ResearchPad - Plant Science https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Editorial: Evolution of Signaling in Plant Symbioses]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nbadba3ab-fc70-4d7d-b731-454c8836516e ]]> <![CDATA[Extending thermotolerance to tomato seedlings by inoculation with SA1 isolate of Bacillus cereus and comparison with exogenous humic acid application]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N5b151d82-6b14-4a7f-beb8-82f649a56498

Heat stress is one of the major abiotic stresses that impair plant growth and crop productivity. Plant growth-promoting endophytic bacteria (PGPEB) and humic acid (HA) are used as bio-stimulants and ecofriendly approaches to improve agriculture crop production and counteract the negative effects of heat stress. Current study aimed to analyze the effect of thermotolerant SA1 an isolate of Bacillus cereus and HA on tomato seedlings. The results showed that combine application of SA1+HA significantly improved the biomass and chlorophyll fluorescence of tomato plants under normal and heat stress conditions. Heat stress increased abscisic acid (ABA) and reduced salicylic acid (SA) content; however, combined application of SA1+HA markedly reduced ABA and increased SA. Antioxidant enzymes activities revealed that SA1 and HA treated plants exhibited increased levels of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and reduced glutathione (GSH). In addition, heat stress markedly reduced the amino acid contents; however, the amino acids were increased with co-application of SA1+HA. Similarly, inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometry results showed that plants treated with SA1+HA exhibited significantly higher iron (Fe+), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K+) uptake during heat stress. Heat stress increased the relative expression of SlWRKY33b and autophagy-related (SlATG5) genes, whereas co-application of SA1+HA augmented the heat stress response and reduced SlWRKY33b and SlATG5 expression. The heat stress-responsive transcription factor (SlHsfA1a) and high-affinity potassium transporter (SlHKT1) were upregulated in SA1+HA-treated plants. In conclusion, current findings suggest that co-application with SA1+HA can be used for the mitigation of heat stress damage in tomato plants and can be commercialized as a biofertilizer.

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<![CDATA[Stomatal conductance bears no correlation with transpiration rate in wheat during their diurnal variation under high air humidity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N2197a214-d9e8-4f70-8288-b5a2d9c52a83

A good understanding of the response of photosynthesis rate (PN) and transpiration rate (Tr) to stomatal alteration during the diurnal variations is important to cumulative photosynthetic production and water loss of crops. Six wheat genotypes were studied for 2 years with pot cultivation in rain-shelter. Among different genotypes, stomatal conductance (gs) was significantly correlated with both PN and Tr. But for each genotype, though gs was significantly correlated with PN regardless of relative air humidity (RH) status and it was also significantly correlated with Tr under lower RH (LRH, 15.4%) and moderate RH (MRH, 28.3%), it was not correlated with Tr under higher RH (HRH, 36.7%) during the diurnal changes. The conditional correlation between gs and Tr of wheat evoked new thinking on the relationships among gs, PN and Tr. Path analysis was further carried out to clarify the correlations of gs with the four atmospheric factors, that of Tr with gs and the four factors and the direct and indirect effects of the factors, during their diurnal dynamic variation. The effects of these factors on gs or Tr were related to RH. All the four factors had a much higher correlation with gs under HRH than that under LRH and MRH. Air temperature (T) had a rather higher direct effect than RH and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Also, the other factors had a much higher indirect effect on gs through vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and T. Transpiration rate was highly correlated with gs under LRH and MRH, with gs having a higher direct effect on it. In comparison, Tr was not correlated with gs under HRH but highly correlated with the atmospheric factors, with T, RH, and PAR having a higher indirect effect through VPD.

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<![CDATA[Enhancing flavonoid production by promiscuous activity of prenyltransferase, BrPT2 from Boesenbergia rotunda]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N7adc3fc8-502e-4a64-99a2-eacda43411c6

Flavonoids and prenylated flavonoids are active components in medicinal plant extracts which exhibit beneficial effects on human health. Prenylated flavonoids consist of a flavonoid core with a prenyl group attached to it. This prenylation process is catalyzed by prenyltranferases (PTs). At present, only a few flavonoid-related PT genes have been identified. In this study, we aimed to investigate the roles of PT in flavonoid production. We isolated a putative PT gene (designated as BrPT2) from a medicinal ginger, Boesenbergia rotunda. The deduced protein sequence shared highest gene sequence homology (81%) with the predicted homogentisate phytyltransferase 2 chloroplastic isoform X1 from Musa acuminata subsp. Malaccensis. We then cloned the BrPT2 into pRI vector and expressed in B. rotunda cell suspension cultures via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The BrPT2-expressing cells were fed with substrate, pinostrobin chalcone, and their products were analyzed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. We found that the amount of flavonoids, namely alpinetin, pinostrobin, naringenin and pinocembrin, in BrPT2-expressing cells was higher than those obtained from the wild type cells. However, we were unable to detect any targeted prenylated flavonoids. Further in-vitro assay revealed that the reaction containing the BrPT2 protein produced the highest accumulation of pinostrobin from the substrate pinostrobin chalcone compared to the reaction without BrPT2 protein, suggesting that BrPT2 was able to accelerate the enzymatic reaction. The finding of this study implied that the isolated BrPT2 may not be involved in the prenylation of pinostrobin chalcone but resulted in high yield and production of other flavonoids, which is likely related to enzyme promiscuous activities.

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<![CDATA[Identification and expression analysis of the DREB transcription factor family in pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Na8e17d7a-5860-4c1a-80b8-007e7871d177

Background

Dehydration responsive element-binding (DREB) transcription factors play a crucial role in plant growth, development and stress responses. Although DREB genes have been characterized in many plant species, genome-wide identification of the DREB gene family has not yet been reported in pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.).

Results

Using comprehensive genome-wide screening, we identified 20 AcoDREB genes on 14 chromosomes. These were categorized into five subgroups. AcoDREBs within a group had similar gene structures and domain compositions. Using gene structure analysis, we showed that most AcoDREB genes (75%) lacked introns, and that the promoter regions of all 20 AcoDREB genes had at least one stress response-related cis-element. We identified four genes with high expression levels and six genes with low expression levels in all analyzed tissues. We detected expression changes under abiotic stress for eight selected AcoDREB genes.

Conclusions

This report presents the first genome-wide analysis of the DREB transcription factor family in pineapple. Our results provide preliminary data for future functional analysis of AcoDREB genes in pineapple, and useful information for developing new pineapple varieties with key agronomic traits such as stress tolerance.

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<![CDATA[Transient expression and purification of β-caryophyllene synthase in Nicotiana benthamiana to produce β-caryophyllene in vitro]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nc2169696-659d-42ae-9d3d-d108e0c26eb0

The sesquiterpene β-caryophyllene is an ubiquitous component in many plants that has commercially been used as an aroma in cosmetics and perfumes. Recent studies have shown its potential use as a therapeutic agent and biofuel. Currently, β-caryophyllene is isolated from large amounts of plant material. Molecular farming based on the Nicotiana benthamiana transient expression system may be used for a more sustainable production of β-caryophyllene. In this study, a full-length cDNA of a new duplicated β-caryophyllene synthase from Artemisia annua (AaCPS1) was isolated and functionally characterized. In order to produce β-caryophyllene in vitro, the AaCPS1 was cloned into a plant viral-based vector pEAQ-HT. Subsequently, the plasmid was transferred into the Agrobacterium and agroinfiltrated into N. benthamiana leaves. The AaCPS1 expression was analyzed by quantitative PCR at different time points after agroinfiltration. The highest level of transcripts was observed at 9 days post infiltration (dpi). The AaCPS1 protein was extracted from the leaves at 9 dpi and purified by cobalt–nitrilotriacetate (Co-NTA) affinity chromatography using histidine tag with a yield of 89 mg kg−1 fresh weight of leaves. The protein expression of AaCPS1 was also confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and western blot analyses. AaCPS1 protein uses farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) as a substrate to produce β-caryophyllene. Product identification and determination of the activity of purified AaCPS1 were done by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). GC–MS results revealed that the AaCPS1 produced maximum 26.5 ± 1 mg of β-caryophyllene per kilogram fresh weight of leaves after assaying with FPP for 6 h. Using AaCPS1 as a proof of concept, we demonstrate that N. benthamiana can be considered as an expression system for production of plant proteins that catalyze the formation of valuable chemicals for industrial applications.

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<![CDATA[The mitochondrial phylogeny of land plants shows support for Setaphyta under composition-heterogeneous substitution models]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N8f14fcc2-0524-4065-b708-e2a60b264d8d

Congruence among analyses of plant genomic data partitions (nuclear, chloroplast and mitochondrial) is a strong indicator of accuracy in plant molecular phylogenetics. Recent analyses of both nuclear and chloroplast genome data of land plants (embryophytes) have, controversially, been shown to support monophyly of both bryophytes (mosses, liverworts, and hornworts) and tracheophytes (lycopods, ferns, and seed plants), with mosses and liverworts forming the clade Setaphyta. However, relationships inferred from mitochondria are incongruent with these results, and typically indicate paraphyly of bryophytes with liverworts alone resolved as the earliest-branching land plant group. Here, we reconstruct the mitochondrial land plant phylogeny from a newly compiled data set. When among-lineage composition heterogeneity is accounted for in analyses of codon-degenerate nucleotide and amino acid data, the clade Setaphyta is recovered with high support, and hornworts are supported as the earliest-branching lineage of land plants. These new mitochondrial analyses demonstrate partial congruence with current hypotheses based on nuclear and chloroplast genome data, and provide further incentive for revision of how plants arose on land.

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<![CDATA[Comparative Analysis of Chitin SynthaseA dsRNA Mediated RNA Interference for Management of Crop Pests of Different Families of Lepidoptera]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N847b628b-4e37-4144-8728-11ca3883b72c

RNA interference (RNAi) is a sequence-specific down-regulation in the expression of a particular gene, induced by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Feeding of dsRNA either directly or through transgenic plants expressing dsRNA of insect genes has been proven successful against lepidopteran and coleopteran pests, establishing an additional alternative to control insect pests. Lepidopteran crop pests including Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Noctuidae), Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Crambidae), Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus) (Plutellidae), and Maruca vitrata (Fabricius) (Pyralidae) are the devastating pests of a variety of crops. To tap the potential of RNAi against insect pests, a gene coding for the key enzyme in chitin biosynthesis in arthropods, the chitin synthaseA (CHSA), has been targeted through an exogenous delivery of dsRNA and plant-mediated RNAi. The introduction of dsCHSA caused “Half ecdysis” and “Black body” type lethal phenotypes and a significant reduction in larval body weight. Subsequent RT-qPCR analysis demonstrated the down-regulation of CHSA gene transcripts from 1.38- to 8.33-fold in the four target species. Meanwhile, when S. litura larvae fed with leaves of transgenic tobacco plants expressing dsSlCHSA, the mRNA abundance of CHSA gene was significantly decreased resulting in lethal phenotypes like “Double head formation,” “Half ecdysis,” and “Black body.” In addition, abnormalities in pupal–adult and adult stage were also documented, strongly suggesting the RNAi effect of CHSA gene at late developmental stages. Overall, the results demonstrated that CHSA gene expression in Lepidopteran crop pests could be suppressed by application of dsRNA either as feeding or through transgenic crop plants.

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<![CDATA[Herbal Medicine Characterization Perspectives Using Advanced FTIR Sample Techniques – Diffuse Reflectance (DRIFT) and Photoacoustic Spectroscopy (PAS)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N32f446a0-3001-43b4-b96e-9f4c21f74a48

This study demonstrates the significant potential of the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) sampling methods: cantilever-enhanced Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR PAS) and diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (FTIR DRIFT) in the field of herbal medicines (HM). In the present work we investigated DRIFT and PAS sampling methods because they do not require sample preparation, samples may be opaque or dark, require small amounts, both liquid and solid samples can be measured, and solid samples can be analyzed on a small scale. Experiments conducted prove high sensitivity, reproducibility and capability in combination with an unsupervised multivariate analysis technique to discriminate important characteristics of HM, such as the identification of plant parts, differentiation of samples by types, and determination of the concentration of extractable compounds in HM.

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<![CDATA[Arabidopsis Lectin EULS3 Is Involved in ABA Signaling in Roots]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N9d840c2a-f8ee-43e9-aee0-9709316da2f9

The Arabidopsis thaliana lectin ArathEULS3 is upregulated in particular stress conditions and upon abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. ABA is a plant hormone important for plant growth and stress responses. During stress ABA is perceived by PYR/PYL/RCAR receptors, inhibiting protein phosphatases PP2Cs thereby enabling SNRK2s kinases to start downstream phosphorylation cascades and signaling. PYL9, one of the ABA receptors was identified as an interacting partner for ArathEULS3. Promoter::GUS activity studies revealed the expression of ArathEULS3 in the central root cylinder and the cells flanking young lateral root primordia, and showed enhanced expression in root tips after ABA treatment. Transcript levels for ArathEULS3 increased after exposure to ABA and osmotic treatments. ArathEULS3 CRISPR KO mutants served as a tool to expand the knowledge on the role of ArathEULS3 in plant development. KO lines revealed a longer root system compared to WT plants, and showed reduced sensitivity to ABA, salt, and osmotic conditions. Additionally it was noted that the KO mutants had more emerged lateral roots when grown in high osmotic conditions. Together these data suggest that ArathEULS3 may be an important player in ABA responses in roots.

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<![CDATA[Salicylic Acid Biosynthesis in Plants]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N9068d339-b0fc-40d6-a004-e0ac9ee7b09c

Salicylic acid (SA) is an important plant hormone that is best known for mediating host responses upon pathogen infection. Its role in plant defense activation is well established, but its biosynthesis in plants is not fully understood. SA is considered to be derived from two possible pathways; the ICS and PAL pathway, both starting from chorismate. The importance of both pathways for biosynthesis differs between plant species, rendering it hard to make generalizations about SA production that cover the entire plant kingdom. Yet, understanding SA biosynthesis is important to gain insight into how plant pathogen responses function and how pathogens can interfere with them. In this review, we have taken a closer look at how SA is synthesized and the importance of both biosynthesis pathways in different plant species.

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<![CDATA[Progress of Research on the Regulatory Pathway of the Plant Shade-Avoidance Syndrome]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N1f460320-99f3-4fec-9dfd-deed0a64d869

When subject to vegetational shading, shade-avoiding plants detect neighbors by perceiving reduced light quantity and altered light quality. The former includes decreases in the ratio of red to far-red wavelengths (low R:FR) and low blue light ratio (LBL) predominantly detected by phytochromes and cryptochromes, respectively. By integrating multiple signals, plants generate a suite of responses, such as elongation of a variety of organs, accelerated flowering, and reduced branching, which are collectively termed the shade-avoidance syndrome (SAS). To trigger the SAS, interactions between photoreceptors and phytochrome-interacting factors are the general switch for activation of downstream signaling pathways. A number of transcription factor families and phytohormones, especially auxin, gibberellins, ethylene, and brassinosteroids, are involved in the SAS processes. In this review, shade signals, the major photoreceptors involved, and the phenotypic characteristics of the shade-intolerant plant Arabidopsis thaliana are described in detail. In addition, integration of the signaling mechanisms that link photoreceptors with multiple hormone signaling pathways is presented and future research directions are discussed.

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<![CDATA[The Role of Transcriptional Regulation in Hybrid Vigor]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N878b1fa5-5296-43f3-ad63-6959b86a9b82

The genetic basis of hybrid vigor in plants remains largely unsolved but strong evidence suggests that variation in transcriptional regulation can explain many aspects of this phenomenon. Natural variation in transcriptional regulation is highly abundant in virtually all species and thus a potential source of heterotic variability. Allele Specific Expression (ASE), which is tightly linked to parent of origin effects and modulated by complex interactions in cis and in trans, is generally considered to play a key role in explaining the differences between hybrids and parental lines. Here we discuss the recent developments in elucidating the role of transcriptional variation in a number of aspects of hybrid vigor, thereby bridging old paradigms and hypotheses with contemporary research in various species.

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<![CDATA[A Commonly Used Photosynthetic Inhibitor Fails to Block Electron Flow to Photosystem I in Intact Systems]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nbc353fd0-c46e-49f9-a34c-502bef1cc906

In plant science, 2,4-dinitrophenylether of iodonitrothymol (DNP-INT) is frequently used as an alternative to 2,5-dibromo-6-isopropyl-3-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone (DBMIB) to examine the capacity of plastoquinol and semiquinone to reduce O2. DNP-INT is considered to be an effective inhibitor of the photosynthetic electron transfer chain (PETC) through its binding at the Q0 site of Cyt-b6f. The binding and action of DNP-INT has been previously characterized spectroscopically in purified Cyt-b6f complex reconstituted with Plastocyanin, PSII membranes and plastoquinone, as well as in isolated thylakoids based on its property to block MV-mediated O2 consumption. Contrary to the conclusions obtained from these experiments, we observed clear reduction of P700+ in samples incubated with DNP-INT during our recent investigation into the sites of oxygen consumption in isolated thylakoids. Therefore, we carried out an extensive investigation of DNP-INT’s chemical efficacy in isolated thylakoids and intact leaves. This included examination of its capacity to block the PETC before PSI, and therefore its inhibition of CO2 fixation. P700 redox kinetics were measured using Dual-PAM whilst Membrane Inlet Mass Spectrometry (MIMS) was used for simultaneous determination of the rates of O2 evolution and O2 consumption in isolated thylakoids and CO2 fixation in intact leaves, using two stable isotopes of oxygen (16O2, 18O2) and CO2 (12C, 13C), respectively. Based on these investigations we confirmed that DNP-INT is unable to completely block the PETC and CO2 fixation, therefore its use may produce artifacts if applied to isolated thylakoids or intact cells, especially when determining the locations of reactive oxygen species formation in the photosynthetic apparatus.

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<![CDATA[Developmental, Morphological and Physiological Traits in Plants Exposed for Five Generations to Chronic Low-Level Ionising Radiation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N25fd4b4f-9dec-4af8-83a0-c2fcb2a46ea2

The effects of ionising radiation (IR) on plants are important for environmental protection but also in agriculture, horticulture, space science, and plant stress biology. Much current understanding of the effects of IR on plants derives from acute high-dose studies but exposure to IR in the environment frequently occurs at chronic low dose rates. Chronic low dose-rate studies have primarily been field based and examined genetic or cytogenetic endpoints. Here we report research that investigated developmental, morphological and physiological effects of IR on Arabidopsis thaliana grown over 7 generations and exposed for five generations to chronic low doses of either 137Cs (at a dose rate of c. 40 μGy/h from β/γ emissions) or 10 μM CdCl2. In some generations there were significant differences between treatments in the timing of key developmental phases and in leaf area or symmetry but there were, on the basis of the chosen endpoints, no long-term effects of the different treatments. Occasional measurements also detected no effects on root growth, seed germination rates or redox poise but in the generation in which it was measured exposure to IR did decrease DNA-methylation significantly. The results are consistent with the suggestion that chronic exposure to c. 40 μGy/h can have some effects on some traits but that this does not affect function across multiple generations at the population level. This is explained by the redundancy and/or degeneracy between biological levels of organization in plants that produces a relatively loose association between genotype and phenotype. The importance of this explanation to understanding plant responses to stressors such as IR is discussed. We suggest that the data reported here provide increased confidence in the Derived Consideration Reference Levels (DCRLs) recommended by the International Commission for Radiological Protection (ICRP) by providing data from controlled conditions and helping to contextualize effects reported from field studies. The differing sensitivity of plants to IR is not well understood and further investigation of it would likely improve the use of DCRLs for radiological protection.

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<![CDATA[An Update on Nitric Oxide Production and Role Under Phosphorus Scarcity in Plants]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nb4c76013-5b00-46b1-8f40-ff70d727aa8c

Phosphate (P) is characterized by its low availability and restricted mobility in soils, and also by a high redistribution capacity inside plants. In order to maintain P homeostasis in nutrient restricted conditions, plants have developed mechanisms which enable P acquisition from the soil solution, and an efficient reutilization of P already present in plant cells. Nitric oxide (NO) is a bioactive molecule with a plethora of functions in plants. Its endogenous synthesis depends on internal and environmental factors, and is closely tied with nitrogen (N) metabolism. Furthermore, there is evidence demonstrating that N supply affects P homeostasis and that P deficiency impacts on N assimilation. This review will provide an overview on how NO levels in planta are affected by P deficiency, the interrelationship with N metabolism, and a summary of the current understanding about the influence of this reactive N species over the processes triggered by P starvation, which could modify P use efficiency.

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<![CDATA[Functional Imaging of Microbial Interactions With Tree Roots Using a Microfluidics Setup]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N1ee6766d-0cbc-4351-bd90-31a3a2096e72

Coupling microfluidics with microscopy has emerged as a powerful approach to study at cellular resolution the dynamics in plant physiology and root-microbe interactions (RMIs). Most devices have been designed to study the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana at higher throughput than conventional methods. However, there is a need for microfluidic devices which enable in vivo studies of root development and RMIs in woody plants. Here, we developed the RMI-chip, a simple microfluidic setup in which Populus tremuloides (aspen tree) seedlings can grow for over a month, allowing continuous microscopic observation of interactions between live roots and rhizobacteria. We find that the colonization of growing aspen roots by Pseudomonas fluorescens in the RMI-chip involves dynamic biofilm formation and dispersal, in keeping with previous observations in a different experimental set-up. Also, we find that whole-cell biosensors based on the rhizobacterium Bacillus subtilis can be used to monitor compositional changes in the rhizosphere but that the application of these biosensors is limited by their efficiency at colonizing aspen roots and persisting. These results indicate that functional imaging of dynamic root-bacteria interactions in the RMI-chip requires careful matching between the host plant and the bacterial root colonizer.

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<![CDATA[Plastome Evolution in Dolomiaea (Asteraceae, Cardueae) Using Phylogenomic and Comparative Analyses]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N6268ce61-ab22-4c88-81ff-95d8cf1666b5

Dolomiaea is a medicinally important genus of Asteraceae endemic to alpine habitats of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) and adjacent areas. Despite significant medicinal value, genomic resources of Dolomiaea are still lacking, impeding our understanding of its evolutionary history. Here, we sequenced and annotated plastomes of four Dolomiaea species. All analyzed plastomes share the gene content and structure of most Asteraceae plastomes, indicating the conservation of plastome evolutionary history of Dolomiaea. Eight highly divergent regions (rps16-trnQ, trnC-petN, trnE-rpoB, trnT-trnL-trnF, psbE-petL, ndhF-rpl32-trnL, rps15-ycf1, and ycf1), along with a total of 51–61 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified as valuable molecular markers for further species delimitation and population genetic studies. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the evolutionary position of Dolomiaea as a clade within the subtribe Saussureinae, while revealing the discordance between the molecular phylogeny and morphological treatment. Our analysis also revealed that the plastid genes, rpoC2 and ycf1, which are rarely used in Asteraceae phylogenetic inference, exhibit great phylogenetic informativeness and promise in further phylogenetic studies of tribe Cardueae. Analysis for signatures of selection identified four genes that contain sites undergoing positive selection (atpA, ndhF, rbcL, and ycf4). These genes may play important roles in the adaptation of Dolomiaea to alpine environments. Our study constitutes the first investigation on the sequence and structural variation, phylogenetic utility and positive selection of plastomes of Dolomiaea, which will facilitate further studies of its taxonomy, evolution and conservation.

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<![CDATA[Amplifier Hosts May Play an Essential Role in Tomato Begomovirus Epidemics in Brazil]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N0faf7580-86c5-4886-bfd1-f58f5ce030e3

Current control of tomato golden mosaic disease, caused in Brazil predominantly by tomato severe rugose virus (ToSRV), is dependent on both, planting resistant/tolerant hybrids and intensive insecticide sprays (two to three per week) for controlling Bemisia tabaci, the vector of ToSRV. Resistant hybrids only confer moderate resistance to infection by ToSRV and some tolerance to the disease. Insecticide sprays, although widely used, have failed in most tomato production areas in Brazil, as they are unable to reduce primary spread, i.e., infection caused by the influx of viruliferous whiteflies coming from external sources of inoculum. Severe epidemics are recurrently observed in some tomato fields in several Brazilian regions, which prompted us to postulate the existence in the agroecosystem, in some places and time, of amplifier hosts that provide the necessary force of infection for epidemics to occur, even in the absence of secondary spread in the target crop. Amplifier hosts are ideally asymptomatic, occur in high density near the target crop, and support growth of both virus and vector. Soybean and common bean are potential amplifier hosts for begomovirus in tomato crops. Our results support the hypothesis that soybean plants may play an important role as an amplifier host of ToSRV for tomato crops in the field, although this does not seem to be a frequent phenomenon. Successful amplification will depend on several factors, including the soybean cultivar, the soybean stage of development at the moment of infection, the ToSRV isolate, and the perfect synchrony between the beginning of a soybean field and the end of a ToSRV-infected crop, and, later, between the senescence of the ToSRV-infected soybean plants and the new tomato crop. The concept of amplifier hosts has been widely used in ecology of zoonoses but, to our knowledge, has never been used in botanical epidemiology.

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<![CDATA[Over-Expression of a 14-3-3 Protein From Foxtail Millet Improves Plant Tolerance to Salinity Stress in Arabidopsis thaliana]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N093b3a1f-e7d0-40fd-93c2-310f1f5a0c63

In plants, 14-3-3 proteins are recognized as mediators of signal transduction and function in both development and stress response. However, there are only a few preliminary functional researches in the C4 crop foxtail millet. Here, phylogenetic analysis categorized foxtail millet 14-3-3s (SiGRFs) into 10 discrete groups (Clusters I to X). Transcriptome and qPCR analyses showed that all the SiGRFs responded to at least one abiotic stress. All but one SiGRF-overexpressing (OE) Arabidopsis thaliana line (SiGRF1) exhibited insensitivity to abiotic stresses during seed germination and seedling growth. Compared with the Col-0 wild-type, SiGRF1-OEs had slightly lower germination rates and smaller leaves. However, flowering time of SiGRF1-OEs occurred earlier than that of Col-0 under high-salt stress. Interaction of SiGRF1 with a foxtail millet E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase (SiRNF1/2) indicates that the proteinase system might hydrolyze SiGRF1. Further investigation showed that SiGRF1 localized in the cytoplasm, and its gene was ubiquitously expressed in various tissues throughout various developmental stages. Additionally, flowering-related genes, WRKY71, FLOWERING LOCUS T, LEAFY, and FRUITFULL, in SiGRF1-OEs exhibited considerably higher expression levels than those in Col-0 under salinity-stressed conditions. Results suggest that SiGRF1 hastens flowering, thereby providing a means for foxtail millet to complete its life cycle and avoid further salt stress.

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