ResearchPad - Psychology https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Secondary Emotional Reactions to the COVID-19 Outbreak Should Be Identified and Treated in Korea]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N783bdf32-1243-42fa-9d1f-c5fe03131fda <![CDATA[Developing Interpreting Competence Scales in China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nacb3a8ce-c98b-4d63-be75-cfded01f8bff <![CDATA[Anterior and Posterior Left Inferior Frontal Gyrus Contribute to the Implementation of Grammatical Determiners During Language Production]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Ne690835d-910e-4bf1-b2e4-2f8ae7ca1492 <![CDATA[The Effect of Domestication and Experience on the Social Interaction of Dogs and Wolves With a Human Companion]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N44821cba-47d4-442a-bc2f-fa0cee6326c8 <![CDATA[Where Is the Action in Perception? An Exploratory Study With a Haptic Sensory Substitution Device]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N8e5b4f09-563c-4285-a5fb-ed308e2923f3

Enactive cognitive science (ECS) and ecological psychology (EP) agree that active movement is important for perception, but they remain ambiguous regarding the precise role of agency. EP has focused on the notion of sensorimotor invariants, according to which bodily movements play an instrumental role in perception. ECS has focused on the notion of sensorimotor contingencies, which goes beyond an instrumental role because skillfully regulated movements are claimed to play a constitutive role. We refer to these two hypotheses as instrumental agency and constitutive agency, respectively. Evidence comes from a variety of fields, including neural, behavioral, and phenomenological research, but so far with confounds that prevent an experimental distinction between these hypotheses. Here we advance the debate by proposing a novel double-participant setup that aims to isolate agency as the key variable that distinguishes bodily movement in active and passive conditions of perception. We pilot this setup with a psychological study of width discrimination using the Enactive Torch, a haptic sensory substitution device. There was no evidence favoring the stronger hypothesis of constitutive agency over instrumental agency. However, we caution that during debriefing several participants reported using cognitive strategies that did not rely on spatial perception. We conclude that this approach is a viable direction for future research, but that greater care is required to establish and confirm the desired modality of first-person experience.

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<![CDATA[Editorial: Interactions Between Education, Practice of Physical Activity and Psychological Well-Being]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N23627a0a-75c2-4ce5-a4dc-f296127599a1 ]]> <![CDATA[The Social Origin of the Concept of Truth – How Statements Are Built on Disagreements]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N1d0a390a-c211-4642-94b6-de34cdd5566f

This paper proposes a social account for the origin of the truth value and the emergence of the first declarative sentence. Such a proposal is based on two assumptions. The first is known as the social intelligence hypothesis: that the cognitive evolution of humans is first and foremost an adaptation to social demands. The second is the function-first approach to explaining the evolution of traits: before a prototype of a new trait develops and the adaptation process begins, something already existing is used for a new purpose. Applied to the emergence of declarative sentences, this suggests something already existing—natural signs (which have a logical or causal relation to what they denote)—were used for the declarative function and thereby integrated (in the form of indexical objects implying a past action) into communication. I show that the display of an indexical object (such as the display of hunting trophies) can imply a conceptual structure similar to that informing the syntax of sentences. The view developed in this paper is broadly consistent with the argumentative theory of Mercier and Sperber, which suggests that reasoning is less adapted to decision making than to social purposes such as winning disputes or justifying one’s actions. In this paper I extend this view to the origin of the concept of truth. According to my proposal, the first declarative sentence (articulated in a simple sign language) emerged as a negation of a negation of an implicit statement expressed by the display of an indexical object referring to a past action. Thereby, I suggest that the binary structure of the truth value underlying any declarative sentence is founded on disagreements based on conflicts of interest. Thus, I deny that the concept of truth could have evolved for instrumental reasons such as solving problems, or through self-questioning about what one ought to believe.

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<![CDATA[Commentary: Differences of Perceived Image Generated through the Web Site: Empirical Evidence Obtained in Spanish Destinations]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N802038cf-fa4f-417c-bde7-7b07d3a2bb79 ]]> <![CDATA[Editorial: Culture, Self, and Autonomy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N6473a7e3-3ebc-49b7-a2b4-9452f9a0308f ]]> <![CDATA[Self-Managed Leisure, Satisfaction, and Benefits Perceived by Disabled Youth in Northern Spain]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N73a6c4ec-85c2-42d1-88ee-0e666e1c0e75

Positive leisure is widely accepted as contributing to the development of self-autonomy and well-being of young people during their transition to adulthood (Glendenning et al., 2003; Coleman, 2011). However, there has been little research on these issues among young people with disabilities. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between self-managed leisure, satisfaction with leisure, and emotional, cognitive, and behavioral benefits as perceived by young people with disabilities. The sample consisted of 400 young people (48.8% female) with disabilities (hearing, physical, intellectual, and visual), aged between 15 and 29 years, who live in the Basque region of northern Spain. Results revealed the following conclusions. First, gender and type of disability relate to the degree of self-management associated with leisure. Second, there was a significant association between the degree of satisfaction with leisure and level of self-management associated with leisure and this relationship varied by disability type but not gender. Third, leisure independently organized by young people (self-managed) was associated with higher perceived psychological benefits (emotional and cognitive) connected with their leisure engagement.

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<![CDATA[The Language of Innovation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nb83146fc-3c9c-477e-ac2c-85cafd261eee

Predicting innovation is a peculiar problem in data science. Following its definition, an innovation is always a never-seen-before event, leaving no room for traditional supervised learning approaches. Here we propose a strategy to address the problem in the context of innovative patents, by defining innovations as never-seen-before associations of technologies and exploiting self-supervised learning techniques. We think of technological codes present in patents as a vocabulary and the whole technological corpus as written in a specific, evolving language. We leverage such structure with techniques borrowed from Natural Language Processing by embedding technologies in a high dimensional euclidean space where relative positions are representative of learned semantics. Proximity in this space is an effective predictor of specific innovation events, that outperforms a wide range of standard link-prediction metrics. The success of patented innovations follows a complex dynamics characterized by different patterns which we analyze in details with specific examples. The methods proposed in this paper provide a completely new way of understanding and forecasting innovation, by tackling it from a revealing perspective and opening interesting scenarios for a number of applications and further analytic approaches.

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<![CDATA[Dataset of Vietnamese student's learning habits during COVID-19]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N0e56c822-5535-4393-93ce-bfaaf809e1f7

A dataset was constructed to examine Vietnamese student's learning habits during the time schools were suspended due to the novel coronavirus - SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19), in response to a call for interdisciplinary research on the potential effects of the coronavirus pandemic (Elsevier, 2020). The questionnaires were spread over a network of educational communities on Facebook from February 7 to February 28, 2020. Using the snowball sampling method, researchers delivered the survey to teachers and parents to provide formal consent before they forwarded it to their students and children. In order to measure the influence of students’ socioeconomic status and occupational aspirations on their learning habits during school closures, the survey included three major groups of questions: (1) Individual demographics, including family socioeconomic status, school type, and occupational aspirations; (2) Student's learning habits, including hours of learning before and during the period of school suspension, with and without other people's support; and (3) Students’ perceptions of their self-learning during the school closures. There was a total of 920 clicks on the survey link, but only 460 responses accompanied by consent forms were received. Non-credible answers (e.g., year of birth after 2009, more than 20 hours of learning per day) were eliminated. The final dataset included 420 valid observations.

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<![CDATA[School self-efficacy is affected by gender and motor skills: findings from an Italian study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Ndea71b36-f312-4814-b64f-69bbddd6048c

Background

Perceived school self-efficacy (SE) is an important variable in students’ activities as it affects their motivation and learning. Further, self-efficacy might represent a good predictor of performance, persistence and perseverance. Motor skills and other physical health determinants are extensively debated and linked to cognitive function in children of developmental age. However, inconclusive evidence supports a definitive relationship between perceived school SE and motor skills among schoolchildren. We conducted a cross-sectional study on 6–11-year-old schoolchildren to evaluate the extent by which perceived school SE and physical health determinants were related.

Methods

A SE questionnaire and motor performance battery tests were administered to primary school pupils recruited from 154 sampled schools of northwest Italy. Perceived SE at school was assessed via 12 items from the Caprara’s questionnaire. Motor performance scores were obtained from motor skill tests: 4 × 10 m shuttle run test, SRT; standing broad jump, SBJ; six-minute walking test, 6MWT.

Results

A total of 3,962 children (M = 2,019; F = 1943) were studied and 68% were normal weight. Overall, a 58% of the sample perceived a high SE, while, as to gender differences, a greater percentage of females perceived high levels of school SE with respect to any other level (χ2 = 38.93, p < 0.0001). Results from multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed that: (i) females perceived higher SE compared to males; (ii) children who performed better in SRT and 6MWT showed higher levels of perceived school SE; (iii) no significant effect was registered for the body weight. Alternative strategies are encouraged to enhance SE through physical education: structured interventions might enhance both complex motor skills and high-order cognitive skills, like SE, in young children.

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<![CDATA[Facial Emotion Recognition and Executive Functions in Insomnia Disorder: An Exploratory Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N9041dd5e-a28d-4079-b1ab-c211d0b45808

Background

Clinical and experimental findings suggest that insomnia is associated with changes in emotional processing and impairments in cognitive functioning. In the present study, we investigate the relationship between facial emotion recognition and executive functioning among individuals with insomnia as well as healthy controls.

Method

A total of 11 individuals (mean age 31.3 ± 9.4) diagnosed with insomnia disorder and 15 control participants (mean age 24.8 ± 4.6) took part in the study. Participants responded to a facial emotion recognition task which presented them with static and dynamic stimuli, and were evaluated with regard to cognition, sleep, and mood.

Results

Compared to controls, we found that participants with insomnia performed worse in the recognition of the facial emotion of fear (p = 0.001;ηp2 = 0.549; β = 0.999) and had lower scores in tests of verbal comprehension and perceptual organization (104.00 vs. 115.00, U = 135.5; p = 0.004; Cohen’s, 2013 d = 1.281). We also found a relationship between facial emotion recognition and performance in cognitive tests, such as those related to perceptual organization, cognitive flexibility, and working memory.

Conclusion

Results suggest that participants with insomnia may present some impairment in executive functions as well as in the recognition of facial emotions with negative valences (fear and sadness).

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<![CDATA[I Wasn’t at War With the Noise: How Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy Changes Patients’ Experiences of Tinnitus]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N495a111a-d4e2-4022-bdcf-b779778278a6

Objectives

Intrusive tinnitus is a challenging, life-changing experience for which traditional medical treatment does not yet have a cure. However, Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy for tinnitus (MBCT-t) is effective in reducing tinnitus-related distress, disability and intrusiveness. It is a priority to understand patients’ experience of MBCT-t and active processes which they regarded as underpinning the changes they experienced. Semi-structured interviews were conducted 6 months after participants had completed MBCT as part of a randomized controlled trial (RCT), with a focus on exploring their experiences of the course, what they felt had changed and how they felt such changes had occurred.

Methods

Nine participants took part and Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was used to analyze the interview transcripts.

Results

Four overarching themes emerged: (1) Relating to Tinnitus in a New Way, (2) Holistic Benefits, (3) Connection, Kindness and Compassion, and (4) Factors Supporting Engagement and Change.

Conclusion

All participants reported benefits from MBCT-t, based on a radically new relationship with tinnitus. It was no longer characterized by “fighting it” and was instead based on “allowing” tinnitus to be present. Changes were supported by the development of open, stable, present-moment awareness and attitudes of equanimity, kindness, and compassion. Practices encouraging focus on sound (including tinnitus) were challenging, but essential to learning this new way of being with tinnitus. MBCT-t had a huge range of benefits including reduced distress and enhanced wellbeing. The group nature of MBCT-t was an integral part of the therapeutic process. A number of clinical and research implications are discussed.

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<![CDATA[Mental Size Scaling of Three-Dimensional Objects Perceived Visually or Tactilely]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Ncfe66356-b9c0-4e2c-9609-b46ce2091020

The issue of pictorial or propositional nature of imagery remains unresolved. To take a step forward into the debate, we conducted a systematic evaluation of time and accuracy of mental scaling in sighted people. Participants viewed or touched three-dimensional objects and then had to imagine them in a resized version, depending on a given scale. Both the mental scaling time and the estimated object size were measured. To promote verbal or perceptual strategies, the size was estimated verbally or bimanually, respectively. It was found that time taken for mental scaling is a linear function of decreasing and increasing scale and that the modality of perception did not influence the time taken to perform the operation. The results contribute to the knowledge of object size estimation by revealing the interaction between the modality of the object perception and the accuracy of size estimation by sighted adults. The accuracy of estimation was greater when the imagery representation was based on visual rather than tactile perception, but only in the case of verbal size assessment. Verbal height estimation in centimeters showed a tendency towards underestimation, while bimanually estimated sizes tended to be overestimated. The results indicate that people can use pictorial as well as prepositional strategies, depending on the task.

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<![CDATA[Age and Sex Differences in Verbal and Visuospatial Abilities]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Na0653de7-4c54-4bf2-a4db-501febff3943

In order to explore the developmental patterns of sex differences in verbal and visuospatial abilities, the present study investigated sex differences in various cognitive abilities among children and adults. Three hundred and twenty-six children and adults completed a battery of six cognitive tasks testing two sets of abilities: The verbal cognitive battery tested verbal fluency and short-term memory tasks. The visuospatial battery tested mental rotation, localization, and form-completion tasks. Results showed a significant Sex × Age interaction on the mental rotation task, with men outperforming women in the 3D task, but with no sex differences shown in childhood in the 2D task. Sex differences in verbal fluency were found, with girls and women outperforming boys and men in this task. Findings are discussed within an integrative approach of biological as well as environmental factors.

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<![CDATA[Which Information Helps Resolve Recall Failures for Familiar People's Names?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N0068d024-f7de-4a7b-9eb0-c0f2cb6414c1

Personal names are particularly susceptible to retrieval failures. In the present paper, studies describing people’s spontaneous strategies for resolving failures in recalling personal names as well as laboratory studies of experimentally induced resolution of name recall failures are reviewed. The review indicates that people frequently use spontaneous strategies based on a search for structural, semantic, and contextual information about the target person. On the other hand, both cueing and priming experimental studies have shown that providing phonological information may help resolve a recall failure, whereas providing structural or semantic information is usually not helpful. A possible explanation of this discrepancy between the spontaneous use of semantic/contextual information and the experimentally demonstrated uselessness of this kind of information is provided. Finally, the role of syntactical similarity (belonging or not to the same part of speech) in the efficiency of phonological priming is discussed.

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<![CDATA[Free-Form Dance as an Alternative Interaction for Adult Grandchildren and Their Grandparents]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N9df69d8c-4f36-400c-8f8e-946bc133e76c

Shared leisure activities fulfill a central role in strengthening the relationship with adult grandchildren and provide a vehicle for transmission of values. Thus, it is likely that joint activity alongside support and focused guidance in communication between adult grandchildren and grandparents will help strengthen their relationship. Based on theory and research on dance/movement therapy in old age, and on development processes in the family, the aim of the present study is to discover the significance of free-form dance jointly engaged in by adult grandchildren with their grandparents, for each of the generations. Using action research, 16 dance-movement therapists and their grandmothers participated in three dance meetings in their grandmothers’ homes. Based on filmed videos of the sessions, personal diaries, and semi-structured interviews, it was found that among the granddaughters, the meeting aroused concerns about their lack of skill to create a meaningful meeting and to protect their grandmothers throughout the meeting. It was also found that regular free-form dance meetings in which the granddaughter mirrored her grandmother’s movements while suggesting expansions to the movements, encouraging eye contact, touch, and playfulness, and empowering her ability, while also granting legitimacy to rest, created a change in the grandmother’s state of mind: positive memories and feelings appeared, as did uplifted spirits. For the granddaughters, the meeting altered their perspective on old age and provided a space for processes of parting. The implications of identifying assistive components of joint dancing for creating an intervention model for adult grandchildren’s support of the elderly in the community are extensively discussed.

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<![CDATA[How Individuals With Down Syndrome Process Faces and Words Conveying Emotions? Evidence From a Priming Paradigm]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N8a689768-39d0-4482-9048-bc2bcaa98580

Emotion recognition from facial expressions and words conveying emotions is considered crucial for the development of interpersonal relations (Pochon and Declercq, 2013). Although Down syndrome (DS) has received growing attention in the last two decades, emotional development has remained underexplored, perhaps because of the stereotype of high sociability in persons with DS. Yet recently, there is some literature that is suggesting the existence of specific deficits in emotion recognition in DS. The current study aimed to expand our knowledge on how individuals with DS process emotion expressions from faces and words by adopting a powerful methodological paradigm, namely priming. The purpose is to analyse to what extent emotion recognition in DS can occur through different processes than in typical development. Individuals with DS (N = 20) were matched to a control group (N = 20) on vocabulary knowledge (PPTV) and non-verbal ability (Raven’s matrices). Subsequently a priming paradigm was adopted: stimuli were photos of faces with different facial expressions (happy, sad, neutral) and three words (happy, sad, neutral). On a computer screen the first item (face or word) was presented for a very short time (prime) and afterward a stimulus (face or word) appeared (target). Participants had to recognize whether the target was an emotion (sad/happy) or not (neutral). Four prime-target pairs were presented (face-word; word-face; word-word; face-word) in two conditions: congruent (same emotion prime/target) and incongruent (different emotion prime/target). The results failed to show evidence for differential processing during emotion recognition between the two groups matched for verbal and non-verbal abilities. Both groups showed a typical priming effect: In the incongruent condition, slower reaction times were recorded, in particular when the target to be recognized is the face, providing evidence that the stimuli were indeed processed. Overall, the data of the current work seem to support the idea of similar developmental trajectories in individuals with DS and TD of the same verbal and non-verbal level, at least as far as the processing of simple visual and linguistic stimuli conveying basic emotions is concerned. Results are interpreted in relation to recent finding on emotion recognition from faces and words in DS.

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