ResearchPad - Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Easy to Perform Physical Performance Tests to Identify COPD Patients with Low Physical Activity in Clinical Practice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N7893c44a-0acb-4251-a3a1-e288d8f5fcd5

Background

The study investigates which physical performance or muscle function/mass tests significantly correlate with objectively measured physical activity (PA) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and could potentially serve to identify physically inactive COPD patients in routine clinical practice.

Methods

A cross-sectional, observational study was conducted in outpatients with moderate to very severe COPD. PA was measured during one week with the StepWatch Activity Monitor®, an ankle-worn accelerometer, and expressed in steps per day. Physical fitness and peripheral muscle function/mass were evaluated by the 4-meter gait speed (4MGS) test, the 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), the 30-second chair stand test (30sCST), the timed up and go test (TUGT), handgrip strength, arm muscle area, calf circumference, the fat-free mass index (FFMI), and ultrasound measurement of the quadriceps muscle. Spearman’s rank correlation analysis and ROC analysis were performed.

Results

The study population (N=111, 69% men, mean age 68 years) walked a mean of 8059 steps/day. The daily step count strongly correlated with the 6MWD (rho=0.684, p<0.001) and moderately with the 4MGS (rho=0.464, p<0.001), the TUGT (rho= −0.463, p<0.001), and the 30sCST (rho=0.402, p<0.001). The correlation with the FFMI was weak (rho=0.210, p=0.027), while the other parameters did not significantly correlate with the daily step count. The 6MWD had the best discriminative power to identify patients with very low PA defined as <5000 steps/day (AUC=0.802 [95% CI: 0.720–0.884], p<0.001), followed by the TUGT, the 4MGS, and the 30sCST.

Conclusion

The 6MWD, the 4MGS, the TUGT, and the 30sCST are easy to perform in any clinical setting and may be used by clinicians in the screening of physically inactive COPD patients.

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<![CDATA[Clinical Significance of Bronchodilator Responsiveness Evaluated by Forced Vital Capacity in COPD: SPIROMICS Cohort Analysis [Corrigendum]]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Ne6aecc8c-6f9d-4300-bf6a-e574401cd20f ]]> <![CDATA[Fertility Treatment Resulting in Live Births in Women with Asthma – Associated with Perennial Allergy?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N826dae41-c3e1-4b66-9472-a37312134eb7

Background

Asthma has been linked with prolonged time to pregnancy compared to healthy controls, also asthma has been linked to a higher need for fertility treatment. However, knowledge of the possible association between allergy and need for fertility treatment is limited. Our aim was to explore a possible difference in having had fertility treatment in women with asthma and live births in those with perennial allergy (animals, fungi and dust mites) compared to no allergy/seasonal allergy. The primary outcome of interest was fertility treatment.

Patients and Methods

Women enrolled in the Management of Asthma during Pregnancy (MAP) program at Hvidovre Hospital, DK, were included in the present analysis provided they fulfilled the following criteria: 1) diagnosed with asthma and current anti-asthma therapy and 2) first visit to the respiratory outpatient clinic within the first 18 weeks of pregnancy. Participants were divided into two groups: asthma with perennial allergy (cases) and asthma with seasonal/no allergy (controls). Logistic regression analysis was applied, and findings expressed as odds ratios (OR).

Results

Among women with asthma and perennial allergy (n=544 cases), 13.8% (n=75) had fertility treatment, compared to only 10.1% (n=39) among women with asthma and seasonal/no allergy (n=388, controls) (OR 1.43, 95% CI 0.95–2.16, p=0.087). This association remained statistically insignificant after adjusting for confounders, including BMI (OR 1.19, 95% CI 0.77–1.84, p=0.433). In women ≥35 years of age, 28% (n=44) and 20% (n=19), respectively, among cases and controls had fertility treatment (OR 1.60, 95% CI 0.87–2.94, p=0.132), and likewise, statistically insignificant after adjusting for confounders (OR 1.41, 95% CI 0.74–2.69, p<0.293).

Conclusion

In women with asthma and live births, our study revealed a trend towards an association between perennial allergy and a higher need for fertility treatment compared to seasonal/no allergy.

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<![CDATA[Comparison of Characteristics Between ICS-Treated COPD Patients and ICS-Treated COPD Patients with Concomitant Asthma: A Study in Primary Care]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nadf11f1f-3b1e-4775-ab93-d3de2ac444ea

Background and Objective

Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) for COPD has been much debated. Our aim was to identify characteristics associated with prescribing ICS for patients with COPD alone compared to those with concomitant asthma in general practice.

Patients and Methods

Participating general practitioners (GPs) (n=144) recruited patients with COPD (ICPC 2nd ed. code R95) currently prescribed ICS (ACT code R03AK and R03BA). Data, if available, on demographics, smoking habits, spirometry, COPD medication, dyspnea score, and exacerbation history were retrieved from the medical records. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify possible differences in characteristics between patients with COPD alone compared to those having a concomitant diagnosis of asthma.

Results

A total of 2.289 (45% males) COPD patients on ICS were recruited. Compared to patients with COPD alone (n=1.749), those with COPD and concomitant asthma (n=540) were younger (p<0.001), had higher BMI, higher FEV1/FVC ratio, higher blood eosinophil count and less life-time tobacco exposure (36 and 26 pack-years, respectively). Compared to COPD alone, logistic regression analysis showed that COPD with concomitant asthma was significantly associated to age (OR 0.94; CI 0.92 to 0.97; p<0.001), pack-years of smoking (OR 0.98; CI 0.97 to 0.99; p<0.001), [TeX:] \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage[substack]{amsmath} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage[mathscr]{eucal} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \DeclareFontFamily{T1}{linotext}{} \DeclareFontShape{T1}{linotext}{m}{n} {linotext }{} \DeclareSymbolFont{linotext}{T1}{linotext}{m}{n} \DeclareSymbolFontAlphabet{\mathLINOTEXT}{linotext} \begin{document} $${\rm{FE}}{{\rm{V}}_1}$$ \end{document}%pred (OR 1.02; CI 1.00 to 1.03; p=0.005), and doctor-diagnosed depression (OR 2.59; CI 1.20 to 5.58; p=0.015).

Conclusion

In COPD patients currently prescribed ICS, the presence of concomitant asthma was associated with being younger, having less tobacco exposure, more preserved lung function and a higher likelihood of doctor-diagnosed depression compared to COPD alone.

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<![CDATA[Relationship of asymmetric dimethylarginine levels with disease severity and pulmonary hypertension in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b59c3a6463d7e7b3acb09a8

Background:

Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) has emerged as a risk marker for many conditions related to pulmonary hypertension (PH); however, little is known about ADMA and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) plasma concentrations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our interest centers on the role of ADMA in regulation of endothelial function in COPD and secondary PH. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the serum ADMA, SDMA, and L-arginine concentrations in COPD and its association with PH.

Methods:

Patients with diagnosis of COPD underwent pulmonary function tests, echocardiography, and laboratory investigations including ADMA, SDMA, and L-arginine.

Results:

Serum concentrations of ADMA, SDMA, and L-arginine tend to increase as COPD progresses. Patients with PH had higher concentrations of ADMA, SDMA, and L-arginine compared to cases with normal pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP); the difference was not statistically significant.

Conclusions:

Our results show that increased ADMA, SDMA, and L-arginine concentrations are associated with increased PAP measurements in patients with COPD, however, the relationship is not statistically significant.

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<![CDATA[Comparison of acid fast bacilli (AFB) smear for Mycobacterium tuberculosis on adult pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and without type 2 DM]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b591a14463d7e552e096289

Background

According to the Global Tuberculosis Report 2015, Indonesia ranked as second country in the world with the highest number of pulmonary tuberculosis cases. By 2015, the number of pulmonary TB new cases in Indonesia has increased to 330.910 cases of 2014 where 324.539 cases. DM is one of the most important factors that influence the occurrence worsening TB. Now is known that DM patients have body's immune response disorder thereby facilitating M. tuberculosis infection and causing TB.

Method

This research is cross sectional design. The sample in this research are adult pulmonary TB patients at General Hospital Grade C period October 1, 2013–March 31, 2016 as much as 225 patients.

Result

AFB smear results in patients with type 2 DM with smear 3 + was 14 (17.28%), 2 + was 15 (18.52%), 1 + was 15 (18.52%) and negative (−) was 37 (45.68%). AFB smear results in patients without type 2 DM with smear 3 + was 3 (2.08%), 2 + was 6 (4.17%), 1 + was 19 (13.19%), negative (−) was 112 (77.78%) and have no sputum was 4 (2.78%). Number of adult pulmonary TB patients were 225 patients. Of the 225 patients, found 81 patients with type 2 DM and 144 patients without type 2 DM.

Conclusion

AFB smear positive found more in adult pulmonary TB patients with type 2 DM compared to TB patient without type 2 DM. It also found statistically significant between type 2 DM with the AFB smear results on adult pulmonary TB patients.

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<![CDATA[Use of a 4-week up-titration regimen of roflumilast in patients with severe COPD]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bfacb16d5eed0c4847cd633

Background

The oral selective phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor roflumilast (ROF) reduces exacerbations in patients with severe COPD. Adverse events (AEs) can cause early ROF discontinuation. Alternative dosing strategies may help patients continue their therapy.

Methods

In this multicenter, double-blind trial, 1,321 patients with severe COPD were randomized 1:1:1 to 4 weeks’ treatment with ROF 250 µg once daily (OD), 500 µg every other day (EOD), or 500 µg OD, each followed by ROF 500 µg OD for 8 weeks, plus standard therapy. The primary end point was the percentage of patients prematurely discontinuing study treatment.

Results

Patients in the 250 µg OD/500 µg OD group had significantly fewer treatment discontinuations (odds ratio [OR] 0.66 [95% CI 0.47–0.93], p=0.017) and lower rates of AEs of interest such as diarrhea, nausea, headache, decreased appetite, insomnia and abdominal pain (OR 0.63 [95% CI 0.47–0.83], p=0.001) compared with those in the 500 µg OD group. Although rates of discontinuation and AEs of interest were numerically lower with ROF 500 µg EOD/500 µg OD, the difference was not significant (OR 0.76, p=0.114, and OR 0.78, p=0.091, respectively) compared with ROF 500 µg OD.

Conclusion

A dose of ROF 250 µg OD for 4 weeks before escalation to the approved maintenance dose of 500 µg OD resulted in reduced treatment discontinuation and improved tolerability.

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<![CDATA[Efficacy of gefitinib in epidermal growth factor receptor-activating mutation-positive nonsmall cell lung cancer: Does exon 19 deletion differ from exon 21 mutation?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b4a7c22463d7e6681b4b2e6

Background:

This study was designed to evaluate the differential effect of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status (exon 19 vs. 21) on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in treatment-naïve advanced EGFR mutation-positive nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with gefitinib as first-line agent.

Methods:

This was a post hoc analysis of EGFR-mutated (exon 19 and 21) advanced-stage (Stage IIIB or IV), chemotherapy-naive NSCLC patients treated with gefitinib as first line in a phase 3 randomized study. Patients were treated with gefitinib 250 mg daily. Patients underwent axial imaging for response assessment on D42, D84, D126, and subsequently every 2 months till progression. Responding or stable patients were treated until progression or unacceptable toxicity. SPSS was used for statistical analysis. Kaplan–Meier method was used for survival estimation and log-rank test for comparison. Cox proportion hazard model was used for multivariate analysis.

Results:

One hundred and forty-one patients were eligible for analysis, of which 78 were males and 63 were females. A total of 127 patients (90.1%) were ECOG 0–1 while 14 patients (9.1%) were ECOG >1. Exon 21 mutation was present in 65 patients (46.1%) and exon 19 mutation in 76 patients (53.9%). One hundred and thirty-three of 141 patients were evaluable for response. Response rate of patients having exon 19 mutation was 72.9% (51 patients, n = 70) while it was 55.6% in patients having exon 21 mutation (35 patients, n = 63) (P = 0.046). Median PFS in exon 19-mutated patients was 9.3 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.832–11.768) compared to 7.8 months (95% CI 5.543–10.0) (P = 0.699) in exon 21-mutated patients. The median OS in exon 19-mutated patients was 19.8 months (95% CI 16.8–22.7), and it was 16.5 months (95% CI 10.9–22.1) in exon 21-mutated patients (P = 0.215).

Conclusion:

There were no differential outcomes in the Indian patients of advanced-stage NSCLC with exon 19 and 21 EGFR mutations treated with gefitinib.

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<![CDATA[Tree-in-bud pattern]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b4a5627463d7e56abaa4873 ]]> <![CDATA[Airway reactivity to mannitol is similarly increased in chronic cigarette and water pipe smokers]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b49f699463d7e3c096da5bf

Background

In contrast to cigarette smoking, the association between water pipe smoking and airway hyperresponsiveness remains widely unexplored.

Methods

A bronchoprovocation challenge with mannitol was performed in young adults recruited at the University of Basel, Switzerland. Subjects were categorized as acute water pipe smokers (single episode of water pipe smoking, no or <0.5 pack-years cigarette smoking); chronic water pipe smokers (weekly for ≥4 weeks, no or <0.5 pack-years cigarette smoking); cigarette smokers (no water pipe smokers); and never-smokers (no cigarette or water pipe smokers). Primary outcomes were airway reactivity as measured by the response-to-dose ratio (RDR) and airway responsiveness measured by the provocation dose to cause a 15% fall in forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV1; PD15).

Results

Seventy-four subjects with a mean age of 22.5±2.5 years and FEV1 % predicted 90.1%±8.6% were included. Subgroups were matched in terms of age, gender, and spirometry results. RDR in chronic water pipe smokers and cigarette smokers was similar (0.013%/mg [0.010–0.015] vs 0.023%/mg [0.011–0.051], respectively; p=0.12) but significantly higher than in never-smokers (0.007%/mg [0.005–0.010], p<0.01). Neither a history of asthma (p=0.88) nor a positive skin prick test (p=0.69) was associated with increased airway reactivity to the mannitol challenge test. PD15 differed significantly between cigarette smokers and never-smokers (155 mg [115–395] vs 315 mg [155–475], respectively; p=0.04).

Conclusion

Weekly water pipe smoking may increase airway reactivity to a similar extent as cigarette smoking.

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<![CDATA[First experience of effectiveness and safety of bedaquiline for 18 months within an optimised regimen for XDR-TB]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b3bc481463d7e171c6cc313

Extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) is a type of multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB that is resistant to isoniazid, rifampicin, fluoroquinolones and at least one injectable second-line drug. There are insufficient antibiotics for effective combination therapy and mortality exceeds 70% [1]. Following successful phase IIb trials [2] in 2013, the novel mycobacterial ATP-synthase inhibitor bedaquiline was approved in Europe and the USA for the first 24 weeks of MDR/XDR-TB treatment alongside a World Health Organization (WHO)-approved optimised background regimen. Phase III trials are ongoing but cohort data describe good early bacteriological outcomes in France [3, 4], Italy [5], the UK [6], the USA [7], India [8] and South Africa [9].

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<![CDATA[Successful balloon pulmonary angioplasty with gadolinium contrast media for a patient with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension and iodine allergy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bc9d74540307c5108bd41fc <![CDATA[A case of recurrent massive pulmonary embolism in Klippel–Trenaunay–Weber syndrome treated with thrombolytics]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bc9d74040307c5108bd41fa <![CDATA[COPD disease severity and innate immune response to pathogen-associated molecular patterns]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bc85dbd40307c1d3bc5c5a5 <![CDATA[Human coronavirus NL63 infections in infants hospitalised with acute respiratory tract infections in South Africa]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bc4de9340307c7a1d4e9f31

Background  Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV‐NL63) is a novel respiratory virus which is associated with respiratory tract infections in children.

Objective  To determine the role of HCoV‐NL63 in infants and young children hospitalised with acute respiratory tract infections (ARI) in Cape Town, South Africa.

Methods  Respiratory specimens were collected from 1055 infants and young children hospitalised with ARI in 2003–2004. Samples were screened by RT‐PCR to detect HCoV‐NL63 and human metapneumovirus (hMPV). Standard shell vial culture and immunofluoresence was used to detect the common respiratory viruses including RSV, influenza A and B viruses, parainfluenza viruses 1, 2, 3, adenovirus and CMV.

Results  A respiratory virus was found in 401/1055 (38·0%) samples. HCoV‐NL63 was detected in 9/1055 (0·85%) with peak activity during autumn (67%). Most patients had a diagnosis of pneumonia or lower respiratory tract infection (6/9; 67%).

Conclusions  This is the first report of HCoV‐NL63 infections in hospitalised children in Africa. During the 2‐year period HCoV‐NL63 played a minor role in ARI in children.

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<![CDATA[Epidemiological and clinical features of human coronavirus infections among different subsets of patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bc4c3b840307c3d1c482af8

Background

Epidemiological and clinical data of human coronaviruses (HCoVs) infections are restricted to span 1–3 years at most. We conducted a comprehensive 9‐year study on HCoVs by analyzing 1137 respiratory samples from four subsets of patients (asymptomatic, general community, with comorbidities, and hospitalized) in São Paulo, Brazil.

Methods

A pan‐coronavirus RT‐PCR screening assay was performed, followed by species‐specific real‐time RT‐PCR monoplex assays.

Results

Human coronaviruses were detected in 88 of 1137 (7.7%) of the samples. The most frequently detected HCoV species were NL63 (50.0%) and OC43 (27.3%). Patients with comorbidities presented the highest risk of acquiring coronavirus infection (odds ratio = 4.17; 95% confidence interval = 1.9–9.3), and children with heart diseases revealed a significant HCoV infection presence. Dyspnea was more associated with HCoV‐229E infections (66.6%), and cyanosis was reported only in HCoVOC43 infections. There were interseasonal differences in the detection frequencies, with HCoV‐229E being predominant in the year 2004 (61.5%) and HCoVNL63 (70.8%) in 2008.

Conclusions

Our data provide a novel insight into the epidemiology and clinical knowledge of HCoVs among different subsets of patients, revealing that these viruses may cause more than mild respiratory tract disease.

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<![CDATA[Tiotropium in patients with moderate COPD naive to maintenance therapy: a randomised placebo-controlled trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bc1d7ba40307c6da5c8ec9a

Background:

The benefits of pharmacotherapy with tiotropium HandiHaler 18 μg for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been previously demonstrated. However, few data exist regarding the treatment of moderate disease (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage II).

Aims:

To determine whether tiotropium improves lung function/patient-reported outcomes in patients with GOLD stage II COPD naive to maintenance therapy.

Methods:

A randomised 24-week double-blind placebo-controlled trial of tiotropium 18 μg once daily (via HandiHaler) was performed in maintenance therapy–naive patients with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio <0.7 and post-bronchodilator FEV1 ⩾50 and <80%.

Results:

A total of 457 patients were randomised (238 tiotropium, 219 placebo; mean age 62 years; FEV1 1.93 l (66% predicted)). Tiotropium was superior to placebo in mean change from baseline in post-dose FEV1 area under the curve from 0 to 3 h (AUC0–3h) at week 24 (primary endpoint): 0.19 vs. −0.03 l (least-squares mean difference 0.23 l, P<0.001). FVC AUC0–3h, trough and peak FEV1 and FVC were significantly improved with tiotropium versus placebo (P<0.001). Compared with placebo, tiotropium provided numerical improvements in physical activity (P=NS). Physician’s Global Assessment (health status) improved (P=0.045) with less impairment on the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire (P=0.043) at week 24. The incidence of exacerbations, cough, bronchitis and dyspnoea was lower with tiotropium than placebo.

Conclusions:

Tiotropium improved lung function and patient-reported outcomes in maintenance therapy–naive patients with GOLD stage II COPD, suggesting benefits in initiating maintenance therapy early.

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<![CDATA[Abbreviated World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire (WHOQOL-Bref) in north Indian patients with bronchial asthma: an evaluation using Rasch analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bc1d7b740307c6da5c8ec99

Background:

There is no disease-specific instrument to describe health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Indian patients with asthma. However, an abbreviated World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire (WHOQOL-Bref), a generic Hindi HRQoL measure, has been developed and validated in India.

Aims:

To evaluate the WHOQOL-Bref in adult patients with asthma and to test possible modifications to the instrument to improve its psychometric adequacy.

Methods:

Sixty-seven patients with asthma completed the WHOQOL-Bref. Rasch analysis was used to explore the psychometric performance of the four domains (physical, psychological, social relationships and environment) of the scale. Overall fit of data to model expectations, appropriate category ordering, presence of differential item functioning, individual item fit and targeting of item difficulty to patient ability were explored for each domain. Item deletion and rescoring were applied to misfitting items to improve overall performance.

Results:

The overall fit of the WHOQOL-Bref data was adequate. Item 3 (pain prevents doing work) displayed a large positive fit residual value (indicating violation of unidimensionality), resulting in poor construct validity for the physical domain. No item exhibited differential item functioning. Ten items had disordered thresholds. The WHOQOL-Bref was modified by dropping item 3 and rescoring category structures of 16 items. The modified scale had good construct validity for all domains, ordered thresholds for all items and good targeting of items to persons.

Conclusions:

The WHOQOL-Bref performed inadequately in describing HRQoL in the asthma patients studied. However, when modified by Rasch analysis, the scale proved better than the original scale.

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<![CDATA[IPF clinical trial design and endpoints]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5ba6fb5340307c4d1c2820a1

Purpose of review

There remains a dire need for therapies that impact the clinical course of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Indeed, there is a surge of interest in IPF therapeutics, with many candidate agents in various stages of development. Optimal design and implementation of the appropriate prospective clinical trials are essential to demonstrate clinical efficacy of promising drugs for the treatment of IPF. A key element in the success of such clinical trials is the choice of the best endpoint(s) to match the design of the study.

Recent findings

Although the results of many IPF clinical trials have been disappointing, these trials have provided valuable insights into the epidemiology and natural history of the disease and have sparked debate into the best clinical trial designs and endpoints.

Summary

This review will discuss the various clinical trial endpoints that have been used or proposed with a focus on their potential utility, as well as possible pitfalls that investigators should consider in the design of such studies.

Video abstract

http://links.lww.com/COPM/A13

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<![CDATA[In Vivo Assessment of Pulmonary Arterial Wall Fibrosis by Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: A New Prognostic Marker of Adverse Clinical Follow-Up§]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b95138240307c6c776066e6

Background:

The aim is to correlate pulmonary arterial (PA) remodeling estimated by PA fibrosis in PA hypertension (PAH) with clinical follow-up. Histology of PA specimens is also performed.

Methods:

19 patients, aged 54±16 (4 men), functional class II-III were studied with right heart catheterization, PA Intravascular Ultrasound and optical coherence tomography (OCT) in inferior lobe segment. PA wall fibrosis was obtained by OCT ( area of fibrosis/PA cross sectional area × 100). Patients follow-up was blind to OCT. Events were defined as mortality, lung transplantation, need of intravenous prostaglandins or onset of right ventricular failure.

Results:

OCT measurements showed high intra- and interobserver agreement. There was a good correlation between OCT and histology in PA fibrosis from explanted lungs. Area of fibrosis was 1.4±0.8 mm2, % fibrosis was 22.3±8. Follow-up was 3.5 years (2.5-4.5). OCT %Fib was significantly correlated with PA capacitance (r=-0.536) and with pulmonary vascular rsistance (r=0.55). Patients were divided according to the median value of PA fibrosis. There were 10 patients with a high (≥ 22%) and 9 with a low fibrosis (<22%). Events occurred in 6 (1 death, 1 lung transplantation, 2 intravenous prostaglandins, 2 right heart failure) out of 10 patients with high and in 0 out of 9 patients with low fibrosis (p<0.01).

Conclusions:

In PAH, the severity of PA remodeling assessed by OCT wall fibrosis was significantly predictive of severely unfavorable clinical outcome. In vivo assessment of pulmonary arterial wall fibrosis by intravascular OCT in PAH is a promising new prognostic marker of adverse clinical outcome.

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