ResearchPad - Physiology https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Feeding Faba Beans (Vicia faba L.) Reduces Myocyte Metabolic Activity in Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N5439a9cd-9f2d-4dfa-ada9-4e94982689b7 <![CDATA[Morphology of the Amazonian Teleost Genus Arapaima Using Advanced 3D Imaging]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N19d9c2da-ce90-4655-96c8-1333416a1502 <![CDATA[Effect of Resistance Training Under Normobaric Hypoxia on Physical Performance, Hematological Parameters, and Body Composition in Young and Older People]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N51d8a165-ec71-42c0-b7ea-97ec54e61705

Background

Resistance training (RT) under hypoxic conditions has been used to increase muscular performance under normoxic conditions in young people. However, the effects of RT and thus of RT under hypoxia (RTH) could also be valuable for parameters of physical capacity and body composition across the lifespan. Therefore, we compared the effects of low- to moderate-load RTH with matched designed RT on muscular strength capacity, cardiopulmonary capacity, hematological adaptation, and body composition in young and older people.

Methods

In a pre–post randomized, blinded, and controlled experiment, 42 young (18 to 30 year) and 42 older (60 to 75 year) participants were randomly assigned to RTH or RT (RTH young, RT young, RTH old, RT old). Both groups performed eight resistance exercises (25–40% of 1RM, 3 × 15 repetitions) four times a week over 5 weeks. The intensity of hypoxic air for the RTH was administered individually in regards to the oxygen saturation of the blood (SpO2): ∼80–85%. Changes and differences in maximal isokinetic strength, cardiopulmonary capacity, total hemoglobin mass (tHb), blood volume (BV), fat free mass (FFM), and fat mass (FM) were determined pre–post, and the acute reaction of erythropoietin (EPO) was tested during the intervention.

Results

In all parameters, no significant pre–post differences in mean changes (time × group effects p = 0.120 to 1.000) were found between RTH and RT within the age groups. However, within the four groups, isolated significant improvements (p < 0.050) of the single groups were observed regarding the muscular strength of the legs and the cardiopulmonary capacity.

Discussion

Although the hypoxic dose and the exercise variables of the resistance training in this study were based on the current recommendations of RTH, the RTH design used had no superior effect on the tested parameters in young and older people in comparison to the matched designed RT under normoxia after a 5-week intervention period. Based on previous RTH-studies as well as the knowledge about RT in general, it can be assumed that the expected higher effects of RTH can may be achieved by changing exercise variables (e.g., longer intervention period, higher loads).

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<![CDATA[Corrigendum: Association Between D-dimer and Early Adverse Events in Patients With Acute Type A Aortic Dissection Undergoing Arch Replacement and the Frozen Elephant Trunk Implantation: A Retrospective Cohort Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nbab8ab7c-fbe5-48b9-aa35-6f9655bb4fcf ]]> <![CDATA[Editorial: Optogenetics: An Emerging Approach in Cardiac Electrophysiology]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nc39b21af-8872-43a5-b271-65e097a439f1 ]]> <![CDATA[SUN-219 Electron Transport Chain Complex 2 in Mitochondrial Pregnenolone Synthesis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N511d400a-bedd-4715-98bf-4cd8c8d23fba

Abstract

The mitochondrial P450 family of enzymes (SCC), which require the electron transport chain (ETC) complexes III, IV and V, initiate steroidogenesis by cleaving the sidechain of cholesterol to synthesize steroid hormones, an essential component for mammalian survival. SCC is required for full-term gestation, and aberrant expression may cause pseudohermaphroditism, breast cancer or polycystic ovary syndrome. Complex II or succinate dehydrogenase (quinone) is shared with the TCA cycle and has no proton pumping capacity and no known role in steroid synthesis. We now show that succinate is an intermediate metabolite in the TCA cycle and plays a central role physiologically. Specifically, complex II is required for SCC activation, where the proton pump facilitates an active intermediate state conformation at the matrix, so that in the presence of succinate, ATP can add phosphate. A longer intermediate equilibrium state generates a transient stabilization to enhance the binding of phosphate anions in the presence of succinate anions, resulting in higher enthalpy and activity. An inhibition of the processing at the intermediate state stops phosphate addition and activity. We further describe that phosphate circulation brings the molten globule, an intermediate, to an active folded state. This is the first report showing that an intermediate state activated by succinate facilitates ETC complex II interaction with complexes III and IV for metabolism.

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<![CDATA[Cytokine‐induced hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell mobilization: unraveling interactions between stem cells and their niche]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N106ecc78-b1e7-4e2a-b4bd-a58b9a727793

Abstract

Peripheral blood hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), mobilized by granulocyte colony‐stimulating factor, are widely used as a source for both autologous and allogeneic stem cell transplantation. The use of mobilized HSPCs has several advantages over traditional bone marrow–derived HSPCs, including a less invasive harvesting process for the donor, higher HSPC yields, and faster hematopoietic reconstitution in the recipient. For years, the mechanisms by which cytokines and other agents mobilize HSPCs from the bone marrow were not fully understood. The field of stem cell mobilization research has advanced significantly over the past decade, with major breakthroughs in the elucidation of the complex mechanisms that underlie stem cell mobilization. In this review, we provide an overview of the events that underlie HSPC mobilization and address the relevant cellular and molecular components of the bone marrow niche. Furthermore, current and future mobilizing agents will be discussed.

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<![CDATA[Ion currents, action potentials, and noradrenergic responses in rat pulmonary vein and left atrial cardiomyocytes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N5e39273d-3d5f-4798-b32f-9d538692cb8c

Abstract

The electrophysiological properties of pulmonary vein (PV)‐cardiomyocytes, and their responses to the sympathetic neurotransmitter, noradrenaline (NA), are thought to differ from those of the left atrium (LA) and contribute to atrial ectopy. The aim of this study was to examine rat PV cardiomyocyte electrophysiology and responses to NA in comparison with LA cells. LA and PV cardiomyocytes were isolated from adult male Wistar rat hearts, and membrane potentials and ion currents recorded at 36°C using whole‐cell patch‐clamp techniques. PV and LA cardiomyocytes did not differ in size. In control, there were no differences between the two cell‐types in zero‐current potential or action potential duration (APD) at 1 Hz, although the incidence of early afterdepolarizations (EADs) was greater in PV than LA cardiomyocytes. The L‐type Ca2+ current (I CaL) was ~×1.5 smaller (p = .0029, Student's t test) and the steady‐state K+ current (I Kss) was ~×1.4 larger (p = .0028, Student's t test) in PV than in LA cardiomyocytes. PV cardiomyocyte inward‐rectifier current (I K1) was slightly smaller than LA cardiomyocyte I K1. In LA cardiomyocytes, NA significantly prolonged APD30. In PV cells, APD30 responses to 1 μM NA were heterogeneous: while the mean percentage change in APD30 was not different from 0 (16.5 ± 9.7%, n cells/N animals = 12/10, p = .1177, one‐sample t test), three cells showed shortening (‐18.8 ± 6.0%) whereas nine showed prolongation (28.3 ± 10.1%, p = .008, Student's t test). NA had no effect on I K1 in either cell‐type but inhibited PV I Kss by 41.9 ± 4.1% (n/N = 23/11 p < .0001), similar to LA cells. NA increased I CaL in most PV cardiomyocytes (median × 2.2‐increase, p < .0001, n/N = 32/14, Wilcoxon‐signed‐rank test), although in 7/32 PV cells I CaL was decreased following NA. PV cardiomyocytes differ from LA cells and respond heterogeneously to NA.

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<![CDATA[Impact of Ice Slurry Ingestion During Break-Times on Repeated-Sprint Exercise in the Heat]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N4803c751-34ee-4b32-b63e-5a1f5e8c6b04

The study aimed to investigate the effects of ice slurry ingestion during break times and half-time (HT) on repeated-sprint performance and core temperature in the heat. Seven males performed two different trials as follows: ice slurry (−1°C) or room temperature water ingestion at each break and HT break at 36.5°C, 50% relative humidity. Participants performed 30 sets of 1-min periods of repeated- sprint exercises protocol using a cycling ergometer. Each period consisted of 5 sec of maximal pedaling, 25 sec of pedaling with no workload, and 30 sec of rest; two sets of exercise periods were separated by 10 min of rest. Each break was implemented for 1 min after every 5 sets. The rectal temperature in ice slurry ingestion was significantly lower than that of the room temperature water at 45 set (p=0.04). Total and mean work done was greater in ice slurry ingestion compared to room temperature water ingestion (p < 0.05). These results suggested that ice slurry ingestion during break times and HT break may be an effective cooling strategy to attenuate the rise of core temperature in the second half of exercise and improve the repeated-sprint exercise capacity in the heat.

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<![CDATA[Extending thermotolerance to tomato seedlings by inoculation with SA1 isolate of Bacillus cereus and comparison with exogenous humic acid application]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N5b151d82-6b14-4a7f-beb8-82f649a56498

Heat stress is one of the major abiotic stresses that impair plant growth and crop productivity. Plant growth-promoting endophytic bacteria (PGPEB) and humic acid (HA) are used as bio-stimulants and ecofriendly approaches to improve agriculture crop production and counteract the negative effects of heat stress. Current study aimed to analyze the effect of thermotolerant SA1 an isolate of Bacillus cereus and HA on tomato seedlings. The results showed that combine application of SA1+HA significantly improved the biomass and chlorophyll fluorescence of tomato plants under normal and heat stress conditions. Heat stress increased abscisic acid (ABA) and reduced salicylic acid (SA) content; however, combined application of SA1+HA markedly reduced ABA and increased SA. Antioxidant enzymes activities revealed that SA1 and HA treated plants exhibited increased levels of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and reduced glutathione (GSH). In addition, heat stress markedly reduced the amino acid contents; however, the amino acids were increased with co-application of SA1+HA. Similarly, inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometry results showed that plants treated with SA1+HA exhibited significantly higher iron (Fe+), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K+) uptake during heat stress. Heat stress increased the relative expression of SlWRKY33b and autophagy-related (SlATG5) genes, whereas co-application of SA1+HA augmented the heat stress response and reduced SlWRKY33b and SlATG5 expression. The heat stress-responsive transcription factor (SlHsfA1a) and high-affinity potassium transporter (SlHKT1) were upregulated in SA1+HA-treated plants. In conclusion, current findings suggest that co-application with SA1+HA can be used for the mitigation of heat stress damage in tomato plants and can be commercialized as a biofertilizer.

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<![CDATA[Increased Iron Status during a Feeding Trial of Iron-Biofortified Beans Increases Physical Work Efficiency in Rwandan Women]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N1ff71a67-609b-48a5-95f0-ff460c50dd90

ABSTRACT

Background

Iron-biofortified staple foods can improve iron status and resolve iron deficiency. However, whether improved iron status from iron biofortification can improve physical performance remains unclear.

Objective

This study aimed to examine whether changes in iron status from an iron-biofortified bean intervention affect work efficiency.

Methods

A total of 125 iron-depleted (ferritin <20 μg/L) female Rwandan university students (18–26 y) were selected from a larger sample randomly assigned to consume iron-biofortified beans (Fe-Bean; 86.1 mg Fe/kg) or conventional beans (control: 50.6 mg Fe/kg) twice daily for 18 wk (average of 314 g beans consumed/d). Blood biomarkers of iron status (primary outcome) and physical work efficiency (secondary outcome) were measured before and after the intervention. Work performed was assessed during 5-min steady-state periods at 0-, 25-, and 40-W workloads using a mechanically braked cycle ergometer. Work efficiency was calculated at 25 W and 40 W as the work accomplished divided by the energy expended at that workload above that expended at 0 W. General linear models were used to evaluate the relation between changes in iron status biomarkers and work efficiency.

Results

The Fe-Bean intervention had significant positive effects on hemoglobin, serum ferritin, and body iron stores but did not affect work efficiency. However, 18-wk change in hemoglobin was positively related to work efficiency at 40 W in the full sample (n = 119; estimate: 0.24 g/L; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.48 g/L; P = 0.044) and among women who were anemic (hemoglobin <120 g/L) at baseline (n = 43; estimate: 0.64 g/L; 95% CI: 0.05, 1.23 g/L; P = 0.036). Among women who were nonanemic at baseline, change in serum ferritin was positively related to change in work efficiency at 40 W (n = 60; estimate: 0.50 μg/L; 95% CI: 0.06, 0.95 μg/L; P = 0.027).

Conclusions

Increasing iron status during an iron-biofortified bean feeding trial improves work efficiency in iron-depleted, sedentary women. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01594359.

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<![CDATA[Effect of somatic maturity on the aerobic and anaerobic adaptations to sprint interval training]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nee9d9b91-1e50-4da1-ad79-8a26873d15df

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to assess the maturity‐related differences in the aerobic and anaerobic adaptations to sprint interval training (SIT) among youth male athletes. Twenty‐seven youth male athletes were assessed for years from peak height velocity (PHV) and classified into prepubescent (PRE, n = 7, years from PHV = −2.21 ± 0.47 years), peripubescent (PERI, n = 10, years from PHV = 0.25 ± 0.88 years), and postpubescent (POST, n = 10, years from PHV = 2.81 ± 0.50 years) groups based on their years from estimated peak height velocity. Participants completed a ramp exercise protocol on a cycle ergometer to determine maximal aerobic power, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2peak), and fatigue thresholds. Following baseline, all participants completed a 4‐week SIT program that consisted of eight total training sessions. During each session, participants completed repeated 20‐s sprints on a cycle ergometer against a resistance of 7.5% of body mass. The number of sprints per sessions increased from four in session 1 to seven in session 7, with four sprints in session 8. Peak and mean power from sessions 1 and 8 were recorded. All participants completed a post‐testing ramp exercise protocol that mirrored baseline. Maximal aerobic power increased (p < .001) across all groups from baseline (212.61 ± 57.45 W) to post‐testing (223.24 ± 58.90 W); however, VO2peak only increased in POST (3.31 ± 0.43 to 3.54 ± 0.43 L min−1, p = .003). Similarly, GET, VT, and RCP increased in POST, with no changes in PRE or PERI. In terms of anaerobic performance, PERI and POST had significant increases in peak and mean power. POST improved aerobic and anaerobic performance following SIT, while PERI only experienced improvements in anaerobic performance. Conversely, PRE had no changes in aerobic or anaerobic performance. The adaptations to SIT appear to be influenced by the somatic maturity status.

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<![CDATA[The effect of age on cerebral blood flow responses during repeated and sustained stand to sit transitions]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N46a0a1ad-3e5c-4518-a1d1-64ffcaeedb87

Abstract

Introduction

Aging is associated with impaired cerebrovascular blood flow and function, attributed to reduced vasodilatory capacity of the cerebrovascular network. Older adults may also have an impaired relationship between changes in blood pressure and cerebral blood flow; however, previous reports conflict. This study aimed to compare the blood pressure and cerebral blood flow responses to both repeated and sustained stand‐to‐sit transitions in young and older adults, and to assess the relationship with cerebrovascular reactivity.

Methods

In 20 young (age: 24 ± 4 years) and 20 older (age: 71 ± 7 years) adults we compared middle cerebral artery flow velocity (MCAv), end‐tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PETCO2), and blood pressure (mean arterial blood pressure [MAP]) during repeated stand‐to‐sit (10 s standing and 10 s sitting) and sustained stand‐to‐sit (3 min standing followed by 2 min sitting) transitions. Cerebrovascular reactivity to changes in carbon dioxide levels was assessed using a repeated breath‐hold test.

Results

The % change in MCAv per % change in MAP (%∆MCAv/%∆MAP) was higher in the older adults than in the young adults during repeated stand‐to‐sit transitions. During the sustained protocol the %∆MCAv/%∆MAP response was similar in both age groups. A high %∆MCAv/%∆MAP response during the repeated stand‐to‐sit protocol was associated with low cerebrovascular reactivity to CO2 (r = −.39; p < .01), which was significantly lower in the older adults.

Conclusion

These findings suggest that the higher %∆MCAv/%∆MAP during repeated stand–sit transitions was associated with impaired cerebrovascular reactivity. Impairments in endothelial function and vascular stiffness with age may contribute to the altered transient cerebral pressure–flow responses in older adults.

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<![CDATA[Changes in strength and power performance and serum hormone concentrations during 12 weeks of task‐specific or strength training in conscripts]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Na43b4246-7b22-450e-9ad9-3ec7b3f4d206

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of two different training programs on strength and power performance and serum hormone concentrations. A total of 104 male soldiers volunteered and took part in the 12‐week training period with baseline, mid‐, and post‐measurements of body composition, muscle strength, lower and upper body power, and blood samples to determine serum hormone concentrations. The mean (±SD) age of subjects was 20 ± 1 years, height 180 ± 6 cm and body mass 72.4 ± 8.8 kg. The subjects were divided into three different training groups: soldier task‐specific training (TS), strength training (ST), and control (CON). Each group had a total of 18 training sessions during the 12‐week study. In the muscle strength tests, most improvements could be observed in the TS and ST groups, especially, during the first weeks of the training period. Maximal isometric leg extension force increased significantly by 7.9 ± 12.2% (p < .05) in the TS and 7.1 ± 12.6% (p < .05) in the ST groups between the PRE and MID, as well as between the PRE and POST measurements by 8.1 ± 12.4% (p < .05) in TS and 12.3 ± 15.3% (p < .01) in ST. Serum TES concentration increased significantly in TS between the PRE and MID (16.8 ± 33.9%) and PRE and POST (11.2 ± 16.7%) measurements. Serum COR concentrations decreased in TS between the MID and POST (−7.8 ± 10.9%) and PRE and POST (−11.0 ± 14.3%) measurements. Although the differences observed were rather minor in magnitude, training in the TS and ST groups led to greater improvements in muscle strength and power performance compared to the training in the CON group. The development of strength and/or power of the lower and upper body was greater in the TS and ST groups, which is crucial for warfighter's performance. Therefore, it is important to have a structured resistance‐training program during military training to optimize the strength, power, and military‐specific performance.

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<![CDATA[Metabolic changes during pregnancy in glucose‐intolerant NZO mice: A polygenic model with prediabetic metabolism]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N7d1aff3c-4c37-44e4-a38a-f0102ec2938b

Abstract

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a complex metabolic disease involving genetic and environmental factors. Recent studies have underlined its heterogeneity, so it is reasonable to divide patients into subpopulations depending on whether an insulin secretion or sensitivity defect is predominant. Since testing for GDM is usually performed in the second trimester, misinterpretation of prediabetes as gestational diabetes may occur. As with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), rodent models are needed for both GDM and prediabetes, but few do exist. Here, we compared the metabolic changes in pregnant normal NMRI mice with those in New Zealand obese (NZO) mice. Male animals of this strain are an established model of T2DM, whereas female mice of this strain are protected from hyperglycemia and β‐cell death. We demonstrate that female NZO mice exhibited impaired glucose tolerance, preconceptional hyperinsulinemia, and hyperglucagonemia without any signs of manifest diabetes. The NZO model showed, compared with the NMRI control strain, a reduced proliferative response of the Langerhans islets during pregnancy (3.7 ± 0.4 vs. 7.2 ± 0.8% Ki‐67‐positive nuclei, p = .004). However, oral glucose tolerance tests revealed improved stimulation of insulin secretion in both strains. But this adaption was not sufficient to prevent impaired glucose tolerance in NZO mice compared with the NMRI control (p = .0002). Interestingly, glucose‐stimulated insulin secretion was blunted in isolated primary NZO islets in perifusion experiments. In summary, the NZO mouse reflects important characteristics of human GDM and prediabetes in pregnancy and serves as a model for subpopulations with early alterations in glucose metabolism and primary insulin secretion defect.

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<![CDATA[Bi-Level ventilation decreases pulmonary shunt and modulates neuroinflammation in a cardiopulmonary resuscitation model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nfc29e3d5-af29-453c-bdc8-d5378300b77b

Background

Optimal ventilation strategies during cardiopulmonary resuscitation are still heavily debated and poorly understood. So far, no convincing evidence could be presented in favour of outcome relevance and necessity of specific ventilation patterns. In recent years, alternative models to the guideline-based intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) have been proposed. In this randomized controlled trial, we evaluated a bi-level ventilation approach in a porcine model to assess possible physiological advantages for the pulmonary system as well as resulting changes in neuroinflammation compared to standard measures.

Methods

Sixteen male German landrace pigs were anesthetized and instrumented with arterial and venous catheters. Ventricular fibrillation was induced and the animals were left untreated and without ventilation for 4 minutes. After randomization, the animals were assigned to either the guideline-based group (IPPV, tidal volume 8–10 ml/kg, respiratory rate 10/min, FiO21.0) or the bi-level group (inspiratory pressure levels 15–17 cmH2O/5cmH2O, respiratory rate 10/min, FiO21.0). Mechanical chest compressions and interventional ventilation were initiated and after 5 minutes, blood samples, including ventilation/perfusion measurements via multiple inert gas elimination technique, were taken. After 8 minutes, advanced life support including adrenaline administration and defibrillations were started for up to 4 cycles. Animals achieving ROSC were monitored for 6 hours and lungs and brain tissue were harvested for further analyses.

Results

Five of the IPPV and four of the bi-level animals achieved ROSC. While there were no significant differences in gas exchange or hemodynamic values, bi-level treated animals showed less pulmonary shunt directly after ROSC and a tendency to lower inspiratory pressures during CPR. Additionally, cytokine expression of tumour necrosis factor alpha was significantly reduced in hippocampal tissue compared to IPPV animals.

Conclusion

Bi-level ventilation with a constant positive end expiratory pressure and pressure-controlled ventilation is not inferior in terms of oxygenation and decarboxylation when compared to guideline-based IPPV ventilation. Additionally, bi-level ventilation showed signs for a potentially ameliorated neurological outcome as well as less pulmonary shunt following experimental resuscitation. Given the restrictions of the animal model, these advantages should be further examined.

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<![CDATA[The left ventricle undergoes biomechanical and gene expression changes in response to increased right ventricular pressure overload]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N51034a10-0d22-497f-84f8-cbd530e51603

Abstract

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) results in right ventricular (RV) pressure overload and eventual failure. Current research efforts have focused on the RV while overlooking the left ventricle (LV), which is responsible for mechanically assisting the RV during contraction. The objective of this study is to evaluate the biomechanical and gene expression changes occurring in the LV due to RV pressure overload in a mouse model. Nine male mice were divided into two groups: (a) pulmonary arterial banding (PAB, N = 4) and (b) sham surgery (Sham, N = 5). Tagged and steady‐state free precision cardiac MRI was performed on each mouse at 1, 4, and 7 weeks after surgery. At/week7, the mice were euthanized following right/left heart catheterization with RV/LV tissue harvested for histology and gene expression (using RT‐PCR) studies. Compared to Sham mice, the PAB group revealed a significantly decreased LV and RV ejection fraction, and LV maximum torsion and torsion rate, within the first week after banding. In the PAB group, there was also a slight but significant increase in LV perivascular fibrosis, which suggests elevated myocardial stress. LV fibrosis was also accompanied with changes in gene expression in the hypertensive group, which was correlated with LV contractile mechanics. In fact, principal component (PC) analysis of LV gene expression effectively separated Sham and PAB mice along PC2. Changes in LV contractile mechanics were also significantly correlated with unfavorable changes in RV contractile mechanics, but a direct causal relationship was not established. In conclusion, a purely biomechanical insult of RV pressure overload resulted in biomechanical and transcriptional changes in both the RV and LV. Given that the RV relies on the LV for contractile energy assistance, considering the LV could provide prognostic and therapeutic targets for treating RV failure in PH.

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<![CDATA[Size matters: micro-evolution in Polynesian rats highlights body size changes as initial stage in evolution]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N2dd55868-5849-4fff-8cf7-11bb065f2041

Microevolutionary patterns in populations of introduced rodent species have often been the focus of analytic studies for their potential relevance to understanding vertebrate evolution. The Polynesian rat (Rattus exulans) is an excellent proxy species because of its wide geographic and temporal distribution: its native and introduced combined range spans half the globe and it has been living for at least seven centuries wherever it was introduced. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of long-term isolation (insularity; up to 4,000 years) and geographic variables on skull shape variation using geometric morphometrics. A sample of 513 specimens from 103 islands and four mainland areas was analysed. This study, to my knowledge the first to extensively sample introduced rats, analysed 59 two-dimensional landmarks on the skull. Landmarks were obtained in three separate aspects (dorsal, lateral, ventral skull view). The coordinate data were then subjected to a multivariate ordination analysis (principal components analysis, or PCA), multivariate regressions, and a canonical variates analysis (CVA). Three measures of disparity were evaluated for each view. The results show that introduced Polynesian rats evolve skull shapes that conform to the general mammalian interspecific pattern of cranial evolutionary allometry (CREA), with proportionally longer snouts in larger specimens. In addition, larger skulls are more tubular in shape than the smaller skulls, which are more balloon-shaped with a rounder and wider braincase relative to those of large skulls. This difference is also observed between the sexes (sexual dimorphism), due to the slightly larger average male size. Large, tubular skulls with long snouts are typical for Polynesia and Remote Oceania, where no native mammals occur. The greater disparity of Polynesian rats on mammal species-poor islands (’exulans-only’ region) provides further insight into how diversity may affect diversification through ecological release from predators and competitors.

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<![CDATA[Ginsenoside Rk1 is a novel inhibitor of NMDA receptors in cultured rat hippocampal neurons]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N3665ee69-5e72-484e-a183-9b4960312fc8

Background

Ginsenoside Rk1, a saponin component isolated from heat-processed Panax ginseng Meyer, has been implicated in the regulation of antitumor and anti-inflammatory activities. Although our previous studies have demonstrated that ginsenoside Rg3 significantly attenuated the activation of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) in hippocampal neurons, the effects of ginsenosides Rg5 and Rk1, which are derived from heat-mediated dehydration of ginsenoside Rg3, on neuronal NMDARs have not yet been elucidated.

Methods

We examined the regulation of NMDARs by ginsenosides Rg5 and Rk1 in cultured rat hippocampal neurons using fura-2–based calcium imaging and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings.

Results

The results from our investigation showed that ginsenosides Rg3 and Rg5 inhibited NMDARs with similar potencies. However, ginsenoside Rk1 inhibited NMDARs most effectively among the five compounds (Rg3, Rg5, Rk1, Rg5/Rk1 mixture, and protopanaxadiol) tested in cultured hippocampal neurons. Its inhibition is independent of the NMDA- and glycine-binding sites, and its action seems to involve in an interaction with the polyamine-binding site of the NMDAR channel complex.

Conclusion

Taken together, our results suggest that ginsenoside Rk1 might be a novel component contributable to the development of ginseng-based therapeutic treatments for neurodegenerative diseases.

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<![CDATA[Korean Red Ginseng extract ameliorates melanogenesis in humans and induces antiphotoaging effects in ultraviolet B–irradiated hairless mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N27cb4b33-7659-4db1-9c2b-8ac0bd58ef77

Background

Panax ginseng is a marvelous herbal remedy for all ailments of body. That may be why it is called Panax, which means “cure for all”. Melanin is a pigment that gives color to our skin; however, increased melanin production can lead to tumor formation. Human exposure to ultraviolet B radiation has increased extensively owing to the increased sunlight due to global warming. Consequently, a phenomenon called photoaging has been observed for all skin colors and types. As a result of this phenomenon, a set of enzymes called matrix metalloproteinases, which serve as degradation enzymes for extracellular matrix proteins, mainly collagen, is increased, causing depletion of collagen and resulting in early wrinkle formation.

Methods

Therefore, in our study, we used the murine melanoma cell line B16/F10 to study the inhibition of melanogenesis by Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) extract in vitro and HRM-2 hairless mice exposed to artificial ultraviolet B to examine the efficacy of KRG in vivo. We prepared a 3% red ginseng extract cream and evaluated its effects on human skin.

Results

Our results demonstrated that KRG induced potent suppression of tyrosinase activity and melanin production in B16/F10 cells; moreover, it reduced the transcription and translation of components involved in the melanin production pathway. In the in vivo experiments, KRG potently suppressed the expression of matrix metalloproteinases, reduced wrinkle formation, and inhibited collagen degradation. On human skin, ginseng cream increased skin resilience and skin moisture and enhanced skin tone.

Conclusion

Therefore, we conclude that KRG is an excellent skin whitening and antiaging product.

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