ResearchPad - Rehabilitation https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Impact of Bone Mineral Density on the Incidence of Age-Related Vertebral Fragility Fracture]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N02f59df2-9f44-46d0-be0b-58215133be2a <![CDATA[Detection of muscle activity with forearm pronation exercise using T2-map MRI]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N35a1482b-2fc8-458a-b835-fafaf6fe7eb4

[Purpose] We aimed to detect muscle activity during a forearm pronation exercise using a 0.2 T MRI system. [Participants and Methods] We recruited healthy adult volunteers (7 males, 4 females). Transverse relaxation time (T2) values for 10 forearm muscles were obtained from transverse multiple-spin-echo MR images of one-third of the ulna, lengthwise from the olecranon, in the resting state and after isotonic forearm pronation exercise at three strength levels (5, 15, and 25% of the maximum voluntary contraction). Z values were calculated as (T2e − T2r)/SDr, where T2e, T2r and SDr were T2 after exercise, 34 ms, and 3 ms, respectively. A Z value of 2.56 was used as the threshold for defining muscle activation. [Results] T2 values increased significantly in the pronator teres muscle (agonist), while those in the supinator muscle (antagonist) showed no change. The sensitivity and specificity values obtained were high and low, respectively, for all of the three exercise strength levels employed. In some of the participants, activity was detected in the flexor carpi radialis, extensor carpi ulnaris, and extensor digitorum. [Conclusion] Using T2-map MRI, we detected activity in primary and secondary mover muscles. We also found individual variations in the use of forearm muscles during pronation.

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<![CDATA[Characteristics of selective motor control of the lower extremity in adults with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N1c2a67fb-9e27-4da7-a916-73262821f30e

[Purpose] We aimed to examine the relationship between gross motor function, selective motor control (SMC), range of motion (ROM), and spasticity in the lower extremities of adults with cerebral palsy (CP), as well as the proximal to distal distribution of SMC impairment in lower extremity joints. [Participants and Methods] We recruited 11 adults with bilateral spastic CP, ranging from levels I to III according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). We evaluated participants according to the Selective Control Assessment of the Lower Extremity (SCALE), ROM, and the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS). We conducted the Friedman test to assess differences among the SCALE scores of each joint. The relationship between GMFCS level, SCALE scores, ROM, and MAS scores was assessed. [Results] The mean SCALE scores were lower for distal than for proximal joints. The SCALE scores of each leg showed significant inverse correlations with the GMFCS level. [Conclusion] SMC in adults with CP strongly influences gross motor function. SMC did not have a significant relationship with spasticity or ROM. SMC, ROM, and spasticity independently influenced gross motor function in adults with CP. SMC impairment in adults with CP was higher in distal than in proximal joints.

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<![CDATA[Complete Revascularization of Reimplanted Talus After Isolated Total Talar Extrusion: A Case Report]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N6c7ab12a-2551-475c-a049-7224380db3ea

Total traumatic extrusion of the talus is a rare and disabling ankle injury. Treatment may include talar reimplantation or talar body removal, but an optimal treatment protocol has not yet been established. Several case reports showed that disruption of the vascular supply and contamination could lead to major complications, such as infection and avascular necrosis, with the high risk of these complications being associated with both the traumatic ankle injury itself and subsequent talar reimplantation. No report to date has described the revascularization of a completely extruded talus, as shown by serial MRI, a less invasive surgical strategy consisting of immediate reimplantation, early administration of antibiotics, and a short period of cast immobilization followed by early motion exercises. The present study describes complete revascularization and good clinical outcomes in a 30-year-old man who underwent talus reimplantation after isolated total talar extrusion.

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<![CDATA[Outcome measures evaluating physical functioning and their measurement properties in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a protocol for a systematic review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N1b4b8097-520d-444e-9be9-4a139744cb60

Introduction

Physical functioning (PF) is the ability to carry out the physical activity of daily living. It is an important outcome that provides a meaningful evaluation of individuals’ life. PF can be assessed using patient-reported outcome measures, performance-based outcome measures or body structure and function measure. Measures need to be valid, reliable and responsive to change to evaluate the effects of an intervention. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the most common deformity among the paediatric population and impacts on individuals’ lives. This systematic review will appraise evidence on the measurement properties of PF tools in individuals with AIS.

Methods/analysis

A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis informed by Cochrane guidelines is reported in line with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis-P. MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, CINAHL, SPORTdiscus, Web of Science and PubMed will be searched in two stages, from inception until December 2019. Search 1 will inventory all studies that assessed PF in participants with AIS, without any limitations. The search terms will be scoliosis, adolescent and PF-related terms. Search 2 will include studies which investigated instrument measurement properties in the same population for measures identified in search one. Two reviewers will independently perform study selection, data extraction, risk of bias and overall quality assessment. The COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) risk of bias and a modified Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) guidelines will be used. A meta-analysis will be conducted if possible, or the evidence will be synthesised and summarised per measurement property per outcome measure per measurement type.

Ethics and dissemination

This review will provide recommendations for practice and future research, considering psychometric properties of outcome measures of PF in AIS. The results of this study will be disseminated through a peer-reviewed publication and conference presentation.

PROSPERO registration number

CRD42019142335.

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<![CDATA[Optimal Cut-Off Value of the Coracohumeral Ligament Area as a Morphological Parameter to Confirm Frozen Shoulder]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N088c5d8b-60c2-42d7-bc22-79f71b3f2ab8

Background

Thickened coracohumeral ligament (CHL) is one of the important morphological changes of frozen shoulder (FS). Previous research reported that coracohumeral ligament thickness (CHLT) is correlated with anterior glenohumeral instability, rotator interval and eventually FS. However, thickness may change depending on the cutting angle, and measurement point. To reduce measurement mistakes, we devised a new imaging criteria, called the coracohumeral ligament area (CHLA).

Methods

CHL data were collected and analyzed from 52 patients with FS, and from 51 control subjects (no evidence of FS). Shoulder magnetic resonance imaging was performed in all subjects. We investigated the CHLT and CHLA at the maximal thickened view of the CHL using our picture archiving and communications system. The CHLA was measured as the whole area of the CHL including the most hypertrophied part of the MR images on the oblique sagittal plane. The CHLT was measured at the thickest point of the CHL.

Results

The average CHLA was 40.88 ± 12.53 mm2 in the control group and 67.47 ± 19.88 mm2 in the FS group. The mean CHLT was 2.84 ± 0.67 mm in the control group and 4.01 ± 1.11 mm in the FS group. FS patients had significantly higher CHLA (P < 0.01) and CHLT (P < 0.01) than the control group. The receiver operator characteristic analysis showed that the most suitable cut-off score of the CHLA was 50.01 mm2, with 76.9% sensitivity, 76.5% specificity, and area under the curve (AUC) of 0.87. The most suitable cut-off value of the CHLT was 3.30 mm, with 71.2% sensitivity, 70.6% specificity, and AUC of 0.81.

Conclusion

The significantly positive correlation between the CHLA, CHLT and FS was found. We also demonstrate that the CHLA has statistically equivalent power to CHLT. Thus, for diagnosis of FS, the treating physician can refer to CHLA as well as CHLT.

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<![CDATA[Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Approaches in Patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N75c2b84f-0ce8-4580-97c0-abb9265157a3

Physical therapy involves a set of factors and methods that affect the biological processes in the body. It is widely used, relatively inexpensive, non-invasive, and easy to apply. Physiotherapy is also used in the treatment of patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). This syndrome represents the most common compressive mononeuropathy of the upper limb and leads to significant disability. Hence, its successful treatment leads to significant benefits for both the patient and society. There is no established algorithm for the use of physical therapy in these patients. In this publication, we present the physiotherapeutic methods used for the treatment of CTS both before and after surgical treatment.

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<![CDATA[Lumbar Radicular Pain Response to First Injection with Non-particulate Steroid]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nde279dc9-1a57-41f4-8f80-1d7622f1f2e0

Introduction

Recent studies on the use of transforaminal epidural steroid injection (TFESI) to treat lumbar radicular pain have highlighted controversies pertaining to the choice of corticosteroid agent utilized in lumbosacral TFESI, in terms of both safety and efficacy. The primary objective was to characterize the radicular pain response after a first transforaminal injection with dexamethasone. The secondary objective was to document the response of those who failed to respond to a dexamethasone injection when particulate steroid was utilized for a second injection.

Methods

It was a retrospective study of 94 consecutive patients undergoing transforaminal injection for lumbosacral radicular pain. At two-week follow-up, patients rated their pain response on a clinically oriented five-point survey. First injection non-responders were given a second injection with particulate steroid and again completed the survey.

Results

Approximately one-third (N = 31/94) of patients received no meaningful relief from a single injection with dexamethasone. No patients achieved lasting and complete pain relief after a single injection. Of initial non-particulate steroid non-responders, approximately two-thirds (N = 19/28) demonstrated a notable or complete response to a second injection with particulate steroid.

Conclusions

We are now able to better inform patients with regard to their anticipated pain response to an initial dexamethasone injection. Only one-third of patients realized more significant and lasting relief after a single injection. Of those who did not demonstrate a more meaningful response, a second injection with particulate steroid resulted in more pronounced pain relief in two-thirds of patients.

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<![CDATA[A Review of the Theoretical Fascial Models: Biotensegrity, Fascintegrity, and Myofascial Chains]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nde4ae89a-aeee-4122-a8f4-0ca24baf853a

The fascial tissue includes solid and liquid fascia (body fluids such as blood and lymph). The fascia's nomenclature is the subject of debate in the academic world, as it is classified starting from different scientific perspectives. This disagreement is not a brake but is, in reality, the real wealth of research, the multidisciplinarity of thought and knowledge that leads to a deeper understanding of the topic. Another topic of discussion is the fascial model to conceptualize the human body, that is, how the fascial tissue fits into the living. Currently, there are some models: biotensegrity, fascintegrity, and myofascial chains. Biotensegrity is a mechanical model, which takes into consideration the solid fascia; fascintegrity considers the solid and the liquid fascia. Myofascial chains converge attention on the movement and transmission of force in the muscle continuum. The article is a reflection on fascial models and how these are theoretical-scientific visions that need to be further investigated.

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<![CDATA[Combatting Sedentary Lifestyles: Can Exercise Prescription in the Emergency Department Lead to Behavioral Change in Patients?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Ne0792fe3-db83-4d5d-877f-d36137dfab98

Introduction

Emergency department (ED) patients with chronic disease are known to benefit from exercise; however, there are few studies examining the prescription of exercise in the ED. We asked, is exercise prescription in the ED feasible and effective?

Methods

In this pilot prospective block randomized trial, consented patients were divided into control and intervention groups. The control group received routine care. The intervention group received combined written and verbal prescriptions for moderate exercise of 150 minutes/week. Both groups were followed up by phone at two months. The primary outcome was achieving 150 minutes of exercise per week. Secondary outcomes included change in exercise and differences in reported median weekly exercise.

Results

Follow-up was completed for 23/28 patients (11 control; 12 intervention). Baseline reported median (with interquartile range) weekly exercise was similar between groups: control 0 (0-0) minutes, intervention 0 (0-45) minutes. There was no difference between groups for the primary outcome at two months (control 3/11; intervention 4/12, relative risk [RR] 1.33 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.38-4.6; p=1.0). There was a significant increase in median exercise from baseline in both groups, but no difference between the groups (control 75 (10-225) minutes; intervention 120 (52.5-150) minutes; NS). A post hoc comparison of patients actually receiving intervention vs. no intervention revealed a significant increase in patients meeting the primary outcome (no intervention 0/8; intervention 7/15, RR 2.0 (95% CI 1.2-3.4); p=0.05).

Conclusion

The improvement seen in patients receiving the exercise prescription intervention, and the increase in reported exercise in both groups suggests that exercise prescription for ED patients may be beneficial.

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<![CDATA[Time and Repetitions Needed to Train Patients with Knee Pain on a Home Exercise Program: Are Learning Styles Important?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Na4516eeb-a00e-4082-923d-b221862f7a1c

Objective

This study was designed to identify the amount of time and number of repetitions needed to explain a home exercise program recommended for most of our patients, as well as to gauge how many items patients managed to remember at their 15-day follow-up. We also considered whether the learning method had any effect on these results.

Methods

Sixty-two patients with mechanical knee pain who were admitted to our clinic were included in this study. Patients were categorized into the following three groups: group 1 with a dominant physical learning style, group 2 with a dominant auditory learning style, and group 3 with a dominant visual learning style. Heel slide, quadriceps isometric, quadriceps stretching, adductor isometric, abductor isometric, and quadriceps isotonic exercises were explained and demonstrated to all patients by the same physiotherapist, and the required time (in seconds) and repeats of exercises until the patients learned them were recorded. Remembered/forgotten exercises at the follow-up, which occurred 15 days later, were identified.

Results

A statistically significant difference was observed between groups in terms of how many seconds were needed for learning the quadriceps isometric exercises (p: 0.042). In the inter-group comparison, the difference was significant when groups 2 and 3 were compared (p: 0.046). There was a significant difference between groups in terms of how many repeats were needed for learning heel sliding (p: 0.000). Moreover, there was a significant difference between group 3 and groups 1 and 2 in the inter-group comparison (p: 0.000, p: 0.000). There was also a significant difference between groups in terms of recalling the adductor isometric exercises. Patients in group 2 were able to fully recall all these exercises.

Conclusion

It was found that the quadriceps isometric, heel slide, and adductor isometric exercises were more quickly learned, while the quadriceps stretching exercise was forgotten. We concluded that learning style is not highly important in exercise learning or recall.

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<![CDATA[Central Sensitisation and functioning in patients with chronic low back pain: protocol for a cross-sectional and cohort study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nc49dead8-24ce-4a65-b058-6f7606889783

Introduction

A relevant subsample of patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) have manifested augmented central pain processing, central sensitisation (CS). Patients with CLBP have limited functioning and participation. Theoretically, physical functioning in patients with CLBP can plausibly be linked to CS; however, evidence to explain such association is scarce. Moreover, there is no gold standard for CS diagnosis. The objectives of the study are: (1) to analyse the association between instruments assessing reference symptoms and signs attributed to CS; (2) to analyse whether reference symptoms and signs attributed to CS are associated with functioning measurement outcomes; and (3) to analyse whether changes (between baseline and discharge) in reference symptoms and signs attributed to CS are related to changes in each of the functioning measurement outcomes.

Methods and analysis

A cross-sectional and longitudinal observational study is performed with measurements taken at baseline and discharge of an interdisciplinary rehabilitation programme. A sample size of 110 adult patients with CLBP has been calculated for the study. CS measurements are: Central Sensitisation Inventory, quantitative sensory testing and heart rate variability. Functioning measurements are: lifting capacity, maximal aerobic capacity, accelerometry and reported functioning. Statistical analyses to be performed are: (1) correlation between CS measurements, (2) multiple regression between functioning (dependent variable) and CS measurements (independent variable), and (3) multiple regression between changes in scores of functioning (dependent variable) and CS measurements (independent variable), and corrected for sex and age.

Ethics and dissemination

The study obtained the clearance to its implementation from the Medical Research Ethics Committee of the University Medical Center Groningen in July 2017. The results will be disseminated through scientific publications in peer-reviewed journals, presentations at relevant conferences, and reports to stakeholders.

Trial registration number

NTR7167/NL6980.

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<![CDATA[Effects of priming intermittent theta burst stimulation on upper limb motor recovery after stroke: study protocol for a proof-of-concept randomised controlled trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N0ae59d64-d8a2-4abb-9d5e-7586012308cb

Introduction

Intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS), a form of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), delivered to the ipsilesional primary motor cortex (M1), appears to enhance the brain’s response to rehabilitative training in patients with stroke. However, its clinical utility is highly subject to variability in different protocols. New evidence has reported that preceding iTBS, with continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) may stabilise and even boost the facilitatory effect of iTBS on the stimulated M1, via metaplasticity. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of iTBS primed with cTBS (ie, priming iTBS), in addition to robot-assisted training (RAT), on the improvement of the hemiparetic upper limb functions of stroke patients and to explore potential sensorimotor neuroplasticity using electroencephalography (EEG).

Methods and analysis

A three-arm, subjects and assessors-blinded, randomised controlled trial will be performed with patients with chronic stroke. An estimated sample of 36 patients will be needed based on the prior sample size calculation. All participants will be randomly allocated to receive 10 sessions of rTMS with different TBS protocols (cTBS+iTBS, sham cTBS+iTBS and sham cTBS+sham iTBS), three to five sessions per week, for 2–3 weeks. All participants will receive 60 min of RAT after each stimulation session. Primary outcomes will be assessed using Fugl-Meyer Assessment-Upper Extremity scores and Action Research Arm Test. Secondary outcomes will be assessed using kinematic outcomes generated during RAT and EEG.

Ethics and dissemination

Ethical approval has been obtained from The Human Subjects Ethics Sub-committee, University Research Committee of The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (reference number: HSEARS20190718003). The results yielded from this study will be presented at international conferences and sent to a peer-review journal to be considered for publication.

Trial registration number

NCT04034069.

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<![CDATA[Assessment of Patient Ambulation Profiles to Predict Hospital Readmission, Discharge Location, and Length of Stay in a Cardiac Surgery Progressive Care Unit]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nba2dccec-5bd5-41ed-9b12-a9d3320b94c2

Key Points

Question

Are patient ambulation profiles predictive of hospital readmission, discharge location, and length of stay?

Findings

In this prognostic cohort study of 100 adults in a cardiac surgery progressive care unit, patient ambulation profiles were predictive of 30-day readmission (C statistic, 0.925), discharge location (C statistic, 0.930), and length of stay (correlation coefficient, 0.927).

Meaning

Patient ambulation profiles from a real-time location system enable prediction of clinically relevant outcomes.

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<![CDATA[Comparing the Effect of Incentive Spirometry with Acapella on Blood Gases in Physiotherapy After Coronary Artery Bypass Graft]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N073b2c32-2a65-44c1-b3d2-3e0d8ae759a5

Objective

To compare the effect of incentive spirometry with Acapella (Smiths Medical Inc, Carlsbad, California) in physiotherapy after coronary artery bypass surgery.

Methods

A randomized controlled trial comparing incentive spirometry with Acapella was conducted in the intensive care unit of Chaudhary Pervaiz Elahi Institute of Cardiology (CPEIC) Multan. The study began from December 2017 to August 2019 after getting approval from the ethical committee of the hospital. Informed written consent was taken from all 270 patients who were included in the study. Patients who underwent coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) were divided into two groups by the lottery method. The primary end-point of the study was to check the blood gases on Day 3 after the procedure at room air and compare it with the baseline and with blood gases immediately after the procedure. SPSS 23 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY) was used to analyze the data of this study. For qualitative variables in data such as gender, place of living, patients with any comorbidities, and education status were statistically analyzed in percentage and frequencies. For numerical variables, such as age, body mass index, blood gases values, distance covered in a six-minute walk test, and spirometry values were analyzed and statistically measured as mean and standard deviation. A P-value of less than .05 was considered significant.

Results

The mean partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) of incentive spirometry was 58.1±2.31 and 67.2±3.24 after extubation and after three days, respectively. While the PaO2 of Acapella was 56.3±3.43 and 66.4±3.54 after extubation and after three days, respectively. The mean PCO2 of incentive spirometry was 41.4±3.26 and 36.1±2.11 after extubation and after three days, respectively. While the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) of Acapella was 39.4±2.55 and 37.5±3.58 after extubation and after three days, respectively. The differences were statistically significant at p-value ≤0.05.

Conclusion

It was concluded that both Acapella and incentive spirometry treatment after coronary artery bypass graft improved blood gases.

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<![CDATA[Use of the nominal group technique to identify UK stakeholder views of the measures and domains used in the assessment of therapeutic exercise adherence for patients with musculoskeletal disorders]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N08545b7a-d07b-417b-88f1-2c4c7a1f08e1

Objectives

The objective was to the undertake nominal group technique (NGT) to evaluate current exercise adherence measures and isolated domains to develop stakeholder consensus on the domains to include in the measurement of therapeutic exercise adherence for patients with musculoskeletal disorders.

Design

A 1-day NGT workshop was convened. Six exercise adherence measures were presented to the group that were identified in our recent systematic review. Discussions considered these measures and isolated domains of exercise adherence. Following discussions, consensus voting identified stakeholder agreement on the suitability of the six offered adherence measures and the inclusion of isolated domains of exercise adherence in future measurement.

Setting

One stakeholder NGT workshop held in Sheffield, UK.

Participants

Key stakeholders from the UK were invited to participate from four identified populations. 14 participants represented patients, clinicians, researchers and service managers.

Results

All six exercise adherence measures were deemed not appropriate for use in clinical research or routine practice with no measure reaching 70% group agreement for suitability, relevance, acceptability or appropriateness. Three measures were deemed feasible to use in clinical practice. 25 constructs of exercise adherence did reach consensus threshold and were supported to be included as domains in the future measurement of exercise adherence.

Conclusion

A mixed UK-based stakeholder group felt these six measures of exercise adherence were unacceptable. Differences in opinion within the stakeholder group highlighted the lack of consensus as to what should be measured, the type of assessment that is required and whose perspective should be sought when assessing exercise adherence. Previously unused domains may be needed alongside current ones, from both a clinician's and patient’s perspective, to gain understanding and to inform future measurement development. Further conceptualisation of exercise adherence is required from similar mixed stakeholder groups in various socioeconomic and cultural populations.

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<![CDATA[Misdirected Patients in Orthopedic Outpatient Clinics: A Retrospective Four Years Data Analysis (23435 Patients)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N81119f97-3d53-4d05-86c8-97033f36e262

Objective

To identify the frequency of misdirected patients in orthopedic outpatient clinics.

Methodology

This was a retrospective study done in a private hospital of Jeddah. Computer records of patients attending the orthopedic outpatient department (OPD) during the period of 2013-2017 were collected. Data were analysed using IBM SPSS version 23 (IBM Corp, Armonk, NY). Descriptive statistics are presented as frequency and percentages.

Results

Out of the 23435 cases, 6944 (29.6%) cases should not be seen primarily in orthopedic clinic, 13638 (58.2%) were the cases that may or may not be seen primarily in orthopedic clinic, whereas, there were 2853 (12.2%) who must be seen mainly by orthopedic specialist.

Conclusion

This study revealed that a huge number of patients who visited orthopedic OPD does not need primarily orthopedic consultation. So, it is recommended to direct the patients to the right specialist in outpatient clinics to avoid the unnecessary burden on orthopedic clinics. The triage of referrals or walk-in patients may help to prevent this issue.

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<![CDATA[The V-Sign: A Simple Radiographic Sign of Shoulder Subluxation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nbf9db1ae-fe60-48da-93fd-41aff1a2d176

Introduction

Shoulder subluxation is a common finding associated with orthopedic pathology. This study assesses the inter- and intra-observer reliability of a new radiographic sign used to identify glenohumeral subluxation.

Methods

Shoulders of 55 consecutive patients presenting with shoulder pain were reviewed for the presence of a “V-sign”. Three shoulder surgeons reviewed all radiographs at three separate time periods in a randomized fashion. Inter- and intra-observer reliabilities were calculated.

Results

The V-sign was identified in 26 (47%) shoulders. Intra-rater reliability was satisfactory for all the three surgeons, with kappa values of 0.85, 0.78, and 0.77, respectively. Inter-rater reliability was similarly satisfactory, with a value of 0.71. The surgeons demonstrated 100% agreement on the direction of subluxation when a V-sign was documented.

Discussion

The V-sign is a reproducible radiographic sign that can be used to detect glenohumeral subluxation in patients presenting with shoulder pain.

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<![CDATA[Ultrasound-guided Percutaneous Peripheral Nerve Stimulation for the Treatment of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1 Following a Crush Injury to the Fifth Digit: A Rare Case Report]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nbe0eb686-cf4c-4000-bc8e-b0bfb38b6c90

This case report presents an application of percutaneous peripheral nerve stimulation to the left ulnar nerve to treat a patient with complex regional pain syndrome type 1 following a crush injury to the left fifth digit. Conventional treatment had failed to ameliorate the patient's condition. After a successful seven-day trial with an ulnar peripheral nerve catheter, which followed an unsuccessful capsulectomy of the metacarpophalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joints of the left fifth digit with tenolysis of the flexor tendons, the patient underwent an uneventful implantation of a percutaneous peripheral nerve stimulator parallel with the trajectory of the left ulnar nerve just distal to the ulnar tunnel. Two weeks after implantation of the percutaneous peripheral nerve stimulator, the patient reported a reduction in the pain, with the intensity score coming down from 7 out of 10 to 0-1 out of 10 on the numeric rating scale (NRS). The patient was able to initiate pain-free active motion of her left fifth digit. At the 3-month follow-up consultation, the patient reported maintenance of the reduction of pain in her left upper extremity with the implanted percutaneous peripheral nerve stimulator, as well as improved performance in her daily activities. Despite the success achieved in this particular case, further clinical series involving larger numbers of patients are warranted in order to assess the definitive role of percutaneous peripheral nerve stimulation for the treatment of neuropathic pain of the upper and lower extremities, which has been previously unresponsive to medical and/or surgical treatment.

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<![CDATA[Health promotion and cardiovascular risk reduction in people with spinal cord injury: physical activity, healthy diet and maintenance after discharge— protocol for a prospective national cohort study and a preintervention- postintervention study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N7446e927-3e70-44be-a9c6-b5bb1e1eac64

Introduction

Spinal cord injury (SCI) predisposes those who suffer from it to physical inactivity and weight gain; consequently, death due to cardiovascular diseases is more frequent among people with SCI than in the general population. The literature documents a consensus about an interdisciplinary multimodal approach for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular risk factors including overweight and obesity in people with SCI, focusing on diet, physical activity (PA) and behavioural interventions. This study will investigate implementation of recommendations from a recent clinical practice guideline for identification and management of cardiometabolic risk after SCI through multimodal patient education in a subacute clinical setting.

Methods and analysis

All patients who are aged 18 years or older with an SCI within the previous 12 months and admitted to highly specialised rehabilitation are included, regardless of SCI aetiology or neurological level. A primary study designed as a controlled, pragmatic, preintervention- postintervention study with 6-month follow-up evaluates the effect of the clinical intervention; a prospective national cohort study on body mass index (BMI) serves as a historical control. The intervention consists of a standardised approach to patient education about cardiovascular risk factors, PA and a healthy diet that begins at the outset of primary SCI rehabilitation and is integrated into existing settings and workflows. Outcome measures are collected at admission, discharge and 6 months after discharge and include peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) (primary outcome), BMI, body composition, metabolic profile, neurological status, level of functioning, depression, quality of life, objective PA (accelerometry), self-reported PA, self-assessed PA ability, shared decision making, and dietary habits. Test–retest reliability of four VO2peak test protocols are investigated, as is test–retest reliability of a multisensor accelerometer in a rehabilitation setting.

Ethics and dissemination

The project is approved by the Committees on Health Research Ethics in the Capital Region of Denmark on 10 July 2018 (Journal-nr.: H-18018325). The principal investigator obtains informed consent from all participants. The interventions in the project are closely related to existing rehabilitation care, and the risk of pain and discomfort is considered modest. Any unintended events related to the elements of the intervention are reported, according to existing regional procedures. Data are stored in a secure web-based database (Redcap). The primary study and prospective cohort study are registered at Clinicaltrials.gov. Positive and negative results will be submitted to relevant scientific journals related to SCI for publication. Important protocol modifications are reported to the Committees on Health Research Ethics in the Capital Region of Denmark.

Trial registration numbers

NCT03689023 and NCT03369080.

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