ResearchPad - Social Psychology https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Does cyberbullying predict internalizing problems and conduct problems when controlled for traditional bullying?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nbcd7db53-52b3-4b4a-b111-af69149a3aa1

In this study, relations between cybervictimization and internalizing and conduct problems were analyzed while controlling for traditional victimization. A sample of 701 emerging adults in secondary vocational education completed self‐reports about cybervictimization, traditional victimization, internalizing problems and conduct problems. Using multiple regression analyses with heteroscedasticity‐consistent estimates, it was found that cybervictimization is related to internalizing and conduct problems while controlling for traditional victimization. The results suggest that cybervictimization is related to both internalizing and conduct problems over and above traditional victimization. The discussion focuses on the need to address bullying and cyberbullying among emerging adults.

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<![CDATA[Altruistic decisions are influenced by the allocation of monetary incentives in a pain-sharing game]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c897771d5eed0c4847d2ce9

Background

Altruistic behavior is essential to the sustainability of society, but our current understanding of its underlying motivation is limited. In addition to the intrinsic motives to help others, based on empathy, extrinsic motives such as monetary incentives and social reputation influence prosociality. The purpose of this study was to examine the underlying motivations of prosocial behavior under constant or increasing extrinsic motivation settings.

Methods

An experimental task, Altruistic Pain Sharing, was developed in which the participants were asked to share the other participants’ pain. In the session with monetary incentives, the incentives were given either constantly (CONSTANT condition) or proportionally (INCREASING condition), to the amount of shared pain. In addition, monetary incentives were not provided in the NO session. The participants experienced different amounts of mechanical pain at the beginning of the task and chose the number of pain stimulations to share, based on their experiences.

Results

Compared to the NO session, the INCREASING session exhibited a rise in the mean of shared pain, but not the CONSTANT session. Furthermore, there was a distinct tendency to receive less pain than the other participant in the CONSTANT session, and a tendency to receive more pain than the other participant in the INCREASING session.

Conclusion

Prosocial behavior was influenced by the presence, as well as the form, of the extrinsic monetary incentives. Our study shows that rewards incentivize individuals to demonstrate a higher level of prosocial behavior, implying that prosocial behavior is itself a mixture of intrinsic and extrinsic motivations, and that an effectively designed rewards system may function to enhance prosocial behavior.

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<![CDATA[Social evolution under demographic stochasticity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c61e8edd5eed0c48496f401

How social traits such as altruism and spite evolve remains an open question in evolutionary biology. One factor thought to be potentially important is demographic stochasticity. Here we provide a general theoretical analysis of the role of demographic stochasticity in social evolution. We show that the evolutionary impact of stochasticity depends on how the social action alters the recipient’s life cycle. If the action alters the recipient’s death rate, then demographic stochasticity always favours altruism and disfavours spite. On the other hand, if the action alters the recipient’s birth rate, then stochasticity can either favour or disfavour both altruism and spite depending on the ratio of the rate of population turnover to the population size. Finally, we also show that this ratio is critical to determining if demographic stochasticity can reverse the direction of selection upon social traits. Our analysis thus provides a general understanding of the role of demographic stochasticity in social evolution.

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<![CDATA[Do professional facial image comparison training courses work?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c6dca04d5eed0c48452a6c3

Facial image comparison practitioners compare images of unfamiliar faces and decide whether or not they show the same person. Given the importance of these decisions for national security and criminal investigations, practitioners attend training courses to improve their face identification ability. However, these courses have not been empirically validated so it is unknown if they improve accuracy. Here, we review the content of eleven professional training courses offered to staff at national security, police, intelligence, passport issuance, immigration and border control agencies around the world. All reviewed courses include basic training in facial anatomy and prescribe facial feature (or ‘morphological’) comparison. Next, we evaluate the effectiveness of four representative courses by comparing face identification accuracy before and after training in novices (n = 152) and practitioners (n = 236). We find very strong evidence that short (1-hour and half-day) professional training courses do not improve identification accuracy, despite 93% of trainees believing their performance had improved. We find some evidence of improvement in a 3-day training course designed to introduce trainees to the unique feature-by-feature comparison strategy used by facial examiners in forensic settings. However, observed improvements are small, inconsistent across tests, and training did not produce the qualitative changes associated with examiners’ expertise. Future research should test the benefits of longer examination-focussed training courses and incorporate longitudinal approaches to track improvements caused by mentoring and deliberate practice. In the absence of evidence that training is effective, we advise agencies to explore alternative evidence-based strategies for improving the accuracy of face identification decisions.

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<![CDATA[Apparent speed of motion concomitant with action alters with delay]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c706764d5eed0c4847c6fb1

Multiple studies have shown action to affect perception of motion. The speed intended in the generation of a motion by action affects the apparent speed of the motion. However, it was unclear whether action with no intention of speed affects the apparent speed of a motion. In Experiment 1, we investigated the apparent speed of a motion following a key press action. We manipulated the delay from the action to the consequent motion for shifting the timing of efference copy and found the apparent speed decreasing with increases in the delay. This could be because it is known that speed irrelevant action caused expansion of perceived duration of the consequent stimulus and it might have influenced the result in Experiment 1, we investigated the apparent duration of the action consequent static (Ex. 2-1) and motion (Ex. 2-2) stimulus. We found that the apparent duration was not changed with delay. Moreover, the apparent speed and duration had different characteristics on delay. These results were discussed in terms of the sense of agency.

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<![CDATA[A systematic study of microdosing psychedelics]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c648ccdd5eed0c484c8180c

The phenomenon of ‘microdosing’, that is, regular ingestion of very small quantities of psychedelic substances, has seen a rapid explosion of popularity in recent years. Individuals who microdose report minimal acute effects from these substances yet claim a range of long-term general health and wellbeing benefits. There have been no published empirical studies of microdosing and the current legal and bureaucratic climate makes direct empirical investigation of the effects of psychedelics difficult. In Study One we conducted a systematic, observational investigation of individuals who microdose. We tracked the experiences of 98 microdosing participants, who provided daily ratings of psychological functioning over a six week period. 63 of these additionally completed a battery of psychometric measures tapping mood, attention, wellbeing, mystical experiences, personality, creativity, and sense of agency, at baseline and at completion of the study. Analyses of daily ratings revealed a general increase in reported psychological functioning across all measures on dosing days but limited evidence of residual effects on following days. Analyses of pre and post study measures revealed reductions in reported levels of depression and stress; lower levels of distractibility; increased absorption; and increased neuroticism. To better understand these findings, in Study Two we investigated pre-existing beliefs and expectations about the effects of microdosing in a sample of 263 naïve and experienced microdosers, so as to gauge expectancy bias. All participants believed that microdosing would have large and wide-ranging benefits in contrast to the limited outcomes reported by actual microdosers. Notably, the effects believed most likely to change were unrelated to the observed pattern of reported outcomes. The current results suggest that dose controlled empirical research on the impacts of microdosing on mental health and attentional capabilities are needed.

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<![CDATA[Enhancing activation in the right temporoparietal junction using theta-burst stimulation: Disambiguating between two hypotheses of top-down control of behavioral mimicry]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c57e659d5eed0c484ef2cf5

Whereas previous research has focused on the role of the rTPJ when consciously inhibiting mimicry, we test the role of the rTPJ on mimicry within a social interaction, during which mimicking occurs nonconsciously. We wanted to determine whether higher rTPJ activation always inhibits the tendency to imitate (regardless of the context) or whether it facilitates mimicry during social interactions (when mimicking is an adaptive response). Participants received either active or sham intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS: a type of stimulation that increases cortical activation) to the rTPJ. Next, we measured how much participants mimicked the hair and face touching of another person. Participants in the active stimulation condition engaged in significantly less mimicry than those in the sham stimulation condition. This finding suggests that even in a context in which mimicking is adaptive, rTPJ inhibits mimicry rather than facilitating it, supporting the hypothesis that rTPJ enhances representations of self over other regardless of the goals within a given context.

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<![CDATA[Social dominance orientation as an obstacle to intergroup apology]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c79afe3d5eed0c4841e397a

Social Dominance Orientation (SDO) has engaged the interest of social and personality psychologists as it has deep implications for the psychology of intergroup conflict, particularly regarding factors such as prejudice and discrimination, as well as international conflict resolution. Nevertheless, few studies have directly assessed how SDO relates to intergroup reconciliation. This study (effective N = 819) measured participants’ SDO along with their attitudes toward various governmental apologies to test the hypothesis that SDO is associated with unwillingness to issue intergroup apologies. The results showed that SDO was negatively correlated with supportive attitudes toward government-issued international apologies. This negative correlation remained intact after controlling for the effects of political conservatism and militarism.

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<![CDATA[Quick question or intensive inquiry: The role of message elaboration in the effectiveness of self-persuasive anti-alcohol posters]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c536b25d5eed0c484a48179

Self-persuasion (i.e., generating your own arguments) is often more persuasive than direct persuasion (i.e., being provided with arguments), even when the technique is applied in media messages by framing the message as a question. It is unclear, however, if these messages are more persuasive when viewed for a long period to allow more elaboration about the message, or for a short period to reduce elaboration. In the current experiment, this is addressed by examining whether anti-alcohol posters framed as a statement (direct persuasion) or an open-ended question (self-persuasion) are more effective to reduce alcohol consumption under conditions of short- or long message exposure, compared to a control condition (no poster). Additionally, the potentially moderating roles of self-perceived alcohol identity and self-esteem on both types of persuasion are examined. Participants (N = 149) were exposed to a self-persuasion or direct persuasion anti-alcohol poster, either briefly before or continuously during a bogus beer taste task. The amount of alcohol consumed was the covert dependent variable. Contrary to expectations, both posters failed to affect alcohol consumption, regardless of exposure length. No moderation effects for self-perceived alcohol identity and self-esteem of the participants were found. Possible explanations are discussed.

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<![CDATA[The influence of prosocial priming on visual perspective taking and automatic imitation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c521859d5eed0c484797d2c

Imitation and perspective taking are core features of non-verbal social interactions. We imitate one another to signal a desire to affiliate and consider others’ points of view to better understand their perspective. Prior research suggests that a relationship exists between prosocial behaviour and imitation. For example, priming prosocial behaviours has been shown to increase imitative tendencies in automatic imitation tasks. Despite its importance during social interactions, far less is known about how perspective taking might relate to either prosociality or imitation. The current study investigates the relationship between automatic imitation and perspective taking by testing the extent to which these skills are similarly modulated by prosocial priming. Across all experimental groups, a surprising ceiling effect emerged in the perspective taking task (the Director’s Task), which prevented the investigation of prosocial priming on perspective taking. A comparison of other studies using the Director’s Task shows wide variability in accuracy scores across studies and is suggestive of low task reliability. In addition, despite using a high-power design, and contrary to three previous studies, no effect of prosocial prime on imitation was observed. Meta-analysing all studies to date suggests that the effects of prosocial primes on imitation are variable and could be small. The current study, therefore, offers caution when using the computerised Director’s Task as a measure of perspective taking with adult populations, as it shows high variability across studies and may suffer from a ceiling effect. In addition, the results question the size and robustness of prosocial priming effects on automatic imitation. More generally, by reporting null results we hope to minimise publication bias and by meta-analysing results as studies emerge and making data freely available, we hope to move towards a more cumulative science of social cognition.

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<![CDATA[Compassionate faces: Evidence for distinctive facial expressions associated with specific prosocial motivations]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c5217edd5eed0c484795a2a

Compassion is a complex cognitive, emotional and behavioural process that has important real-world consequences for the self and others. Considering this, it is important to understand how compassion is communicated. The current research investigated the expression and perception of compassion via the face. We generated exemplar images of two compassionate facial expressions induced from two mental imagery tasks with different compassionate motivations (Study 1). Our kind- and empathic compassion faces were perceived differently and the empathic-compassion expression was perceived as best depicting the general definition of compassion (Study 2). Our two composite faces differed in their perceived happiness, kindness, sadness, fear and concern, which speak to their underling motivation and emotional resonance. Finally, both faces were accurately discriminated when presented along a compassion continuum (Study 3). Our results demonstrate two perceptually and functionally distinct facial expressions of compassion, with potentially different consequences for the suffering of others.

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<![CDATA[Interactive effects of OXTR and GAD1 on envy-associated behaviors and neural responses]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c4243a2d5eed0c4845e0913

Inequity aversion (negative feelings induced by outcome differences between the self and other) plays a key role in human social behaviors. The neurotransmitters oxytocin and GABA have been implicated in neural responses to inequity. However, it remains poorly understood not only how individual genetic factors related to oxytocin and GABA affect the neural mechanisms behind inequity aversion, but also how these genes interact. To address these issues, we examined relationships between genotypes, behavioral decisions and brain activities during the ultimatum game. We identified interactive effects between the polymorphisms of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) and glutamate decarboxylase 1 gene for GABA synthesis (GAD1) on envy aversion (i.e., disadvantageous inequity aversion) and on envy-induced activity in the dorsal ACC (dACC). Thus, our integrated approach suggested interactive genetic effects between OXTR and GAD1 on envy aversion and the underlying neural substrates.

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<![CDATA[WhatsApp in hospital? An empirical investigation of individual and organizational determinants to use]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c424387d5eed0c4845e04c0

The increasing use of messaging applications such as WhatsApp for both social and personal purposes has determined an increase in the widespread use of these technologies, even in healthcare. A growing number of healthcare professionals have adopted WhatsApp in their daily work in order to share information with peers and patients. Past research has highlighted the advantages and disadvantages of WhatsApp usage in healthcare settings; in particular two positions appear to coexist in the scientific debate: those that expose and underline all of the positive aspects of the phenomenon, and those which also highlight the negative aspects, linked in particular to the clinical risks for patients, data security and privacy protection. The main objective of this study was to assess if and how individual and organizational determinants can trigger or inhibit the use of WhatsApp in a hospital setting, and which variables managers can exploit to guide professionals’ behaviors. Data were collected through a survey administered to physicians and nurses in an Italian University Hospital in Rome; a total of 191 high-quality responses were received. The results show that WhatsApp is widely used in the Hospital, and that its use is mainly due to the perception of numerous advantages and benefits reported in clinical practice. Moreover, an interplay exists between organizational and individual factors in determining the use of WhatsApp between healthcare professionals and with patients. In particular, individual factors play a key role as determinants of the use of WhatsApp; healthcare professionals use this technology mainly based on its perceived usefulness. Instead, organizational factors play a secondary role; they do not have a direct influence on the use of WhatsApp, but always act through individual factors. This study is the first to analyses the influence of individual and organizational determinants of WhatsApp usage in the hospital setting, and provides hospital managers with important information in order to manage this phenomenon and implement adequate strategies to exploit its potential increase.

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<![CDATA[Body ownership increases the interference between observed and executed movements]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c37b79bd5eed0c48449062f

When we successfully achieve willed actions, the feeling that our moving body parts belong to the self (i.e., body ownership) is barely required. However, how and to what extent the awareness of our own body contributes to the neurocognitive processes subserving actions is still debated. Here we capitalized on immersive virtual reality in order to examine whether and how body ownership influences motor performance (and, secondly, if it modulates the feeling of voluntariness). Healthy participants saw a virtual body either from a first or a third person perspective. In both conditions, they had to draw continuously straight vertical lines while seeing the virtual arm doing the same action (i.e., drawing lines) or deviating from them (i.e., drawing ellipses). Results showed that when there was a mismatch between the intended and the seen movements (i.e., participants had to draw lines but the avatar drew ellipses), motor performance was strongly “attracted” towards the seen (rather than the performed) movement when the avatar’s body part was perceived as own (i.e., first person perspective). In support of previous studies, here we provide direct behavioral evidence that the feeling of body ownership modulates the interference of seen movements to the performed movements.

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<![CDATA[High mutual cooperation rates in rats learning reciprocal altruism: The role of payoff matrix]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c36680fd5eed0c4841a6ff8

Cooperation is one of the most studied paradigms for the understanding of social interactions. Reciprocal altruism -a special type of cooperation that is taught by means of the iterated prisoner dilemma game (iPD)- has been shown to emerge in different species with different success rates. When playing iPD against a reciprocal opponent, the larger theoretical long-term reward is delivered when both players cooperate mutually. In this work, we trained rats in iPD against an opponent playing a Tit for Tat strategy, using a payoff matrix with positive and negative reinforcements, that is food and timeout respectively. We showed for the first time, that experimental rats were able to learn reciprocal altruism with a high average cooperation rate, where the most probable state was mutual cooperation (85%). Although when subjects defected, the most probable behavior was to go back to mutual cooperation. When we modified the matrix by increasing temptation rewards (T) or by increasing cooperation rewards (R), the cooperation rate decreased. In conclusion, we observe that an iPD matrix with large positive reward improves less cooperation than one with small rewards, shown that satisfying the relationship among iPD reinforcement was not enough to achieve high mutual cooperation behavior. Therefore, using positive and negative reinforcements and an appropriate contrast between rewards, rats have cognitive capacity to learn reciprocal altruism. This finding allows to infer that the learning of reciprocal altruism has early appeared in evolution.

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<![CDATA[Why do psychiatric patients attend or not attend treatment groups in the community: A qualitative study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c1c0aa5d5eed0c4844267b0

Background

Non-attendance of treatment groups in the community has been a long-standing problem in mental health care. It has been found to have financial ramifications for services, worsen outcomes for those that do not attend and negatively impact on therapeutic group processes. There is a need to gain a better understanding of patients’ reasons for attending or not attending. This study aimed to explore patient views on facilitators and barriers to the attendance of treatment groups in the community.

Methods

The study used interview data collected as part of three studies that investigated treatment groups for psychiatric patients in the community. Sixty-seven interview transcripts were analysed using the framework method.

Results

Five themes relating to facilitators of group attendance were identified: opportunity for autonomy; self-acknowledging need and therapist encouragement; optimal group format and safe environment; interest in content and enjoyment; actual and expected benefits of attendance. Four themes related to barriers: not being sufficiently informed; concerns about social interactions and the unknown; limited accessibility; and negative group dynamics.

Conclusion

To facilitate attendance and reduce attrition to treatment groups in the community clinicians should address patient’s wishes for information, capture their interest in the group modality, and potentially offer a ‘trial’ session. Furthermore, they should make the group location and time as accessible as possible and create a moderately sized group of six to eight patients. In these groups, mutual respect, feelings of safety and encouragement appear essential to make patients feel they can benefit from attendance.

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<![CDATA[Digital Identity: The effect of trust and reputation information on user judgement in the Sharing Economy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c1c0ae2d5eed0c484426d4a

The Sharing Economy (SE) is a growing ecosystem focusing on peer-to-peer enterprise. In the SE the information available to assist individuals (users) in making decisions focuses predominantly on community-generated trust and reputation information. However, how such information impacts user judgement is still being understood. To explore such effects, we constructed an artificial SE accommodation platform where we varied the elements related to hosts’ digital identity, measuring users’ perceptions and decisions to interact. Across three studies, we find that trust and reputation information increases not only the users’ perceived trustworthiness, credibility, and sociability of hosts, but also the propensity to rent a private room in their home. This effect is seen when providing users both with complete profiles and profiles with partial user-selected information. Closer investigations reveal that three elements relating to the host’s digital identity are sufficient to produce such positive perceptions and increased rental decisions, regardless of which three elements are presented. Our findings have relevant implications for human judgment and privacy in the SE, and question its current culture of ever increasing information-sharing.

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<![CDATA[Private-sector investor’s intention and motivation to invest in Land Degradation Neutrality]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c1c0af9d5eed0c484427057

Private-sector investors could be key players in combatting global land degradation and realising the emerging concept of Land Degradation Neutrality (LDN). To better understand how to incentivize private-sector investors for LDN, we conducted an online-survey of 68 private-sector investors. Structural equation modelling based on the theory of planned behavior was performed to investigate how cognitive, social, emotional, motivational and financial determinants influence their intention and motivation to invest in LDN. Good knowledge and a positive attitude towards both LDN and investing sustainably were found to be main predictors for intention. In contrast, perceived social pressure had little effect on the intention to invest towards combating land degradation. The general motivation to invest sustainably was mainly triggered by a consciousness for sustainability and emotional attachment, less by the desire for short-term profit maximisation whilst prospects of long-term financial return are important. Overall, strong homogeneity in psychological determinants was found for both traditional and impact investors. As the determinants of the intention and the motivation to invest sustainably do not substantially differ across different investor types, our study implies that investors should be targeted as a uniform group when mobilising interest for LDN. Emphasis should be placed on the psychological determinants traditional and impact investors commonly share, rather than on the type-specific characteristics that may distinguish different investor types.

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<![CDATA[Chimpanzees’ understanding of social leverage]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c1ab863d5eed0c484027d7d

Social primates can influence others through the control of resources. For instance, dominant male chimpanzees might allow subordinates access to mate with females in exchange for social support. However, little is known about how chimpanzees strategically use a position of leverage to maximize their own benefits. We address this question by presenting dyads of captive chimpanzee (N = 6) with a task resulting in an unequal reward distribution. To gain the higher reward each individual should wait for their partner to act. In addition, one participant had leverage: access to an alternative secure reward. By varying the presence and value of the leverage we tested whether individuals used it strategically (e.g. by waiting longer for partners to act when they had leverage in the form of alternatives). Additionally, non-social controls served to show if chimpanzees understood the social dilemma. We measured the likelihood to choose the leverage and their latencies to act. The final decision made by the chimpanzees did not differ as a function of condition (test versus non-social control) or the value of the leverage, but they did wait longer to act when the leverage was smaller—particularly in test (versus non-social control) trials suggesting that they understood the conflict of interest involved. The chimpanzees thus recognized the existence of social leverage, but did not use it strategically to maximize their rewards.

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<![CDATA[An association between multiculturalism and psychological distress]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c12cf99d5eed0c484914a13

Amidst increasing focus on rising rates of substance abuse and suicide among white Americans and extending prior research on intergroup attitudes and health, this study examines a novel factor associated with psychological distress: disagreement with multiculturalism. Using the Portraits of American Life Study (N = 2,292), logistic regressions indicate that for Whites and Hispanics, increased likelihood of psychological distress (depression, hopelessness and worthlessness) is associated with stronger disagreement with multiculturalism, measured as “If we want to create a society where people get along, we must recognize that each ethnic group has the right to maintain its own unique traditions.” For Blacks, however, attitudes toward multiculturalism are not associated with psychological distress. Future research might determine if these results can be replicated, and if so, identify the causal mechanism(s) at work.

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