ResearchPad - Public Administration https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[The voting experience and beliefs about ballot secrecy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c3d0179d5eed0c48403ba8c

New democracies go to great lengths to implement institutional protections of the electoral process. However, in this paper we present evidence that shows that even in the United States—where the secret ballot has been in place for generations—doubts about the secrecy of the voting process are surprisingly prevalent. Many say that their cast ballot can be matched to their name or that others could observe their vote choices while they were voting. We find that people who have not previously voted are particularly likely to harbor doubts about the secrecy of voters’ ballots. Those who vote by mail in the privacy of their own homes also feel that others are able to discover their vote choices. Taken together, these findings suggest an important divergence between public perceptions about and the institutional status of the secret ballot in the United States, a divergence that may affect patterns of voting behavior and political participation.

]]>
<![CDATA[Interpersonal justice climate, extra-role performance and work family balance: A multilevel mediation model of employee well-being]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bfdb38cd5eed0c4845ca57c

The global economic recession is relevant in public administration, especially in terms of the human factor. If we pretend to empower people as a resource, a key aspect is the perception of equity in their relationships. Previous research has shown how a positive shared interpersonal justice climate (IJC) in a work team impacts employee well-being, affecting the level of engagement and burnout. This influence is crucial in achieving positive results in the organization and for employees. The objective was to analyze the relationship between IJC and extra-role performance (ERP) and the mediating role of two indicators of well-being (burnout and engagement) in work teams. Furthermore, the study examined the Job Demands and Resources model (JD-R) including the relationship with the work family balance (WFB) of public employees. The sample was composed of 404 technical and administrative staff in a Spanish public university. The results indicated the significant relationships between the perceptions of IJC and burnout, engagement, and the two work outcomes WFB and ERP. When burnout and engagement were introduced in the regression equations, total mediation effects were produced.

]]>
<![CDATA[Involvement of TonEBP/NFAT5 in osmoadaptative response of human retinal pigmented epithelial cells to hyperosmolar stress]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5af902ec463d7e1190ee710f

Purpose: Macular edema, a frequently encountered complication of diabetic retinopathy (DR), results from alterations of the blood retinal barrier (BRB) and leads to modifications of the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) functions. Osmolar changes of the surrounding medium could be responsible for modifications of the RPE functions leading to disturbance of retinal homeostasis. The expression, activation and function of the key hyperosmolar response factor Tonicity Enhancer Binding Protein (TonEBP also called nuclear factor of activated T-cell 5 - NFTA5) was investigated in ARPE-19 cells, derived from human RPE, in response to hyperosmolar stimulation.

Methods: ARPE-19 cells were exposed to hyperosmolar medium. TonEBP mRNA and protein levels were quantified by qRT-PCR and semi-quantitative Western blot. TonEBP nuclear translocation was investigated by immunofluorescence. TonEBP transactivation activity was measured using a reported plasmid containing TonEBP binding sites.

Results: In response to hyperosmolar stimulation of ARPE-19 cells, a dose-dependent increase in TonEBP mRNA and protein levels, as well as TonEBP nuclear translocation were observed. TonEBP transactivation activity was further demonstrated using a reporter plasmid containing TonEBP binding sites. A dominant negative form of TonEBP abolished NaCl-induced increase in TonEBP transactivation activity, and inhibited the increase of the target genes aldose reductase and sodium-dependent taurine transporter mRNA levels. SB203580, an inhibitor of two of the p38 protein kinase’s isoforms (p38α and p38β) inhibited the TonEBP nuclear translocation and transactivation activity in ARPE-19 cells exposed to hyperosmolar stimulation.

Conclusions: Our data demonstrates the involvement of TonEBP in the mechanisms responsible for osmoadaptation to hyperosmolar stress in RPE cells. Given the emerging role of TonEBP in different pathological pathways, these data open new perspectives for the analysis of the mechanisms involved in the modification of functions of the RPE during macular edema.

]]>
<![CDATA[Copper Ion as a New Leakage Tracer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5ad3ccbb463d7e28c13dc4fd

Statement of Problem: Most failures of root canal treatments are caused by bacteria. Studies showed that the most common cause of endodontic failures were the incomplete obturation of the root canal and the lack of adequate apical seal. Some in-vitro methods are used to estimate sealing quality, generally by measuring microleakage that allows the tracer agent to penetrate the filled canal.

Purpose: Conventional methods of evaluating the seal of endodontically treated teeth are complicated and have some drawbacks. We used copper ion diffusion method to assess the leakage and the results were compared to dye penetration method.

Materials and Method: The crowns of 21 extracted teeth were cut off at the CEJ level. After preparing the canals, the teeth were placed in tubes containing saline. They were divided randomly into 15 experimental cases; 3 positive and 3 negative controls. Positive controls were filled by single cone without sealer while the experimental and the negative control groups were filled by lateral technique. The coronal portion of gutta was removed and 9mm was left. The external surface of each tooth was coated with nail polish. Two millimeters of apical portion was immersed into 9ml of distilled water and 0.3ml of CuSO4 solution was injected into the coronal portion. After 2 days, copper sulfate was measured by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The teeth were then immersed in 2% methylene blue for 24 hours, sectioned and the extent of dye penetration was measured by a stereomicroscope.

Results: The maximum and minimum recorded copper ion concentrations for the experimental group were 18.37 and 2.87ppm respectively. The maximum and minimum recorded dye penetrations for the experimental group were 8.5 and 3.5mm respectively. The statistical analysis, adopting paired samples test, showed poor correlation between average recorded results of two methods.

Conclusion: Based on our results, there was no significant correlation between the dye penetration and the copper ion diffusion methods.

]]>
<![CDATA[Forecasting the absolute and relative shortage of physicians in Japan using a system dynamics model approach]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989d9fbab0ee8fa60b72123

Background

In Japan, a shortage of physicians, who serve a key role in healthcare provision, has been pointed out as a major medical issue. The healthcare workforce policy planner should consider future dynamic changes in physician numbers. The purpose of this study was to propose a physician supply forecasting methodology by applying system dynamics modeling to estimate future absolute and relative numbers of physicians.

Method

We constructed a forecasting model using a system dynamics approach. Forecasting the number of physician was performed for all clinical physician and OB/GYN specialists. Moreover, we conducted evaluation of sufficiency for the number of physicians and sensitivity analysis.

Result & conclusion

As a result, it was forecast that the number of physicians would increase during 2008–2030 and the shortage would resolve at 2026 for all clinical physicians. However, the shortage would not resolve for the period covered. This suggests a need for measures for reconsidering the allocation system of new entry physicians to resolve maldistribution between medical departments, in addition, for increasing the overall number of clinical physicians.

]]>
<![CDATA[Empowering primary care workers to improve health services: results from Mozambique's leadership and management development program]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989dab6ab0ee8fa60bacf17

This article is the third article in the Human Resources for Health journal's feature on the theme of leadership and management in public health. The series of six articles has been contributed by Management Sciences for Health (MSH) and will be published article-by-article over the next few weeks.

The third article presents a successful application in Mozambique of a leadership development program created by Management Sciences for Health (MSH). Through this program, managers from 40 countries have learned to work in teams to identify their priority challenges and act to implement effective responses.

From 2003 to 2004, 11 health units in Nampula Province, participated in a leadership and management development program called the Challenges Program. This was following an assessment which found that the quality of health services was poor, and senior officials determined that the underlying cause was the lack of human resource capacity in leadership and management in a rapidly decentralizing health care system.

The program was funded by the US Agency for International Development (USAID) and implemented in partnership between the Mozambican Ministry of Health (MOH) Provincial Directorate in Nampula and Management Sciences for Health (MSH). The Challenges Program used simple management and leadership tools to assist the health units and their communities to address health service challenges.

An evaluation of the program in 2005 showed that 10 of 11 health centers improved health services over the year of the program.

The Challenges Program used several strategies that contributed to successful outcomes. It integrated leadership strengthening into the day-to-day challenges that staff were facing in the health units. The second success factor in the Challenges Program was the creation of participatory teams. After the program, people no longer waited passively to be trained but instead proactively requested training in needed areas. MOH workers in Nampula reported that the program's approach to improving management and leadership capacity at all levels promoted the efficient use of resources and empowered staff to make a difference.

]]>
<![CDATA[Developing evidence-based ethical policies on the migration of health workers: conceptual and practical challenges]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989daf7ab0ee8fa60bc3570

It is estimated that in 2000 almost 175 million people, or 2.9% of the world's population, were living outside their country of birth, compared to 100 million, or 1.8% of the total population, in 1995. As the global labour market strengthens, it is increasingly highly skilled professionals who are migrating. Medical practitioners and nurses represent a small proportion of highly skilled workers who migrate, but the loss of health human resources for developing countries can mean that the capacity of the health system to deliver health care equitably is compromised. However, data to support claims on both the extent and the impact of migration in developing countries is patchy and often anecdotal, based on limited databases with highly inconsistent categories of education and skills.

The aim of this paper is to examine some key issues related to the international migration of health workers in order to better understand its impact and to find entry points to developing policy options with which migration can be managed.

The paper is divided into six sections. In the first, the different types of migration are reviewed. Some global trends are depicted in the second section. Scarcity of data on health worker migration is one major challenge and this is addressed in section three, which reviews and discusses different data sources. The consequences of health worker migration and the financial flows associated with it are presented in section four and five, respectively. To illustrate the main issues addressed in the previous sections, a case study based mainly on the United Kingdom is presented in section six. This section includes a discussion on policies and ends by addressing the policy options from a broader perspective.

]]>
<![CDATA[Gender-based distributional skewness of the United Republic of Tanzania&#8217;s health workforce cadres: a cross-sectional health facility survey]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989dadeab0ee8fa60bbac0c

Background

While severe shortages, inadequate skills and a geographical imbalance of health personnel have been consistently documented over the years as long term critical challenges in the health sector of the United Republic of Tanzania, there is limited evidence on the gender-based distribution of the health workforce and its likely implications. Extant evidence shows that some people may not seek healthcare unless they have access to a provider of their gender. This paper, therefore, assesses the gender-based distribution of the United Republic of Tanzania’s health workforce cadres.

Methods

This is a secondary analysis of data collected in a cross-sectional health facility survey on health system strengthening in the United Republic of Tanzania in 2008. During the survey, 88 health facilities, selected randomly from 8 regions, yielded 815 health workers (HWs) eligible for the current analysis. While Chi-square was used for testing associations in the bivariate analysis, multivariate analysis was conducted using logistic regression to assess the relationship between gender and each of the cadres involved in the analysis.

Results

The mean age of the HWs was 39.7, ranging from 15 to 63 years. Overall, 75% of the HWs were women. The proportion of women among maternal and child health aides or medical attendants (MCHA/MA), nurses and midwives was 86%, 86% and 91%, respectively, while their proportion among clinical officers (COs) and medical doctors (MDs) was 28% and 21%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) that a HW was a female (baseline category is “male”) for each cadre was: MCHA/MA, OR = 3.70, 95% CI 2.16-6.33; nurse, OR = 5.61, 95% CI 3.22-9.78; midwife, OR = 2.74, 95% CI 1.44-5.20; CO, OR = 0.08, 95% CI 0.04-0.17 and MD, OR = 0.04, 95% CI 0.02-0.09.

Conclusion

The distribution of the United Republic of Tanzania’s health cadres is dramatically gender-skewed, a reflection of gender inequality in health career choices. MCHA/MA, nursing and midwifery cadres are large and female-dominant, whereas COs and MDs are fewer in absolute numbers and male-dominant. While a need for more staff is necessary for an effective delivery of quality health services, adequate representation of women in highly trained cadres is imperative to enhance responses to some gender-specific roles and needs.

]]>
<![CDATA[Differences in wage rates for males and females in the health sector: a consideration of unpaid overtime to decompose the gender wage gap]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989daadab0ee8fa60baa205

Background

In Australia a persistent and sizable gender wage gap exists. In recent years this gap has been steadily widening. The negative impact of gender wage differentials is the disincentive to work more hours. This implies a substantial cost on the Australian health sector. This study aimed to identify the magnitude of gender wage differentials within the health sector. The investigation accounts for unpaid overtime. Given the limited availability of information, little empirical evidence exists that accounts for unpaid overtime.

Methods

Information was collected from a sample of 10,066 Australian full-time employees within the health sector. Initially, ordinary least-squares regression was used to identify the gender wage gap when unpaid overtime was included and then excluded from the model. The sample was also stratified by gender and then by occupation to allow for comparisons. Later the Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition method was employed to identify and quantify the contribution of individual endowments to wage differentials between males and females.

Results

The analyses of data revealed a gender wage gap that varied across occupations. The inclusion of unpaid overtime in the analysis led to a slight reduction in the wage differential. The results showed an adjusted wage gap of 16.7%.

Conclusions

Unpaid overtime made a significant but small contribution to wage differentials. Being female remained the major contributing factor to the wage gap. Given that wage differentials provide a disincentive to work more hours, serious attempts to deal with the skilled labour shortage in the health sector need to address the gender wage gap.

]]>
<![CDATA[Association between health worker motivation and healthcare quality efforts in Ghana]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989db25ab0ee8fa60bd0244

Background

Ghana is one of the sub-Saharan African countries making significant progress towards universal access to quality healthcare. However, it remains a challenge to attain the 2015 targets for the health related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) partly due to health sector human resource challenges including low staff motivation.

Purpose

This paper addresses indicators of health worker motivation and assesses associations with quality care and patient safety in Ghana. The aim is to identify interventions at the health worker level that contribute to quality improvement in healthcare facilities.

Methods

The study is a baseline survey of health workers (n = 324) in 64 primary healthcare facilities in two regions in Ghana. Data collection involved quality care assessment using the SafeCare Essentials tool, the National Health Insurance Authority (NHIA) accreditation data and structured staff interviews on workplace motivating factors. The Spearman correlation test was conducted to test the hypothesis that the level of health worker motivation is associated with level of effort by primary healthcare facilities to improve quality care and patient safety.

Results

The quality care situation in health facilities was generally low, as determined by the SafeCare Essentials tool and NHIA data. The majority of facilities assessed did not have documented evidence of processes for continuous quality improvement and patient safety. Overall, staff motivation appeared low although workers in private facilities perceived better working conditions than workers in public facilities (P <0.05). Significant positive associations were found between staff satisfaction levels with working conditions and the clinic’s effort towards quality improvement and patient safety (P <0.05).

Conclusion

As part of efforts towards attainment of the health related MDGs in Ghana, more comprehensive staff motivation interventions should be integrated into quality improvement strategies especially in government-owned healthcare facilities where working conditions are perceived to be the worst.

]]>
<![CDATA[The provision of TB and HIV/AIDS treatment support by lay health workers in South Africa: a time-and-motion study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989d9f7ab0ee8fa60b70c38

Background

Lay or community health workers (LHWs) are an important human resource in primary health care, and contribute to improving access to care. However, optimal use of LHWs within the health system is often hampered by a poor understanding of how this cadre organizes its work. This study aimed to better understand how LHWs organize and structure their time in providing treatment and adherence support to people on TB treatment and/or antiretroviral therapy (ART) in South Africa.

Methods

Fourteen LHWs participated across three low-income peri-urban communities in Cape Town. Each LHW was observed by a researcher for one day, and data collected on each activity and the time spent on it. Data were summarized in the following categories: travel to the patient’s home, waiting time and patient contact time.

Results

Ninety-seven attempted visits to patients were observed, and patients were located in 69 of these. On average, LHWs conducted six visits per day, each lasting an average of nine minutes. Forty-six percent of the observed time was spent with patients, with the balance spent on ‘non-contact’ activities, including walking to and waiting for patients. The average walking time between patients was 8 minutes (range: 3 to 15 minutes). Activities during visits comprised medical care (that is ensuring that medication was being taken correctly and that patients were not experiencing side-effects) and social support. Other tasks included conducting home assessments to determine risks to treatment adherence, and tracing patients who had defaulted from treatment.

Conclusions

Because of their tasks and working environment, LHWs providing support to people on TB treatment and ART in South Africa spend a substantial proportion of their time on ‘non-contact’ activities. Programme managers need to take this into account when developing job descriptions and determining patient case-loads for this cadre. More research is also needed to explore whether these findings apply to other tasks and settings. Strategies should be explored to mitigate the challenges that LHWs experience in locating and supporting patients, including the use of new technologies, such as mobile phones.

]]>
<![CDATA[The potential impact of the next influenza pandemic on a national primary care medical workforce]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989da7aab0ee8fa60b984c7

Background

Another influenza pandemic is all but inevitable. We estimated its potential impact on the primary care medical workforce in New Zealand, so that planning could mitigate the disruption from the pandemic and similar challenges.

Methods

The model in the "FluAid" software (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC, Atlanta) was applied to the New Zealand primary care medical workforce (i.e., general practitioners).

Results

At its peak (week 4) the pandemic would lead to 1.2% to 2.7% loss of medical work time, using conservative baseline assumptions. Most workdays (88%) would be lost due to illness, followed by hospitalisation (8%), and then premature death (4%).

Inputs for a "more severe" scenario included greater health effects and time spent caring for sick relatives. For this scenario, 9% of medical workdays would be lost in the peak week, and 3% over a more compressed six-week period of the first pandemic wave. As with the base case, most (64%) of lost workdays would be due to illness, followed by caring for others (31%), hospitalisation (4%), and then premature death (1%).

Conclusion

Preparedness planning for future influenza pandemics must consider the impact on this medical workforce and incorporate strategies to minimise this impact, including infection control measures, well-designed protocols, and improved health sector surge capacity.

]]>
<![CDATA[Thailand special recruitment track of medical students: a series of annual cross-sectional surveys on the new graduates between 2010 and 2012]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989d9efab0ee8fa60b6df92

Background

Comprehensive policies for rural retention of medical doctor and other health professional, including education strategy and mandatory service, have been implemented in Thailand since the 1970s. This study compared the rural attitudes, intention to fulfil mandatory rural service and competencies between medical graduates’ from two modes of admission, normal and special tracks.

Methods

Three cross-sectional, self-administered questionnaire surveys were conducted in April 2010, 2011 and 2012. The questionnaire was distributed to all new medical graduates in the annual Ministry of Public Health meeting to allocate workplaces for the 3-year mandatory service.

Findings

The majority of students were recruited through the normal track (56 to 77%) from medical schools in Bangkok (56 to 66%), having mostly attended secondary schools in Bangkok. A majority of special track graduates came from secondary schools in provincial cities (76 to 79%). All three batches came from well-educated parents.

A slight difference in rural attitudes was observed between tracks. Univariable analysis found statistical associations between the intention to fulfil the 3-year obligation and special track recruitment and attributes on rural exposure. Multivariable analysis showed that graduates recruited through the special track had a 10 to 15% higher probability of fulfilling the mandatory service.

Special track graduates scored higher on four out of five competencies, notably procedural skills, but normal track graduates had higher competency on clinical knowledge in major clinical subjects.

Conclusion

Since special track recruitment resulted in a higher probability of fulfilling mandatory service and competency, increasing the proportion of special track recruitment and improving the effectiveness of policies addressing physician shortage were recommended.

]]>
<![CDATA[Factors affecting motivation and retention of primary health care workers in three disparate regions in Kenya]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989d9e3ab0ee8fa60b6a326

Background

The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Government of Kenya alike identify a well-performing health workforce as key to attaining better health. Nevertheless, the motivation and retention of health care workers (HCWs) persist as challenges. This study investigated factors influencing motivation and retention of HCWs at primary health care facilities in three different settings in Kenya - the remote area of Turkana, the relatively accessible region of Machakos, and the disadvantaged informal urban settlement of Kibera in Nairobi.

Methods

A cross-sectional cluster sample design was used to select 59 health facilities that yielded interviews with 404 health care workers, grouped into 10 different types of service providers. Data were collected in November 2011 using structured questionnaires and a Focus Group Discussion guide. Findings were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate methods of the associations and determinants of health worker motivation and retention.

Results

The levels of education and gender factors were lowest in Turkana with female HCWs representing only 30% of the workers against a national average of 53%. A smaller proportion of HCWs in Turkana feel that they have adequate training for their jobs. Overall, 13% of the HCWs indicated that they had changed their job in the last 12 months and 20% indicated that they could leave their current job within the next two years. In terms of work environment, inadequate access to electricity, equipment, transport, housing, and the physical state of the health facility were cited as most critical, particularly in Turkana. The working environment is rated as better in private facilities. Adequate training, job security, salary, supervisor support, and manageable workload were identified as critical satisfaction factors. Family health care, salary, and terminal benefits were rated as important compensatory factors.

Conclusions

There are distinct motivational and retention factors that affect HCWs in the three regions. Findings and policy implications from this study point to a set of recommendations to be implemented at national and county levels. These include gender mainstreaming, development of appropriate retention schemes, competitive compensation packages, strategies for career growth, establishment of a model HRH community, and the conduct of a discrete choice experiment.

]]>
<![CDATA[A qualitative analysis of health professionals&#8217; job descriptions for surgical service delivery in Uganda]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989d9d3ab0ee8fa60b650d1

Background

The ever increasing demand for surgical services in sub-Saharan Africa is creating a need to increase the number of health workers able to provide surgical care. This calls for the optimisation of all available human resources to provide universal access to essential and emergency surgical services. One way of optimising already scarce human resources for health is by clarifying job descriptions to guide the scope of practice, measuring rewards/benefits for the health workers providing surgical care, and informing education and training for health professionals. This study set out to determine the scope of the mandate to perform surgical procedures in current job descriptions of surgical care health professionals in Uganda.

Methods

A document review was conducted of job descriptions for the health professionals responsible for surgical service delivery in the Ugandan Health care system. The job descriptions were extracted and subjected to a qualitative content data analysis approach using a text based RQDA package of the open source R statistical computing software.

Results

It was observed that there was no explicit mention of assignment of delivery of surgical services to a particular cadre. Instead the bulk of direct patient related care, including surgical attention, was assigned to the lower cadres, in particular the medical officer. Senior cadres were assigned to perform predominantly advisory and managerial roles in the health care system. In addition, a no cost opportunity to task shift surgical service delivery to the senior clinical officers was identified.

Conclusions

There is a need to specifically assign the mandate to provide surgical care tasks, according to degree of complexity, to adequately trained cadres of health workers. Health professionals’ current job descriptions are not explicit, and therefore do not adequately support proper training, deployment, defined scope of practice, and remuneration for equitable surgical service delivery in Uganda. Such deliberate assignment of mandates will provide a means of increasing surgical service delivery through further optimisation of the available human resources for health.

]]>
<![CDATA[Human resource development and antiretroviral treatment in Free State province, South Africa]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989da96ab0ee8fa60ba1fb8

Background

In common with other developing countries, South Africa's public health system is characterised by human resource shortfalls. These are likely to be exacerbated by the escalating demand for HIV care and a large-scale antiretroviral therapy (ART) programme. Focusing on professional nurses, the main front-line providers of primary health care in South Africa, we studied patterns of planning, recruitment, training and task allocation associated with an expanding ART programme in the districts of one province, the Free State.

Methods

Data collection included an audit of professional nurse posts created and filled following the introduction of the ART programme, repeated surveys of facilities providing ART over two years to assess the deployment of staff, and secondary data analysis of government personnel databases to track broader patterns of recruitment and training.

Results

Although a substantial number of new professional nurse posts were established for the ART programme in the Free State, nearly 80% of these posts were filled by nurses transferring from other programmes within the same facility or from facilities within the same district, rather than by new recruits. From the beginning, ART nurse posts tended to be graded at a senior level, and later, in an effort to recruit professional nurses for the ART programme, the majority (54.6%) of nurses entering the programme were promoted to a senior level. The vacancy rate of nurse ART posts was significantly lower than that of other posts in the primary health care (PHC) system (15.7% vs 37.1%). Nursing posts in urban ART facilities were more easily filled than those in rural areas, exacerbating existing imbalances. The shift of nurses into the ART programme was partially compensated for by the appointment of additional support staff, task shifting to community health workers, and a large investment in training of PHC workers. However, the use of less-trained, mid-level enrolled nurses and nursing assistants in the ART programme remained low.

Conclusion

The introduction of the ART programme has revealed both strengths and weaknesses of human resource development in one province of South Africa. Without concerted efforts to increase the supply of key health professionals, accompanied by changes in the deployment of health workers, the core goals of the ART programme – i.e. providing universal access to ART and strengthening the health system – will not be achieved.

]]>
<![CDATA[Beyond job security and money: driving factors of motivation for government doctors in India]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989dae1ab0ee8fa60bbbd6a

Background

Despite many efforts from government to address the shortage of medical officers (MOs) in rural areas, rural health centres continue to suffer from severe shortage of MOs. Lack of motivation to join and continue service in rural areas is a major reason for such shortage. In the present study, we aimed to assess and rank the driving factors of motivation important for in-service MOs in their current job.

Methods

The study participants included ninety two in-service government MOs from three states in India. The study participants were required to rank 14 factors of motivation important for them in their current job. The factors for the study were selected using Herzberg’s two-factor theory of motivation and the data were collected using an instrument that has an established reliability and validity. Test of Kendall’s coefficient of concordance (W) was carried out to assess the agreement in ranks assigned by participants to various motivation factors. Next, we studied the distributions of ranks of different motivating factors using standard descriptive statistics and box plots, which gave us interesting insights into the strength of agreement of the MOs in assigning ranks to various factors. And finally to assess whether MOs are more intrinsically motivated or extrinsically motivated, we used Kolmogorov-Smirnov test.

Results

The (W) test indicated statistically significant (P < 0.01) agreement of the participants in assigning ranks. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test indicated that from policy perspectives, MOs place significantly more motivational importance to intrinsic factors than to extrinsic factors. The study results indicate that job security was the most important factor related to motivation, closely followed by interesting work and respect and recognition. Among the top five preferred factors, three were intrinsic factors indicating a great importance given by MOs to factors beyond money and job security.

Conclusion

To address the issue of motivation, the health departments need to pay close attention to devising management strategies that address not only extrinsic but also intrinsic factors of motivation. The study results may be useful to understand the complicated issue of work motivation and can give some useful insights to design comprehensive management strategies that are based on motivational needs of MOs.

]]>
<![CDATA[Does salary affect the choice of residency in non-university teaching hospitals? A panel analysis of Japan Residency Matching Programme data]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989db4cab0ee8fa60bda8fc

Background

Previous studies have investigated factors that are influential on the choice of training hospitals among residency physicians, but the effect of salary was not conclusive. In this study, we aimed to examine whether a higher salary attracted more residents to non-university hospitals participating in the Japanese Residency Matching Programme.

Methods

Data on 475 hospitals/programmes between 2006 and 2009 were available for analysis. We first conducted an ordinary least squares regression analysis on the ratio of the number of applicants to the residency programme quota as an index of resident’s choice, for comparison with previous studies. We further performed panel data analysis to better control for unobserved heterogeneity across hospitals, which could be confounded by the amount of salary. We also performed stratified analysis by the population size of the hospital location.

Results

In ordinary least squares regression, salary showed a positive, but not significant association, with the ratio of the number of applicants to the programme quota, while the results of a fixed effect model exhibited a positive and significant effect of salary (ε= 0.4995, P = 0.015) on the ratio. Analysis stratified by city size showed that the elasticity of salary was comparable (ε= 1.9089, P = 0.016 in large cities versus ε= 1.9185, P = 0.008 in small cities), while that of the number of teaching physicians was larger in large cities (ε= 1.9857, P = 0.009) compared with that in small cities (ε= 1.6253, P = 0.033). The number of teaching physicians had a significant and negative effect modification on salary, implying an antagonistic effect between these two attributes (ε= −1.5223, P = 0.038).

Conclusions

Our results indicate that the amount of salary influences the choice of training hospitals among medical graduates who choose non-university settings. Use of a monetary reward in a residency programme could be a feasible tactic for hospitals to attract residents.

]]>
<![CDATA[The double burden of human resource and HIV crises: a case study of Malawi]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989db0cab0ee8fa60bca81d

Two crises dominate the health sectors of sub-Saharan African countries: those of human resources and of HIV. Nevertheless, there is considerable variation in the extent to which these two phenomena affect sub-Saharan countries, with a few facing extreme levels of both: Lesotho, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Mozambique, the Central African Republic and Malawi.

This paper reviews the continent-wide situation with respect to this double burden before considering the case of Malawi in more detail. In Malawi, there has been significant concurrent investment in both an Emergency Human Resource Programme and an antiretroviral therapy programme which was treating 60,000 people by the end of 2006. Both areas of synergy and conflict have arisen, as the two programmes have been implemented. These highlight important issues for programme planners and managers to address and emphasize that planning for the scale-up of antiretroviral therapy while simultaneously strengthening health systems and the human resource situation requires prioritization among compelling cases for support, and time (not just resources).

]]>
<![CDATA[Effective in-service training design and delivery: evidence from an integrative literature review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989daefab0ee8fa60bc0798

Background

In-service training represents a significant financial investment for supporting continued competence of the health care workforce. An integrative review of the education and training literature was conducted to identify effective training approaches for health worker continuing professional education (CPE) and what evidence exists of outcomes derived from CPE.

Methods

A literature review was conducted from multiple databases including PubMed, the Cochrane Library and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) between May and June 2011. The initial review of titles and abstracts produced 244 results. Articles selected for analysis after two quality reviews consisted of systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and programme evaluations published in peer-reviewed journals from 2000 to 2011 in the English language. The articles analysed included 37 systematic reviews and 32 RCTs. The research questions focused on the evidence supporting educational techniques, frequency, setting and media used to deliver instruction for continuing health professional education.

Results

The evidence suggests the use of multiple techniques that allow for interaction and enable learners to process and apply information. Case-based learning, clinical simulations, practice and feedback are identified as effective educational techniques. Didactic techniques that involve passive instruction, such as reading or lecture, have been found to have little or no impact on learning outcomes. Repetitive interventions, rather than single interventions, were shown to be superior for learning outcomes. Settings similar to the workplace improved skill acquisition and performance. Computer-based learning can be equally or more effective than live instruction and more cost efficient if effective techniques are used. Effective techniques can lead to improvements in knowledge and skill outcomes and clinical practice behaviours, but there is less evidence directly linking CPE to improved clinical outcomes. Very limited quality data are available from low- to middle-income countries.

Conclusions

Educational techniques are critical to learning outcomes. Targeted, repetitive interventions can result in better learning outcomes. Setting should be selected to support relevant and realistic practice and increase efficiency. Media should be selected based on the potential to support effective educational techniques and efficiency of instruction. CPE can lead to improved learning outcomes if effective techniques are used. Limited data indicate that there may also be an effect on improving clinical practice behaviours. The research agenda calls for well-constructed evaluations of culturally appropriate combinations of technique, setting, frequency and media, developed for and tested among all levels of health workers in low- and middle-income countries.

]]>