ResearchPad - Psychology https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Secondary Emotional Reactions to the COVID-19 Outbreak Should Be Identified and Treated in Korea]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N783bdf32-1243-42fa-9d1f-c5fe03131fda <![CDATA[Developing Interpreting Competence Scales in China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nacb3a8ce-c98b-4d63-be75-cfded01f8bff <![CDATA[Anterior and Posterior Left Inferior Frontal Gyrus Contribute to the Implementation of Grammatical Determiners During Language Production]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Ne690835d-910e-4bf1-b2e4-2f8ae7ca1492 <![CDATA[The Effect of Domestication and Experience on the Social Interaction of Dogs and Wolves With a Human Companion]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N44821cba-47d4-442a-bc2f-fa0cee6326c8 <![CDATA[Where Is the Action in Perception? An Exploratory Study With a Haptic Sensory Substitution Device]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N8e5b4f09-563c-4285-a5fb-ed308e2923f3

Enactive cognitive science (ECS) and ecological psychology (EP) agree that active movement is important for perception, but they remain ambiguous regarding the precise role of agency. EP has focused on the notion of sensorimotor invariants, according to which bodily movements play an instrumental role in perception. ECS has focused on the notion of sensorimotor contingencies, which goes beyond an instrumental role because skillfully regulated movements are claimed to play a constitutive role. We refer to these two hypotheses as instrumental agency and constitutive agency, respectively. Evidence comes from a variety of fields, including neural, behavioral, and phenomenological research, but so far with confounds that prevent an experimental distinction between these hypotheses. Here we advance the debate by proposing a novel double-participant setup that aims to isolate agency as the key variable that distinguishes bodily movement in active and passive conditions of perception. We pilot this setup with a psychological study of width discrimination using the Enactive Torch, a haptic sensory substitution device. There was no evidence favoring the stronger hypothesis of constitutive agency over instrumental agency. However, we caution that during debriefing several participants reported using cognitive strategies that did not rely on spatial perception. We conclude that this approach is a viable direction for future research, but that greater care is required to establish and confirm the desired modality of first-person experience.

]]>
<![CDATA[Editorial: Interactions Between Education, Practice of Physical Activity and Psychological Well-Being]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N23627a0a-75c2-4ce5-a4dc-f296127599a1 ]]> <![CDATA[The Social Origin of the Concept of Truth – How Statements Are Built on Disagreements]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N1d0a390a-c211-4642-94b6-de34cdd5566f

This paper proposes a social account for the origin of the truth value and the emergence of the first declarative sentence. Such a proposal is based on two assumptions. The first is known as the social intelligence hypothesis: that the cognitive evolution of humans is first and foremost an adaptation to social demands. The second is the function-first approach to explaining the evolution of traits: before a prototype of a new trait develops and the adaptation process begins, something already existing is used for a new purpose. Applied to the emergence of declarative sentences, this suggests something already existing—natural signs (which have a logical or causal relation to what they denote)—were used for the declarative function and thereby integrated (in the form of indexical objects implying a past action) into communication. I show that the display of an indexical object (such as the display of hunting trophies) can imply a conceptual structure similar to that informing the syntax of sentences. The view developed in this paper is broadly consistent with the argumentative theory of Mercier and Sperber, which suggests that reasoning is less adapted to decision making than to social purposes such as winning disputes or justifying one’s actions. In this paper I extend this view to the origin of the concept of truth. According to my proposal, the first declarative sentence (articulated in a simple sign language) emerged as a negation of a negation of an implicit statement expressed by the display of an indexical object referring to a past action. Thereby, I suggest that the binary structure of the truth value underlying any declarative sentence is founded on disagreements based on conflicts of interest. Thus, I deny that the concept of truth could have evolved for instrumental reasons such as solving problems, or through self-questioning about what one ought to believe.

]]>
<![CDATA[Commentary: Differences of Perceived Image Generated through the Web Site: Empirical Evidence Obtained in Spanish Destinations]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N802038cf-fa4f-417c-bde7-7b07d3a2bb79 ]]> <![CDATA[Editorial: Culture, Self, and Autonomy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N6473a7e3-3ebc-49b7-a2b4-9452f9a0308f ]]> <![CDATA[Self-Managed Leisure, Satisfaction, and Benefits Perceived by Disabled Youth in Northern Spain]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N73a6c4ec-85c2-42d1-88ee-0e666e1c0e75

Positive leisure is widely accepted as contributing to the development of self-autonomy and well-being of young people during their transition to adulthood (Glendenning et al., 2003; Coleman, 2011). However, there has been little research on these issues among young people with disabilities. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between self-managed leisure, satisfaction with leisure, and emotional, cognitive, and behavioral benefits as perceived by young people with disabilities. The sample consisted of 400 young people (48.8% female) with disabilities (hearing, physical, intellectual, and visual), aged between 15 and 29 years, who live in the Basque region of northern Spain. Results revealed the following conclusions. First, gender and type of disability relate to the degree of self-management associated with leisure. Second, there was a significant association between the degree of satisfaction with leisure and level of self-management associated with leisure and this relationship varied by disability type but not gender. Third, leisure independently organized by young people (self-managed) was associated with higher perceived psychological benefits (emotional and cognitive) connected with their leisure engagement.

]]>
<![CDATA[The Language of Innovation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nb83146fc-3c9c-477e-ac2c-85cafd261eee

Predicting innovation is a peculiar problem in data science. Following its definition, an innovation is always a never-seen-before event, leaving no room for traditional supervised learning approaches. Here we propose a strategy to address the problem in the context of innovative patents, by defining innovations as never-seen-before associations of technologies and exploiting self-supervised learning techniques. We think of technological codes present in patents as a vocabulary and the whole technological corpus as written in a specific, evolving language. We leverage such structure with techniques borrowed from Natural Language Processing by embedding technologies in a high dimensional euclidean space where relative positions are representative of learned semantics. Proximity in this space is an effective predictor of specific innovation events, that outperforms a wide range of standard link-prediction metrics. The success of patented innovations follows a complex dynamics characterized by different patterns which we analyze in details with specific examples. The methods proposed in this paper provide a completely new way of understanding and forecasting innovation, by tackling it from a revealing perspective and opening interesting scenarios for a number of applications and further analytic approaches.

]]>
<![CDATA[Dataset of Vietnamese student's learning habits during COVID-19]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N0e56c822-5535-4393-93ce-bfaaf809e1f7

A dataset was constructed to examine Vietnamese student's learning habits during the time schools were suspended due to the novel coronavirus - SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19), in response to a call for interdisciplinary research on the potential effects of the coronavirus pandemic (Elsevier, 2020). The questionnaires were spread over a network of educational communities on Facebook from February 7 to February 28, 2020. Using the snowball sampling method, researchers delivered the survey to teachers and parents to provide formal consent before they forwarded it to their students and children. In order to measure the influence of students’ socioeconomic status and occupational aspirations on their learning habits during school closures, the survey included three major groups of questions: (1) Individual demographics, including family socioeconomic status, school type, and occupational aspirations; (2) Student's learning habits, including hours of learning before and during the period of school suspension, with and without other people's support; and (3) Students’ perceptions of their self-learning during the school closures. There was a total of 920 clicks on the survey link, but only 460 responses accompanied by consent forms were received. Non-credible answers (e.g., year of birth after 2009, more than 20 hours of learning per day) were eliminated. The final dataset included 420 valid observations.

]]>
<![CDATA[School self-efficacy is affected by gender and motor skills: findings from an Italian study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Ndea71b36-f312-4814-b64f-69bbddd6048c

Background

Perceived school self-efficacy (SE) is an important variable in students’ activities as it affects their motivation and learning. Further, self-efficacy might represent a good predictor of performance, persistence and perseverance. Motor skills and other physical health determinants are extensively debated and linked to cognitive function in children of developmental age. However, inconclusive evidence supports a definitive relationship between perceived school SE and motor skills among schoolchildren. We conducted a cross-sectional study on 6–11-year-old schoolchildren to evaluate the extent by which perceived school SE and physical health determinants were related.

Methods

A SE questionnaire and motor performance battery tests were administered to primary school pupils recruited from 154 sampled schools of northwest Italy. Perceived SE at school was assessed via 12 items from the Caprara’s questionnaire. Motor performance scores were obtained from motor skill tests: 4 × 10 m shuttle run test, SRT; standing broad jump, SBJ; six-minute walking test, 6MWT.

Results

A total of 3,962 children (M = 2,019; F = 1943) were studied and 68% were normal weight. Overall, a 58% of the sample perceived a high SE, while, as to gender differences, a greater percentage of females perceived high levels of school SE with respect to any other level (χ2 = 38.93, p < 0.0001). Results from multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed that: (i) females perceived higher SE compared to males; (ii) children who performed better in SRT and 6MWT showed higher levels of perceived school SE; (iii) no significant effect was registered for the body weight. Alternative strategies are encouraged to enhance SE through physical education: structured interventions might enhance both complex motor skills and high-order cognitive skills, like SE, in young children.

]]>
<![CDATA[Facial Emotion Recognition and Executive Functions in Insomnia Disorder: An Exploratory Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N9041dd5e-a28d-4079-b1ab-c211d0b45808

Background

Clinical and experimental findings suggest that insomnia is associated with changes in emotional processing and impairments in cognitive functioning. In the present study, we investigate the relationship between facial emotion recognition and executive functioning among individuals with insomnia as well as healthy controls.

Method

A total of 11 individuals (mean age 31.3 ± 9.4) diagnosed with insomnia disorder and 15 control participants (mean age 24.8 ± 4.6) took part in the study. Participants responded to a facial emotion recognition task which presented them with static and dynamic stimuli, and were evaluated with regard to cognition, sleep, and mood.

Results

Compared to controls, we found that participants with insomnia performed worse in the recognition of the facial emotion of fear (p = 0.001;ηp2 = 0.549; β = 0.999) and had lower scores in tests of verbal comprehension and perceptual organization (104.00 vs. 115.00, U = 135.5; p = 0.004; Cohen’s, 2013 d = 1.281). We also found a relationship between facial emotion recognition and performance in cognitive tests, such as those related to perceptual organization, cognitive flexibility, and working memory.

Conclusion

Results suggest that participants with insomnia may present some impairment in executive functions as well as in the recognition of facial emotions with negative valences (fear and sadness).

]]>
<![CDATA[I Wasn’t at War With the Noise: How Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy Changes Patients’ Experiences of Tinnitus]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N495a111a-d4e2-4022-bdcf-b779778278a6

Objectives

Intrusive tinnitus is a challenging, life-changing experience for which traditional medical treatment does not yet have a cure. However, Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy for tinnitus (MBCT-t) is effective in reducing tinnitus-related distress, disability and intrusiveness. It is a priority to understand patients’ experience of MBCT-t and active processes which they regarded as underpinning the changes they experienced. Semi-structured interviews were conducted 6 months after participants had completed MBCT as part of a randomized controlled trial (RCT), with a focus on exploring their experiences of the course, what they felt had changed and how they felt such changes had occurred.

Methods

Nine participants took part and Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was used to analyze the interview transcripts.

Results

Four overarching themes emerged: (1) Relating to Tinnitus in a New Way, (2) Holistic Benefits, (3) Connection, Kindness and Compassion, and (4) Factors Supporting Engagement and Change.

Conclusion

All participants reported benefits from MBCT-t, based on a radically new relationship with tinnitus. It was no longer characterized by “fighting it” and was instead based on “allowing” tinnitus to be present. Changes were supported by the development of open, stable, present-moment awareness and attitudes of equanimity, kindness, and compassion. Practices encouraging focus on sound (including tinnitus) were challenging, but essential to learning this new way of being with tinnitus. MBCT-t had a huge range of benefits including reduced distress and enhanced wellbeing. The group nature of MBCT-t was an integral part of the therapeutic process. A number of clinical and research implications are discussed.

]]>
<![CDATA[Reasoning and Reading in Adults. A New Reasoning Task for Detecting the Visual Impendance Effect]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N41ce4ec0-357b-4450-916c-221ea1af96a8

The visual impedance hypothesis states that at the time of reasoning, the reading context provokes visual images, which may add irrelevant details to an inference and thus could hamper reasoning. This study aims to create a new visual version of a reasoning task, similar to the traditional propositional task of relational syllogisms, but based on visuospatial components. Using such a task, it would be possible to investigate the deductive ability of relational inferences in tests without the need for reading. Two reasoning tasks were used and measures of working memory, visuospatial memory, intelligence, and reading comprehension were taken. The participants were 61 university students without reading difficulties. Results show that both versions of the reasoning task work similarly in finding the main reasoning effects expected. Findings support the visual impedance effect, that is, fewer correct responses in problems with imaginable contents than with neutral ones. They indicate that this new visual task could be used to explore reasoning skills without reading being involved, and this would be useful for testing reasoning in people both with and without reading difficulties.

]]>
<![CDATA[Moderate-to-Severe Depression Adversely Affects Lung Function in Chinese College Students]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Ne61069ab-11da-42a6-82e8-e826c87ed29b

Depression is known to be correlated with increased risk for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in middle-aged and older adults, but there is scarce evidence regarding its association with lung function among healthy adults. Thus, we aimed to assess this association by measuring the lung function and depression severity in Chinese college students. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 3,891 college students aged 16–24 years. Lung function was assessed by measuring the forced vital capacity (FVC) using a spirometer, and depression severity was evaluated using the 20-item Zung self-rating depression scale (SDS), with SDS scores of ≥40 and ≥45 indicating mild and moderate-to-severe depression, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounders, the geometric means of the FVC levels for the normal, mild depression, and moderate-to-severe depression groups were 3,446.1 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3,418.6–3,470.3), 3,415.2 (95% CI: 3,357.7–3,473.8), and 3,351.0 (95% CI: 3271.5–3432.3), respectively (P for trend: 0.031). These results indicated that depression severity was independently correlated with lung function decline in Chinese college students. Future prospective cohort or interventional studies are needed to confirm the negative association between depressive symptoms and lung function and investigate its causality.

]]>
<![CDATA[The Predictive Value of Tagalog Voice Morphology in Filler-Gap Dependency Formation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Ne170143c-91cf-4a20-92d4-bbaf3e0a6ac3

Research has shown that when processing filler-gap dependencies, comprehenders do not wait until they encounter all of the bottom-up information in the input. Instead, they use various types of linguistic information to predictively posit a gap that would allow the dependency to be resolved. They can use syntactic (Traxler and Pickering, 1996), lexical (Trueswell et al., 1994), morphological (Kamide et al., 2003), and prosodic (Nagel et al., 1994) information. Here we examine whether Tagalog comprehenders use the language's voice morphology to guide their incremental interpretations. We hypothesized that voice allows comprehenders to commit to an interpretation upon encountering the verb, since they have information about the event structure at this point in time and by virtue of the voice morphology, the thematic role of the filler. In experiment 1, using an acceptability judgment study, we found that comprehenders differed in how they used the different voices in different filler-gap contexts to detect the licitness of displacements. These differences may have consequences for how voice is used in real-time. In experiments 2 and 3, using the stops-making-sense paradigm (Boland et al., 1990), we found that comprehenders used voice as a cue to actively associate the filler with the gap. However, in experiment 3, the way in which they used voice varied by type and varied across types of filler-gap dependencies. We argue that comprehenders were using construction-specific cue validities when processing filler-gap dependencies. However, they also engaged with other classes of linguistic information, including (but not limited to) information about the structural similarities and the thematic complexity of the dependencies involved, and the relative frequency of the different types of voices in the language. These interactions resulted in processing asymmetries.

]]>
<![CDATA[Suicidal Ideation in Adolescence: A Perspective View on the Role of the Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N49f47e77-09ef-4952-8bd6-f0dd7918f0ed

Suicide in adolescence is a worldwide issue, and it continues to present a serious problem in terms of its prevention. Among the various aspects of suicide, a very interesting area of research is represented by suicidal ideation. Recently, neuroimaging-based methods have made it possible to study the cognitive processes involved in several social situations and clinical conditions. This theoretical perspective article with an interdisciplinary approach integrates evidence from developmental psychology and social neuroscience with the aim of investigating the role of the brain area responsible for regulating negative emotions during the cognitive processes of suicidal ideation: the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. By highlighting the role of brain areas in the few studies published so far, it is possible to develop perspectives of considerable impact. Studying and understanding the role of brain areas involved in suicidal thoughts in adolescents could facilitate the creation of new perspectives on prevention programs and interventions.

]]>
<![CDATA[Children’s Preference for Causal Information in Storybooks]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N2877e086-8c62-4afe-a239-80e6108177f7

Fostering early literacy depends in part on engaging and inspiring children’s early interest in reading. Enriching the causal content of children’s books may be one way to do so, as causal information has been empirically shown to capture children’s attention. To more directly test whether children’s book preferences might be driven by causal content, we created pairs of expository books closely matched for content and complexity, but with differing amounts of causal information embedded therein. Three and 4 years old participants (n = 48) were read both books and their interests and preferences were evaluated. When asked to choose, children preferred the highly causal over the minimally causal books. Results are discussed in terms of broader implications for creating books that optimally engage young children, as well as guiding book selections parents and educators make in their endeavors to promote interest in reading and early literacy.

]]>