ResearchPad - Rheumatology https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Association of Long-term Strenuous Physical Activity and Extensive Sitting With Incident Radiographic Knee Osteoarthritis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N22dbeded-b7f4-438c-8bb5-92155f4c1c67

This cohort study evaluates long-term levels of physical activity and inactivity among adults with or likely to develop knee osteoarthritis.

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<![CDATA[Tumid Lupus Erythematosus and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Report on Their Rare Coexistence]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nd4eda7bd-9eaa-460e-a826-5fd6fe3e6c97

Tumid lupus erythematosus (TLE) is a rare variant of cutaneous lupus erythematosus. Clinically, it lacks typical changes found in discoid lupus and antinuclear antibodies (ANA) levels are elevated in only 10% of the patients. Coexistent systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has been reported to be rare, and literature shows only a few case reports. We present a case of coexistent tumid lupus and SLE. We present a case of a 48-year-old Caucasian female who presented with chronic facial rash, photosensitivity, intermittent oral ulcers, joint pain with morning stiffness, and unintentional weight loss. Laboratory studies showed positive ANA at 1:640, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, positive anticardiolipin immunoglobulin (Ig) G, anticardiolipin IgM, and anti-beta-2 glycoprotein IgM. Skin biopsy of the rash showed a superficial and deep dense lymphocytic infiltrate with mucin deposition, histopathology favoring tumid lupus. The patient was diagnosed with TLE with SLE and was started on hydroxychloroquine with improvement in her rash. Ultraviolet light and certain medications have been proven to play a role in the pathogenesis of tumid lupus. It usually responds to photoprotection, topical treatment, or oral antimalarial therapy.

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<![CDATA[Reduction of osteoarthritis severity in the temporomandibular joint of rabbits treated with chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N10336f10-2066-4958-9182-9e228dac929f

Osteoarthritis is a degenerative disease that causes substantial changes in joint tissues, such as cartilage degeneration and subchondral bone sclerosis. Chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine are commonly used products for the symptomatic treatment of osteoarthritis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of these products when used as structure-modifying drugs on the progression of osteoarthritis in the rabbit temporomandibular joint. Thirty-six New Zealand rabbits were divided into 3 groups (n = 12/group): control (no disease); osteoarthritis (disease induction); and treatment (disease induction and administration of chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine). Osteoarthritis was induced by intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate. Animals were killed at 30 and 90 days after initiation of therapy. The treatment was effective in reducing disease severity, with late effects and changes in the concentration of glycosaminoglycans in the articular disc. The results indicate that chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine may have a structure-modifying effect on the tissues of rabbit temporomandibular joints altered by osteoarthritis.

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<![CDATA[Implementation of Asthma Management Guidelines and Possible Barriers in Korea]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nd2edc9d3-4f64-4fef-91f2-812510f2108a

Background

There could be a gap between asthma management guidelines and current practice. We evaluated the awareness of and compliance with asthma management guidelines, and the internal and external barriers to compliance, for the first time in Korea.

Methods

From March to September of 2012, 364 physicians treating asthma patients at primary, secondary, and tertiary teaching hospitals were enrolled. They completed a questionnaire on the awareness of and compliance with asthma management guidelines, and the barriers and alternatives to their implementation.

Results

Of the 364 physicians, 79.1% were men and 56.9% were primary care physicians. The mean age was 40.5 ± 11.2 years. Most of them were aware of asthma management guidelines (89.3%). However, only a portion (11.0%) of them complied with the guidelines for asthma. Pulmonary function tests for diagnosis of asthma were performed by 20.1% of all physicians and 9.2% of primary care physicians, and by 9.9% of all physicians and 5.8% of primary care physicians for monitoring. Physicians stated that ‘asthma monitoring’ was the most difficult part of the guidelines, followed by ‘environmental control and risk factors.’ Only 39.6% (31.9% of the primary care physicians) prescribed an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) as the first-line treatment for persistent asthma. The internal barriers were physician's preference for oral medications, difficulty in use even with inhaler training, and concern over ICS side effects. The external barriers were possible rejection of medical reimbursement by health insurance, refusal by the patient, cost, and a poor environment for teaching the patient how to use the inhaler. Alternatives proposed by physicians to implement asthma management guidelines were to improve medical reimbursement policies and the level of awareness of such guidelines.

Conclusion

Compliance with the asthma management guidelines, including ICS prescription, is low despite the awareness of the guidelines. It is necessary to develop a strategy to overcome the internal and external barriers.

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<![CDATA[A Rare Case of Central Nervous System Vasculitis in a Patient with Perinuclear Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies-associated Interstitial Lung Disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nc0221ec2-f30b-4d58-9d4d-e74966aae9fa

Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) is a systemic necrotizing inflammation of the small vessels. Central nervous system (CNS) ANCA-associated vasculitis is a rare manifestation of AAV. Three mechanisms of AAV affecting the CNS have been reported which include contiguous granulomatous invasion from nasal and paranasal sinuses, remote granulomatous lesions, and vasculitis of small vessels. Chronic hypertrophic pachymeningitis (CHP) is the meningeal-site involvement in AAV caused by granulomatous inflammation in the dura mater. We present a case of pachymeningitis manifested with slowly progressive cognitive dysfunction, leptomeningeal enhancement on MRI, and necrotic vessels with surrounding inflammation on biopsy. This case represents a rare development of subsequent CNS AAV in a patient with ANCA-associated interstitial lung disease treated with rituximab with a resolution of leptomeningeal enhancement on a follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

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<![CDATA[Gastric Sarcoidosis Presenting As Dyspepsia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N36af0246-b82c-4161-96a0-f43b04cc1489

The majority of cases of dyspepsia are functional, with a very rare cause of organic dyspepsia being gastric sarcoidosis. Although gastric sarcoidosis is the most common gastrointestinal manifestation of sarcoidosis, it is asymptomatic in >99% of cases. This is a case of a 48-year-old with known pulmonary sarcoidosis who was diagnosed with gastric sarcoidosis after presenting with dyspepsia.

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<![CDATA[A Flare-up of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus with Unusual Enteric Predominance]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nd0c3d4a0-a419-405e-ab0d-9c143d4d7e3e

Enteritis associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a rare and unusual manifestation of the gastrointestinal (GI) consequences of SLE itself. Complications of the enteritis component include mesenteric vasculitis, intestinal pseudo-obstruction, and protein-losing enteropathy. Lupus enteritis is very responsive to treatment with pulse steroids in almost 70% of the patients, but it is critical to diagnose it early to prevent devastating organ damage.

The case describes a 21-year-old Caucasian female with a past medical history of uncomplicated laparoscopic appendectomy (one month prior to the time of presentation), major depressive disorder, asthma, iron deficiency anemia, pelvic inflammatory disease secondary to sexually transmitted Chlamydia trachomatis infection, and SLE (diagnosed two weeks prior to presentation). She had been transferred from an outside facility with complaints of severe right upper quadrant (RUQ) abdominal pain for one day. The patient had run out of her prescription for steroids and hydroxychloroquine two days prior to the presentation. Her abdominal pain was accompanied by nausea, bilious vomiting, non-bloody diarrhea, a photosensitive facial rash, left-sided pressure-type periorbital headache, diplopia, oral ulcers, inappetence, joint stiffness, and muscle weakness. A CT of the abdomen and pelvis from an outside facility showed enteritis involving the proximal jejunum with associated mesenteric edema and ascites, suggesting infectious versus inflammatory or autoimmune etiology. A repeat CT scan a few days later confirmed these findings along with adjacent mesenteric fat stranding. Her autoimmune workup confirmed the serological diagnosis of SLE, and assessment of the SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) confirmed the diagnosis of a severe SLE flare. Upper endoscopy detected edematous mucosa in the duodenum and jejunum without active bleeding, gastropathy, or ulceration. No surgical intervention was required. Her symptoms resolved with supportive care, pulse steroids, and hydroxychloroquine. She was discharged with instructions for outpatient follow-up with gastroenterology and rheumatology.

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<![CDATA[Granulomatous Myositis Associated with Extremely Elevated Anti-striated Muscle Antibodies in the Absence of Myasthenia Gravis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N5e386c26-20ef-4a7e-ba30-f996124067d9

Granulomatous myositis is a rare disease that predominantly results in proximal muscle weakness in the upper and/or lower extremities. As it can resemble other inflammatory myopathies, it is important to obtain a muscle biopsy to make the underlying diagnosis. We report the first case of granulomatous myositis associated with extremely elevated anti-striated muscle antibodies in a 69-year-old Caucasian woman. Granulomatous myositis has been associated with various autoimmune, infectious, rheumatologic, vasculitis, and oncologic disorders, and several antibodies have previously been reported to be associated with it. However, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report where extremely elevated anti-striated muscle antibodies were found to be associated with granulomatous myositis in the absence of myasthenia gravis. The treatment of granulomatous myositis revolves around the use of corticosteroids, steroid-sparing immunosuppressive agents, and newer biologics.

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<![CDATA[Organizing Pneumonia Induced by Tocilizumab in a Patient with Rheumatoid Arthritis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N5ee27e4e-9bbd-4fbb-abdf-acc19a3dc1a1

Interstitial lung disease is a significant extra-articular manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis, due to its prevalence, morbidity and mortality. Biological therapies are widely used for rheumatoid arthritis treatment. However, some biological agents have been related to the induction or exacerbation of interstitial lung disease. We report a 51-year-old woman with knee arthralgia, hand and foot joint deformities. Although there were no respiratory symptoms, rheumatoid arthritis and interstitial lung disease were diagnosed. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) detected a radiological pattern of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia. After tocilizumab therapy for nine months, a second HRCT detected a worsening of interstitial lung disease, presenting a pattern of organizing pneumonia. Tocilizumab was discontinued and prednisone (1 mg/kg/day) was introduced. After two months, a further HRCT detected a significant improvement in organizing pneumonia. There are few similar cases in the literature of tocilizumab-induced organizing pneumonia in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Despite being a rare adverse effect, knowledge of this association is important for monitoring the use of tocilizumab.

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<![CDATA[Effect of tart cherry juice on risk of gout attacks: protocol for a randomised controlled trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Ne80e0725-ed04-4e92-acb9-fe4ead95ea03

Introduction

Gout is a painful form of inflammatory arthritis associated with several comorbidities, particularly cardiovascular disease. Cherries, which are rich in anti-inflammatory and antioxidative bioactive compounds, are proposed to be efficacious in preventing and treating gout, but recommendations to patients are conflicting. Cherry consumption has been demonstrated to lower serum urate levels and inflammation in several small studies. One observational case cross-over study reported that cherry consumption was associated with reduced risk of recurrent gout attacks. This preliminary evidence requires substantiation. The proposed randomised clinical trial aims to test the effect of consumption of tart cherry juice on risk of gout attacks.

Methods and analysis

This 12-month, parallel, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial will recruit 120 individuals (aged 18–80 years) with a clinical diagnosis of gout who have self-reported a gout flare in the previous year. Participants will be randomly assigned to an intervention group, which will receive Montmorency tart cherry juice daily for a 12-month period, or a corresponding placebo group, which will receive a cherry-flavoured placebo drink. The primary study outcome is change in frequency of self-reported gout attacks. Secondary outcome measures include attack intensity, serum urate concentration, fractional excretion of uric acid, biomarkers of inflammation, blood lipids and other markers of cardiovascular risk. Other secondary outcome measures will be changes in physical activity and functional status. Statistical analysis will be conducted on an intention-to-treat basis.

Ethics and dissemination

This study has been granted ethical approval by the National Research Ethics Service, Yorkshire and The Humber—Leeds West Research Ethics Committee (ref: 18/SW/0262). Results of the trial will be submitted for publication in a peer-reviewed journal.

Trial registration number

NCT03621215.

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<![CDATA[Can Calprotectin Show Subclinical Inflammation in Familial Mediterranean Fever Patients?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N8d7207df-4a0d-4dc7-bb6a-0e801e891ce4

Background

Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autoinflammatory disease that has self-limiting inflammatory attacks during polyserositis. Hepcidin is a protein, and interleukin-6 stimulation increases hepcidin levels. Calprotectin (CLP) is a recently defined cytokine released from monocytes and neutrophils in response to tissue trauma and inflammation. There are studies in the literature showing that it can be used as a biomarker in rheumatic diseases such as ankylosing spondylitis and rheumatoid arthritis. Here, we compared the levels of hepcidin and CLP in healthy individuals and FMF patients during an attack-free period and show its relation to genetic mutations.

Methods

This is a cross-sectional study. Between July 2017 and December 2017, 60 patients diagnosed with FMF an admitted to the Cumhuriyet University Faculty of Medicine Department of Internal Medicine Rheumatology as well as 60 healthy volunteers without any rheumatic, systemic, or metabolic diseases were enrolled in this study. Blood was collected from a peripheral vein to measure serum CLP and hepcidin levels. Blood tests were examined by ELISA; the study protocol was approved by the local ethics committee.

Results

Median serum hepcidin level was 468.1 (210.3–807.8) pg/mL in FMF group and 890.0 (495.0–1,716.9) pg/mL in the healthy control (HC) group. There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.001). The median serum levels of CLP in the FMF group were measured as 1,331.4 (969.3–1,584.6 pg/mL and 73.8(45.0–147.9) pg/mL in the HC group. There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the sensitivity was 66.7% and the specificity was 71.7% at serum hepcidin < 581.25 pg/mL (P < 0.05); the sensitivity was 96.7% and specificity was 100% at CLP > 238 pg/mL (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between serum hepcidin and CLP levels in FMF patients with M694V homozygous and M694V heterozygous (P > 0.05). There was no significant difference in serum hepcidin levels between FMF patients with and without arthritis, proteinuria, and amyloidosis (P < 0.05). There was no significant correlation between laboratory findings, gender, age, and serum CLP and hepcidin levels (P > 0.05, r < 0.25).

Conclusion

Serum CLP levels in FMF patients during an attack-free period are significantly higher than in the HC groups. Serum hepcidin levels in FMF patients are significantly lower than in the HC group. Low levels of hepcidin may be explained by including FMF patients during an attack-free period in the study. CLP may be an important biomarker in FMF. A better understanding of the role of these biomarkers in the diagnosis of FMF is needed to evaluate the results in a more comprehensive way.

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<![CDATA[Non-infective Unilateral Panuveitis: Topical Steroids and Posterior Vitrectomy as a Cheap and Safe Alternative to Modern Treatment Modalities]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N877c4a76-2738-4f16-84ca-ab3beffef313

Uvea of the eye is a term that includes the iris, choroid, and ciliary body. Inflammation of all layers of the uvea is called panuveitis. Panuveitis can even spread to involve the optic nerve, retina, vitreous humor, or lens. This process can lead to redness and pain in the eye, blurring of vision, and even blindness. The condition is usually treated with topical steroids, but it becomes difficult in steroid-responders. Here, we present the case of a rare non-infective unilateral case of panuveitis that was successfully treated in an unorthodox manner.

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<![CDATA[Translation, validation and test–retest reliability of the VISA-G patient-reported outcome tool into Danish (VISA-G.DK)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nf89af4f4-10ef-47f3-8cef-52d177514e1a

The Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment (VISA) questionnaire model is based on item response theory using a graded response (responses reflect increasing difficulty). The purpose of the VISA-G is to monitor patient outcomes and evaluate treatment strategies for people with greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS). The primary aim of the current study was to translate and culturally adapt the VISA-G into a Danish context (DK) through forward and back translation and cognitive interviews. The second aim was to establish test–retest reliability and face validity of the VISA-G into a Danish context (DK). No major disagreements were observed between the original and translated versions of the questionnaire. A total of 58 heterogenous asymptomatic, and 49 symptomatic respondents (response rate: 92% and 78% respectively) completed the VISA-G.DK twice, 1 week apart. The VISA-G.DK had excellent internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha: asymptomatic = 0.86; symptomatic = 0.98). The test–retest reliability was excellent for the total score: ICC: 0.961 (95% CI [0.933–0.978]). Standard Error Measurement was calculated to be 0.6. Bland–Altman plots showed no significant or relevant differences from test to retest in the total score with mean differences below 1 (0.61). The minimal detectable change was 3.17 for both groups. The VISA-G.DK was found to be valid, reliable and acceptable for use in the Danish population.

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<![CDATA[Massive Gouty Tophi Presenting as Pseudotumor of the Elbow: A Rare Presentation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N6dcdbb09-84aa-4064-aaf1-d9b1dc055c18

Gout is a systemic metabolic disorder characterized by hyperuricemia and deposition of monosodium urate crystals in joints and other extra-articular tissues. Poorly controlled cases progress to chronic gout with tophi, which can sometimes assume massive sizes. We report one such case of a 39-year-old male with poorly controlled polyarticular tophaceous gout presenting with a massive swelling of the left elbow simulating a soft tissue tumor. Subsequent investigations confirmed it to be a massive tophus which was then surgically excised, as the mass was not responding to the medical management. At the latest follow-up after two years, the patient has full function of the elbow and gout is well controlled with medications.

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<![CDATA[Prevalence of Depression in Patients with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Presenting at a Tertiary Care Hospital]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Ne6012ba5-bc65-4741-88c6-73b44554b2d5

Background and objective

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is an idiopathic autoimmune rheumatic disorder in children. JIA has been associated with depression and has a negative psychological impact on patients' quality of life. The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence of depression in patients with JIA presenting at a tertiary care hospital in Islamabad, Pakistan.

Materials and methods

This cross-sectional study, conducted at the Department of Rheumatology, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad, Pakistan, included 100 children aged >6 years who had been diagnosed with JIA according to the 2004 revised International League of Associations for Rheumatology classification. Physical disability was measured using the Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire disability index (CHAQ-DI), whereas depression was assessed by measuring their Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC) scores. Results were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 20.0. (Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.), with p-values ≤ 0.05 considered statistically significant.

Results

The 100 patients included 54 male patients (mean age, 16.3 ± 4.9 years) and 46 female patients (mean age, 18.6 ± 5.1 years). CES-DC scores showed that 72 patients with JIA had significant depression. Of these 72 patients, 50 (69.4%) had mild, 21 (29.2%) had moderate, and one (1.4%) had severe disability according to CHAQ-DI criteria. Age was the only effect modifier significantly associated with significant depression in patients with JIA (P < 0.05).

Conclusion

A cross sectional survey was carried out to find prevalence of depression in children with JIA. Physical disability and depression were measured using standardized tools. The percentage of significant depression among children with JIA is very high in our local population and was significantly associated with disease severity. Our findings emphasize the need to initiate early and prompt measures to prevent depression and reduce overall morbidity in patients with JIA.

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<![CDATA[The evaluation of oxidative stress in osteoarthritis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N310715ae-9d44-4185-9da8-cda88505c09e

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a whole joint disease driven by abnormal biomechanics and attendant cell-derived and tissue-derived factors. The disease is multifactorial and polygenic, and its progression is significantly related to oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Augmented ROS generation can cause the damage of structural biomolecules of the joint and, by acting as intracellular signaling component, ROS are associated with various inflammatory responses. By activating several signaling pathways, ROS have a vital importance in the patho-physiology of OA. This review is focused on the mechanism of ROS which regulate intracellular signaling processes, chondrocyte senescence and apoptosis, extracellular matrix synthesis and degradation, along with synovial inflammation and dysfunction of the subcondral bone, targeting the complex oxidative stress signaling pathways.

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<![CDATA[An Unusual Case of Alveolar Rhabdomyosarcoma of the Neck in an Adult Patient]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N449a967f-2f4a-4e80-9d9d-4e5435023767

Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common soft tissue malignancy in adolescents. It is extremely rare for sarcomas to occur in patients more than 18 years of age. We present a case of rhabdomyosarcoma originating in skeletal muscles on the right side of the neck. Our case demonstrates the importance of considering an extensive differential diagnosis for a neck mass in adults. Our patient was diagnosed with alveolar variant of rhabdomyosarcoma and underwent chemotherapy and radiation therapy, but eventually due to recurrence opted for palliative therapy.

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<![CDATA[Efficacy of High-Dose Mycophenolate Mofetil in Multitarget Therapy for Lupus Nephritis: Two Consecutive Case Reports]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N747b6320-334a-448f-84d0-1eba91c4d2c5

The complete remission rate for lupus nephritis (LN) is higher with multitarget therapy (MT) using tacrolimus (TAC), mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), and steroids than with steroid plus cyclophosphamide co-therapy. MT is also considered highly safe and is used to treat refractory LN. During MT, MMF is usually administered at a dose of 1 g/day similar to conventional MT; however, it remains unclear whether this is the optimal dose of MMF for Japanese patients, especially those refractories to conventional MT. We report two consecutive cases of refractory LN with conventional MT, case 1 was a 48-year-old woman with LN III (A) and nephrotic syndrome, and Case 2 was a 20-year-old man with LN IV-S (A), nephrotic syndrome, and acute kidney injury. LN was diagnosed by kidney biopsy. Because both these patients were refractory to conventional MT treatment (MMF at a dose of 1.0 g/day) for more than six months, MMF doses of 2.5 and 1.5-2.0 g/day were used as part of MT for cases 1 and 2, respectively. Increasing the MMF dose in MT to 1.5-2.5 g/day without increasing the steroid dose led to complete remission, without any recurrence, and allowed administration of a lower dose of a steroid such as prednisolone (5.5 ± 1.5 mg/day) 18 months after the MMF dose increase. The mean number of days from the start of the higher MMF dose of 1.5-2.5 g/day in MT to complete remission was 129.5 ± 10.5 days. Moreover, lymphopenia, hypogammaglobulinemia, gastrointestinal disturbances, or any infections were not observed as adverse events after increasing the MMF dose in MT. Thus, increasing MMF dose while maintaining the steroid dose in MT may induce complete remission; this will minimize the use of steroids in Japanese patients with refractory LN in conventional MT.

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<![CDATA[Optimization of tissue sampling for Borrelia burgdorferi in white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nff220985-8630-4822-8507-6b577103a931

Peromyscus leucopus (the white-footed mouse) is a known reservoir of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Sampling of white-footed mice allows for year-round B. burgdorferi surveillance as well as opportunities to establish the diversity of the different variants in a geographic region. This study explores the prevalence of B. burgdorferi infections in the tissues of white-footed mice, investigates the correlations between B. burgdorferi infected tissues, and determines the optimum field methods for surveillance of B. burgdorferi in P. leucopus. A total of 90 mice and 573 tissues (spleen, liver, ear, tongue, tail, heart, and kidney) were screened via nested PCR for B. burgdorferi infections. A large number of infections were found in the 90 mice as well as multiple infections within individual mice. Infections in a single mouse tissue (spleen, liver, ear, tongue and tail) were predictive of concurrent infection in other tissues of the same mouse at a statistically significant level. Ear tissue accounted for 68.4% of detected infections, which increased to 78.9% of the infected mice with the inclusion of tail samples. The use of ear punch or tail snip samples (used individually or in tandem) have multiple advantages over current Lyme disease ecological studies and surveillance methodologies, including lower associated costs, minimization of delays, year-round B. burgdorferi testing opportunities, as well as longitudinal monitoring of B. burgdorferi in defined geographic regions. In the absence of an effective vaccine, personal prevention measures are currently the most effective way to reduce Lyme disease transmission to humans. Thus, the identification and monitoring of environmental reservoirs to inform at-risk populations remains a priority. The sampling methods proposed in this study provide a reasonable estimate of B. burgdorferi in white-footed mice in a timely and cost-effective manner.

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<![CDATA[Misdirected Patients in Orthopedic Outpatient Clinics: A Retrospective Four Years Data Analysis (23435 Patients)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N81119f97-3d53-4d05-86c8-97033f36e262

Objective

To identify the frequency of misdirected patients in orthopedic outpatient clinics.

Methodology

This was a retrospective study done in a private hospital of Jeddah. Computer records of patients attending the orthopedic outpatient department (OPD) during the period of 2013-2017 were collected. Data were analysed using IBM SPSS version 23 (IBM Corp, Armonk, NY). Descriptive statistics are presented as frequency and percentages.

Results

Out of the 23435 cases, 6944 (29.6%) cases should not be seen primarily in orthopedic clinic, 13638 (58.2%) were the cases that may or may not be seen primarily in orthopedic clinic, whereas, there were 2853 (12.2%) who must be seen mainly by orthopedic specialist.

Conclusion

This study revealed that a huge number of patients who visited orthopedic OPD does not need primarily orthopedic consultation. So, it is recommended to direct the patients to the right specialist in outpatient clinics to avoid the unnecessary burden on orthopedic clinics. The triage of referrals or walk-in patients may help to prevent this issue.

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