ResearchPad - Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Detection of muscle activity with forearm pronation exercise using T2-map MRI]]>

[Purpose] We aimed to detect muscle activity during a forearm pronation exercise using a 0.2 T MRI system. [Participants and Methods] We recruited healthy adult volunteers (7 males, 4 females). Transverse relaxation time (T2) values for 10 forearm muscles were obtained from transverse multiple-spin-echo MR images of one-third of the ulna, lengthwise from the olecranon, in the resting state and after isotonic forearm pronation exercise at three strength levels (5, 15, and 25% of the maximum voluntary contraction). Z values were calculated as (T2e − T2r)/SDr, where T2e, T2r and SDr were T2 after exercise, 34 ms, and 3 ms, respectively. A Z value of 2.56 was used as the threshold for defining muscle activation. [Results] T2 values increased significantly in the pronator teres muscle (agonist), while those in the supinator muscle (antagonist) showed no change. The sensitivity and specificity values obtained were high and low, respectively, for all of the three exercise strength levels employed. In some of the participants, activity was detected in the flexor carpi radialis, extensor carpi ulnaris, and extensor digitorum. [Conclusion] Using T2-map MRI, we detected activity in primary and secondary mover muscles. We also found individual variations in the use of forearm muscles during pronation.

<![CDATA[Characteristics of selective motor control of the lower extremity in adults with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy]]>

[Purpose] We aimed to examine the relationship between gross motor function, selective motor control (SMC), range of motion (ROM), and spasticity in the lower extremities of adults with cerebral palsy (CP), as well as the proximal to distal distribution of SMC impairment in lower extremity joints. [Participants and Methods] We recruited 11 adults with bilateral spastic CP, ranging from levels I to III according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). We evaluated participants according to the Selective Control Assessment of the Lower Extremity (SCALE), ROM, and the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS). We conducted the Friedman test to assess differences among the SCALE scores of each joint. The relationship between GMFCS level, SCALE scores, ROM, and MAS scores was assessed. [Results] The mean SCALE scores were lower for distal than for proximal joints. The SCALE scores of each leg showed significant inverse correlations with the GMFCS level. [Conclusion] SMC in adults with CP strongly influences gross motor function. SMC did not have a significant relationship with spasticity or ROM. SMC, ROM, and spasticity independently influenced gross motor function in adults with CP. SMC impairment in adults with CP was higher in distal than in proximal joints.

<![CDATA[The known-groups validity of intensity-based physical activity measurement using an accelerometer in people with subacute stroke]]>

[Purpose] This study aimed to assess the known-groups validity of the estimated metabolic equivalents during physical activities using accelerometer, Active Style Pro HJA 350-IT, in people with subacute stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Ten participants with subacute stroke and ten healthy people performed six activities (lying, sitting, standing, sitting with reaching task, standing with reaching task, and walking) and metabolic equivalents were estimated using the accelerometer during each activity. These estimated metabolic equivalents were compared with reported metabolic equivalents through compendiums or previous studies. Additionally, the estimated metabolic equivalents were compared between subacute stroke and healthy control participants. [Results] The estimated metabolic equivalents of both groups during maintaining posture showed significantly lower values in comparison with previous studies. There were no significant differences between the estimated metabolic equivalents during sitting with reaching tasks or standing with reaching tasks when compared with compendium metabolic equivalents across both groups. The estimated metabolic equivalents during walking were inevitable values significantly differed from previous study which conducted with stroke patients with lower gait abilities in both groups. [Conclusion] The estimated metabolic equivalents using accelerometer may be suitable to assess movement activity rather than motionless activity, and accelerometer demonstrated acceptable validity in people with subacute stroke.

<![CDATA[Six Sessions of Sprint Interval Training Improves Running Performance in Trained Athletes]]>


Koral, J, Oranchuk, DJ, Herrera, R, and Millet, GY. Six sessions of sprint interval training improves running performance in trained athletes. J Strength Cond Res 32(3): 617–623, 2018—Sprint interval training (SIT) is gaining popularity with endurance athletes. Various studies have shown that SIT allows for similar or greater endurance, strength, and power performance improvements than traditional endurance training but demands less time and volume. One of the main limitations in SIT research is that most studies were performed in a laboratory using expensive treadmills or ergometers. The aim of this study was to assess the performance effects of a novel short-term and highly accessible training protocol based on maximal shuttle runs in the field (SIT-F). Sixteen (12 male, 4 female) trained trail runners completed a 2-week procedure consisting of 4–7 bouts of 30 seconds at maximal intensity interspersed by 4 minutes of recovery, 3 times a week. Maximal aerobic speed (MAS), time to exhaustion at 90% of MAS before test (Tmax at 90% MAS), and 3,000-m time trial (TT3000m) were evaluated before and after training. Data were analyzed using a paired samples t-test, and Cohen's (d) effect sizes were calculated. Maximal aerobic speed improved by 2.3% (p = 0.01, d = 0.22), whereas peak power (PP) and mean power (MP) increased by 2.4% (p = 0.009, d = 0.33) and 2.8% (p = 0.002, d = 0.41), respectively. TT3000m was 6% shorter (p < 0.001, d = 0.35), whereas Tmax at 90% MAS was 42% longer (p < 0.001, d = 0.74). Sprint interval training in the field significantly improved the 3,000-m run, time to exhaustion, PP, and MP in trained trail runners. Sprint interval training in the field is a time-efficient and cost-free means of improving both endurance and power performance in trained athletes.

<![CDATA[The effects of upper and lower limb position on symmetry of vertical ground reaction force during sit-to-stand in chronic stroke subjects]]>

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of arm and leg posture elements on symmetrical weight bearing during Sit to Stand tasks in chronic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were diagnosed with stroke and 22 patients (15 males and 7 females) participated in this study. All participants performed Sit to Stand tasks on three foot postures and two arm postures. Two force plates were used to measure peak of vertical ground reaction force and symmetrical ratio to peak Fz. The data were analyzed using independent t-test and two-way repeated ANOVA. [Results] The results of this study are as follows: 1) Peak Fz placed more weight in non-paretic leg during Sit to Stand. 2) A symmetrical ratio to Peak Fz indicated significant difference between foot and arm posture, and had non-paretic limb supported on a step and paretic at ground level (STP) and grasped arm posture that lock fingers together with shoulder flexion by 90°(GA) (0.79 ± 0.09). [Conclusion] These results suggest that STP posture of the legs and GA posture of the arms should be able to increase the use of the paretic side during Sit to Stand behavior and induce normal Sit to Stand mechanism through the anterior tilt of the hip in clinical practices, by which loads onto the knee joint and the ankle joint can be reduced, and the trunk righting response can be promoted by making the back fully stretched. The outcome of this study is expected to be a reference for exercise or prognosis of Sit to Stand in stroke patients.

<![CDATA[Changes in oxidative stress severity and antioxidant potential during muscle atrophy and reloading in mice]]>

[Purpose] Changes in oxidative stress severity and antioxidant potential are routinely used as oxidative stress markers. While several studies have reported the relationship between these markers and exercise, little is known about the dynamic nature of these markers during muscle atrophy and reloading. Therefore, we examined changes in oxidative stress severity and antioxidant potential during muscle atrophy and reloading. [Subjects and Methods] Muscle atrophy was induced in mice by casting the limb for 2 weeks. Mice were then subjected to reloading for 2 weeks. The severity of oxidative stress (hydroperoxide) and antioxidant potential (degree of reduction) were quantified. [Results] Muscle atrophy was induced by cast immobilization. The muscle mass of mice recovered to similar levels as the control group following 2 weeks of reloading. The degree of oxidative stress was within the normal range throughout the experimental period. The antioxidant potential decreased to the clinical borderline level 2 weeks after immobilization, further decreased after 1 day of reloading, and then recovered to within the normal range. [Conclusion] Performing d-ROMs and BAP tests may contribute to the understanding to atrophic process of skeletal muscle in clinical practice of physical therapy.

<![CDATA[A systematic review investigating measurement properties of physiological tests in rugby]]>


This systematic review was conducted with the first objective aimed at providing an overview of the physiological characteristics commonly evaluated in rugby and the corresponding tests used to measure each construct. Secondly, the measurement properties of all identified tests per physiological construct were evaluated with the ultimate purpose of identifying tests with strongest level of evidence per construct.


The review was conducted in two stages. In all stages, electronic databases of EBSCOhost, Medline and Scopus were searched for full-text articles. Stage 1 included studies examining physiological characteristics in rugby. Stage 2 included studies evaluating measurement properties of all tests identified in Stage 1 either in rugby or related sports such as Australian Rules football and Soccer. Two independent reviewers screened relevant articles from titles and abstracts for both stages.


Seventy studies met the inclusion criteria for Stage 1. The studies described 63 tests assessing speed (8), agility/change of direction speed (7), upper-body muscular endurance (8), upper-body muscular power (6), upper-body muscular strength (5), anaerobic endurance (4), maximal aerobic power (4), lower-body muscular power (3), prolonged high-intensity intermittent running ability/endurance (5), lower-body muscular strength (5), repeated high-intensity exercise performance (3), repeated-sprint ability (2), repeated-effort ability (1), maximal aerobic speed (1) and abdominal endurance (1). Stage 2 identified 20 studies describing measurement properties of 21 different tests. Only moderate evidence was found for the reliability of the 30–15 Intermittent Fitness. There was limited evidence found for the reliability and/or validity of 5 m, 10 m, 20 m speed tests, 505 test, modified 505 test, L run test, Sergeant Jump test and bench press repetitions-to-fatigue tests. There was no information from high-quality studies on the measurement properties of all the other tests identified in stage 1.


A number of physiological characteristics are evaluated in rugby. Each physiological construct has multiple tests for measurement. However, there is paucity of information on measurement properties from high-quality studies for the tests. This raises questions about the usefulness and applicability of these tests in rugby and creates a need for high-quality future studies evaluating measurement properties of these physiological tests.

Trial registrations

PROSPERO CRD 42015029747.

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (10.1186/s13102-017-0081-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

<![CDATA[Validity of sports watches when estimating energy expenditure during running]]> <![CDATA[Pediatric Return to Sports After Spinal Surgery]]> <![CDATA[Improving Diagnostic Accuracy and Efficiency of Suspected Bone Stress Injuries]]>


Lower extremity stress fractures among athletes and military recruits cause significant morbidity, fiscal costs, and time lost from sport or training. During fiscal years (FY) 2012 to 2014, 1218 US Air Force trainees at Joint Base San Antonio–Lackland, Texas, were diagnosed with stress fracture(s). Diagnosis relied heavily on bone scans, often very early in clinical course and often in preference to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), highlighting the need for an evidence-based algorithm for stress injury diagnosis and initial management.

Evidence Acquisition:

To guide creation of an evidence-based algorithm, a literature review was conducted followed by analysis of local data. Relevant articles published between 1995 and 2015 were identified and reviewed on PubMed using search terms stress fracture, stress injury, stress fracture imaging, and stress fracture treatment. Subsequently, charts were reviewed for all Air Force trainees diagnosed with 1 or more stress injury in their outpatient medical record in FY 2014.

Study Design:

Clinical review.

Level of Evidence:

Level 4.


In FY 2014, 414 trainees received a bone scan and an eventual diagnosis of stress fracture. Of these scans, 66.4% demonstrated a stress fracture in the symptomatic location only, 21.0% revealed stress fractures in both symptomatic and asymptomatic locations, and 5.8% were negative in the symptomatic location but did reveal stress fracture(s) in asymptomatic locations. Twenty-one percent (18/85) of MRIs performed a mean 6 days (range, 0- 21 days) after a positive bone scan did not demonstrate any stress fracture.


Bone stress injuries in military training environments are common, costly, and challenging to diagnose. MRI should be the imaging study of choice, after plain radiography, in those individuals meeting criteria for further workup.

<![CDATA[Longitudinal Increases in Knee Abduction Moments in Females during Adolescent Growth]]>



Knee abduction moment (KAM) is an injury risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury that shows divergent incidence between males and females during adolescence. The objective of this study was to determine the relation between skeletal growth and increased KAM. The hypotheses tested were that females would demonstrate peak KAM during landing at peak height velocity (PHV) and that they would diverge from males at PHV.


The subject pool consisted of 674 females and 218 males (1387 female and 376 male assessments) who participated in a preseason testing session before their basketball or soccer seasons. They were tested longitudinally for multiple years (2 ± 1 yr) to capture maturation via estimates of percent (%) adult stature and biomechanical analysis during a drop vertical jump maneuver. Data were analyzed using three-dimensional motion analysis that used a 37 retroreflective marker body model and inverse dynamics to calculate segment joint centers and peak KAM.


Mature females, as defined as 92% adult stature or greater, displayed increased peak KAM and knee abduction angles relative to growing (≤91% adult stature) adolescent females (P < 0.001). A significant sex–maturation (% adult stature) interaction (P < 0.001) in peak KAM was observed. Post hoc analyses showed consistent sex differences in groups greater than or equal to, but not less than, 92% adult stature, which is approximately at PHV. Hence, sex differences in peak KAM and PHV coincide.


Increases in peak KAM during and after PHV seem to coincide with increased risk of ACL injury in females. KAM peaked in females at PHV. Tracking longitudinal increases in peak KAM may be useful for the identification of females at increased risk of ACL injury.

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