment facilities, and concrete guidelines have been established. The aim of this study was to review the current status of the new system and to clarify future challenges for improving services.

Methods

The authors collected official statistics regarding the new system published separately by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, the Ministry of Justice, and the Supreme Court of Japan. We aggregated the data and examined the system’s current implementation status, nationwide.

Results

There were 2,750 requests for enrolment in the MTSA system between its initiation in 2005 and 31 December 2012. Of those requests, 2,724 cases had been concluded in court. In 63.1% of the cases, an inpatient treatment order had been made; 82.4% of those inpatients were diagnosed with schizophrenia. By the end of March 2012, two patients completing treatment under the MTSA had re-committed a serious offense. While overall designated inpatient and outpatient treatment facilities have reached national targets in terms of resources and beds available, a regional gap in MTSA designated facilities remains and the number of patients under inpatient treatment order is on the increase.

Conclusions

Overall, the MTSA system has been running smoothly without encountering any serious problems. However, several concerns have emerged, such as the accumulation of patients under inpatient treatment order and insufficient regional resources. To more successfully promote the reintegration of mentally disordered offenders, improvements in outpatient treatment and welfare services are crucial. In order to install effective measures to help improve the system, a nationwide database of patients being treated under order of the MTSA should be properly built and maintained.

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<![CDATA[Uptake of a national primary mental health program by young people in Australia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989daa9ab0ee8fa60ba88ad

Background

The purpose of this study was to examine the uptake of an Australian primary mental health care program (Access to Allied Psychological Services) by young people aged 12 to 25 years and the characteristics of consumers and the treatments received. Data were sourced from a national web-based minimum dataset.

Results

Between 1 July 2003 and 30 June 2012, 51 716 young consumers received 245 704 sessions via the primary mental health program. Around two thirds were female and the average age was 19 years. The majority had depressive and/or anxiety disorders.

Most services were delivered to individuals (including just the young person and/or the young person with one or both parents), in a face-to-face context and free of charge. Cognitive and behavioral strategies were the most common interventions delivered.

Conclusions

The primary mental health care program has been well utilized by people aged 12 to 25 years. Similar programs in other developed countries may improve access to primary mental health care for young people.

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<![CDATA[Structural equation model of factors related to quality of life for community-dwelling schizophrenic patients in Japan]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989da6aab0ee8fa60b92b54

Background

This study aimed to clarify how community mental healthcare systems can be improved.

Methods

We included 79 schizophrenic patients, aged 20 to 80 years, residing in the Tokyo metropolitan area who regularly visited rehabilitation facilities offering assistance to psychiatric patients and were receiving treatment on an outpatient basis. No subjects had severe cognitive disorders or were taking medication with side effects that could prevent the completion of questionnaires. Questionnaires included items related to quality of life, self-efficacy, self-esteem, psychosis based on the Behavior and Symptom Identification Scale, health locus of control, and socio-demographic factors. We performed multiple linear regression analysis with quality of life as the dependent variable and, based on covariance structural analysis, evaluated the goodness of fit of the resulting structural equations models.

Results

Self-efficacy, self-esteem, and degree of psychosis significantly impacted quality of life. Marital status, age, and types of medications also influenced quality of life. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed psychiatric symptoms (Behavior and Symptom Identification Scale-32 [daily living and role functioning] (Beta = −0.537, p < 0.001) and self-efficacy (Beta = 0.249, p < 0.05) to be predictors of total quality of life score. Based on covariance structural analysis, the resulting model was found to exhibit reasonable goodness of fit.

Conclusions

Self-efficacy had an especially strong and direct impact on QOL. Therefore, it is important to provide more positive feedback to patients, provide social skills training based on cognitive behavioral therapy, and engage patients in role playing to improve self-efficacy and self-concept.

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<![CDATA[Identification, modification, and implementation of an evidence-based psychotherapy for children in a low-income country: the use of TF-CBT in Zambia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989da0fab0ee8fa60b7928b

Background

The need to address the treatment gap in mental health services in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) is well recognized and particularly neglected among children and adolescents. Recent literature with adult populations suggests that evidence-based mental health treatments are effective, feasible, and cross-culturally modifiable for use in LMIC. This paper addresses a gap in the literature documenting pre-trial processes. We describe the process of selecting an intervention to meet the needs of a particular population and the process of cross-cultural adaptation.

Methods

Community-based participatory research principles were implemented for intervention selection, including joint meetings with stakeholders, review of qualitative research, and review of the literature. Trauma-focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) was chosen as the evidence-based practice for modification and feasibility testing. The TF-CBT adaptation process, rooted within an apprenticeship model of training and supervision, is presented. Clinical case notes were reviewed to document modifications.

Results

Choosing an intervention can work as a collaborative process with community involvement. Results also show that modifications were focused primarily on implementation techniques rather than changes in TF-CBT core elements.

Conclusions

Studies documenting implementation processes are critical to understanding why intervention choices are made and how the adaptations are generated in global mental health. More articles are needed on how to implement evidence-based treatments in LMIC.

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