ResearchPad - Spectroscopy https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Homonuclear Decoupling in 1H NMR of Solids by Remote Correlation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N3c84ca3c-3c93-4990-9864-f5388ba7c5d9

Abstract

The typical linewidths of 1H NMR spectra of powdered organic solids at 111 kHz magic‐angle spinning (MAS) are of the order of a few hundred Hz. While this is remarkable in comparison to the tens of kHz observed in spectra of static samples, it is still the key limit to the use of 1H in solid‐state NMR, especially for complex systems. Here, we demonstrate a novel strategy to further improve the spectral resolution. We show that the anti‐z‐COSY experiment can be used to reduce the residual line broadening of 1H NMR spectra of powdered organic solids. Results obtained with the anti‐z‐COSY sequence at 100 kHz MAS on thymol, β‐AspAla, and strychnine show an improvement in resolution of up to a factor of two compared to conventional spectra acquired at the same spinning rate.

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<![CDATA[Structure of a Protein–RNA Complex by Solid‐State NMR Spectroscopy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N5d8b2f76-1e65-4989-9499-e174a7bb6cdc

Abstract

Solid‐state NMR (ssNMR) is applicable to high molecular‐weight (MW) protein assemblies in a non‐amorphous precipitate. The technique yields atomic resolution structural information on both soluble and insoluble particles without limitations of MW or requirement of crystals. Herein, we propose and demonstrate an approach that yields the structure of protein–RNA complexes (RNP) solely from ssNMR data. Instead of using low‐sensitivity magnetization transfer steps between heteronuclei of the protein and the RNA, we measure paramagnetic relaxation enhancement effects elicited on the RNA by a paramagnetic tag coupled to the protein. We demonstrate that this data, together with chemical‐shift‐perturbation data, yields an accurate structure of an RNP complex, starting from the bound structures of its components. The possibility of characterizing protein–RNA interactions by ssNMR may enable applications to large RNP complexes, whose structures are not accessible by other methods.

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<![CDATA[Drug Screening in Human Cells by NMR Spectroscopy Allows the Early Assessment of Drug Potency]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N5689bcd4-ac20-4ff7-8437-c1340f436345

Abstract

Structure‐based drug development is often hampered by the lack of in vivo activity of promising compounds screened in vitro, due to low membrane permeability or poor intracellular binding selectivity. Herein, we show that ligand screening can be performed in living human cells by “intracellular protein‐observed” NMR spectroscopy, without requiring enzymatic activity measurements or other cellular assays. Quantitative binding information is obtained by fast, inexpensive 1H NMR experiments, providing intracellular dose‐ and time‐dependent ligand binding curves, from which kinetic and thermodynamic parameters linked to cell permeability and binding affinity and selectivity are obtained. The approach was applied to carbonic anhydrase and, in principle, can be extended to any NMR‐observable intracellular target. The results obtained are directly related to the potency of candidate drugs, that is, the required dose. The application of this approach at an early stage of the drug design pipeline could greatly increase the low success rate of modern drug development.

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<![CDATA[Bioluminescence of Vibrio fischeri: bacteria respond quickly and sensitively to pulsed microwave electric (but not magnetic) fields]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N1d9d2fbd-79ff-4bbb-847e-c2a093905b8e

Abstract.

Biological systems with intrinsic luminescent properties serve as powerful and noninvasive bioreporters for real-time and label-free monitoring of cell physiology. This study employs the bioluminescent marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri to investigate the effects of separated microwave electric (E) and magnetic (H) fields. Using a cylindrical TM010 mode aluminum resonant cavity, designed to spatially separate E and H fields of a pulsed microwave (2.45 GHz) input, we sampled at 100-ms intervals the 490-nm emission of bioluminescence from suspensions of the V. fischeri. E-field exposure (at 4.24 and 13.4 kV/m) results in rapid and sensitive responses to 100-ms pulses. H-field excitation elicits no measurable responses, even at 100-fold higher power input levels (equivalent to 183 A/m). The observed effects on bacterial light output partially correlate with measured E-field-induced temperature increases. In conclusion, the endogenous bioluminescence of V. fischeri provides a sensitive and noninvasive method to assess the biological effects of microwave fields.

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<![CDATA[Dynamic visualization of the whole process of cytotoxic T lymphocytes killing B16 tumor cells in vitro]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N410bc3f9-07a1-4294-a8d3-b48d80e1bd17

Abstract.

Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) play a key role in adoptive cell therapy (ACT) by destroying tumor cells. Although some mechanisms of CTLs killing tumor cells have already been revealed, the precise dynamic information of CTLs’ interaction with tumor cells is still not known. Here, we used confocal microscopy to visualize the whole process of how CTLs kill tumor cells in vitro. According to imaging data, CTLs destroyed the target tumor cells rapidly and efficiently. Several CTLs surrounded one or more tumor cells, and the average time for CTLs destroying one or more tumor cells in vitro is dozens of minutes only. Our study displayed the temporal events of CTLs’ interaction with tumor cells at the beginning up to the point of killing them. Furthermore, the imaging data presented strong cytotoxicity of CTLs toward the specific tumor cells. These results could help us to well understand the mechanism of CTLs’ elimination of tumor cells and improve the efficacy of ACT in cancer immunotherapy.

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<![CDATA[Early diagnosis of traumatic intracranial hematomas]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N33143bf0-18ed-4188-ac55-17b1490bf092

Abstract.

Timing of the intervention for intracranial hematomas is critical for its success, specifically since expansion of the hemorrhage can result in debilitating and sometimes fatal outcomes. Led by Britton Chance, we and an extended team from University of Pennsylvania, Baylor and Drexel universities developed a handheld brain hematoma detector for early triage and diagnosis of head trauma victims. After obtaining de novo Food and Drug Administration clearance, over 200 systems are deployed in all Marine battalion aid stations around the world. Infrascanner, a handheld brain hematoma detection system, is based on the differential near-infrared light absorption of the injured versus the noninjured part of brain. About 12 independent studies have been conducted in the USA, Canada, Spain, Italy, the Netherlands, Germany, Russia, Poland, Afghanistan, India, China, and Turkey. Here, we outline the background and design of the device as well as clinical studies with a total of 1293 patients and 203 hematomas. Infrascanner demonstrates high sensitivity (adults: 92.5% and children: 93%) and specificity (adults: 82.9% and children: 86.5%) in detecting intracranial hematomas >3.5  mL in volume and <2.5  cm from the surface of the brain. Infrascanner is a clinically effective screening solution for head trauma patients in prehospital settings where timely triage is critical.

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<![CDATA[Connectivity properties in the prefrontal cortex during working memory: a near-infrared spectroscopy study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N0ab45303-20a2-43b9-8087-fcb8b1bbc3f4

Abstract.

Working memory (WM) plays a crucial role in human brain functions. The application of brain connectivity analysis helps to understand the brain network properties in WM. Combination of functional and effective connectivity can provide new insights for exploring network attributes. Nevertheless, few studies have combined these two modes in WM. Near-infrared spectroscopy was used to investigate the connectivity properties in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) during n-back (0-back and 2-back) tasks by combining functional and effective connectivity analysis. Our results demonstrated that the PFC network showed small-world properties in both WM tasks. The characteristic path length was significantly longer in the 2-back task than in the 0-back task, while there was no obvious difference in the clustering coefficient between two tasks. Regarding the effective connectivity, the Granger causality (GC) was higher for right PFC→left PFC than for left PFC→right PFC in the 2-back task. Compared with the 0-back task, GC of right PFC→left PFC was higher in the 2-back task. Our findings show that, along with memory load increase, long range connections in PFC are enhanced and this enhancement might be associated with the stronger information flow from right PFC to left PFC.

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<![CDATA[fNIRS improves seizure detection in multimodal EEG-fNIRS recordings]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Ne04eed59-0a85-470f-8a50-2967c67da7b1

Abstract.

In the context of epilepsy monitoring, electroencephalography (EEG) remains the modality of choice. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a relatively innovative modality that cannot only characterize hemodynamic profiles of seizures but also allow for long-term recordings. We employ deep learning methods to investigate the benefits of integrating fNIRS measures for seizure detection. We designed a deep recurrent neural network with long short-term memory units and subsequently validated it using the CHBMIT scalp EEG database—a compendium of 896 h of surface EEG seizure recordings. After validating our network using EEG, fNIRS, and multimodal data comprising a corpus of 89 seizures from 40 refractory epileptic patients was used as model input to evaluate the integration of fNIRS measures. Following heuristic hyperparameter optimization, multimodal EEG-fNIRS data provide superior performance metrics (sensitivity and specificity of 89.7% and 95.5%, respectively) in a seizure detection task, with low generalization errors and loss. False detection rates are generally low, with 11.8% and 5.6% for EEG and multimodal data, respectively. Employing multimodal neuroimaging, particularly EEG-fNIRS, in epileptic patients, can enhance seizure detection performance. Furthermore, the neural network model proposed and characterized herein offers a promising framework for future multimodal investigations in seizure detection and prediction.

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<![CDATA[Special Section Guest Editorial: Celebration of the Britton Chance Legacy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N901b0866-0d2c-4c09-a772-c04d7c882429

Abstract.

This guest editorial introduces the Special Section on Metabolic Imaging and Spectroscopy: Britton Chance 105th Birthday Commemorative.

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<![CDATA[Unraveling the molecular nature of melanin changes in metastatic cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N0111dbc6-752a-447d-b2f3-455811a1f4dd

Abstract.

More people die from melanoma after a stage I diagnosis than after a stage IV diagnosis, because the tools available to clinicians do not readily identify which early-stage cancers will be aggressive. Near-infrared pump-probe microscopy detects fundamental differences in melanin structure between benign human moles and melanoma and also correlates with metastatic potential. However, the biological mechanisms of these changes have been difficult to quantify, as many different mechanisms can contribute to the pump-probe signal. We use model systems (sepia, squid, and synthetic eumelanin), cellular uptake studies, and a range of pump and probe wavelengths to demonstrate that the clinically observed effects come from alterations of the aggregated mode from “thick oligomer stacks” to “thin oligomer stacks” (due to changes in monomer composition) and (predominantly) deaggregation of the assembled melanin structure. This provides the opportunity to use pump-probe microscopy for the detection and study of melanin-associated diseases.

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<![CDATA[Cherenkov excited short-wavelength infrared fluorescence imaging in vivo with external beam radiation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Ncda2628a-6ea8-4471-a5ee-6bc0f6548c48

Abstract.

Cherenkov emission induced by external beam radiation therapy from a clinical linear accelerator (LINAC) can be used to excite phosphors deep in biological tissues. As with all luminescence imaging, there is a desire to minimize the spectral overlap between the excitation light and emission wavelengths, here between the Cherenkov and the phosphor. Cherenkov excited short-wavelength infrared (SWIR, 1000 to 1700 nm) fluorescence imaging has been demonstrated for the first time, using long Stokes-shift fluorophore PdSe quantum dots (QD) with nanosecond lifetime and an optimized SWIR detection. The 1/λ2 intensity spectrum characteristic of Cherenkov emission leads to low overlap of this into the fluorescence spectrum of PdSe QDs in the SWIR range. Additionally, using a SWIR camera itself inherently ignores the stronger Cherenkov emission wavelengths dominant across the visible spectrum. The SWIR luminescence was shown to extend the depth sensitivity of Cherenkov imaging, which could be used for applications in radiotherapy sensing and imaging in human tissue with targeted molecular probes.

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<![CDATA[Bioconversion of fructus sophorae into 5,7,8,4’-tetrahydroxyis oflavone with Aspergillus aculeatus]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c897726d5eed0c4847d2578

A fungus identified as Aspergillus aculeatus was used to biotransform genistein and glycosides to polyhydroxylated isoflavones. The strain was identified on the basis of colony morphology features and ITS rDNA sequence analysis. Phylogenetic tree was constructed to determine its taxonomic status. Genistein and glycosides were transformed by Aspergillus aculeatus to 5,7,8,4’- tetrahydroxyisoflavone. The chemical structure of the product was identified by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC), liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry(LC/MS), Infrared spectroscopy (IR) and NMR spectrometer methods. The ITS rDNA sequence of the strain had 100% similarity with Aspergillus. Furthermore, it was ultimately identified as Aspergillus aculeatus. The metabolite of genistein and glycosides was identified as 5,7,8,4’-tetrahydroxyisoflavone. 120 mg 5,7,8,4’-tetrahydroxyisoflavone was made from 20 g fructus sophorae, which was bioconverted unconditionally by Aspergillus aculeatus for 96 h, and the purity was 96%. On the basis of the findings, Aspergillus aculeatus was a novel strain with specific ability to convert genistein and glycosides into 5,7,8,4’-tetrahydroxyisoflavone which had potential applications.

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<![CDATA[Association between sublingual microcirculation, tissue perfusion and organ failure in major trauma: A subgroup analysis of a prospective observational study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c8823c2d5eed0c484638f67

Introduction

Previous studies described impaired microvascular perfusion and tissue oxygenation as reliable predictors of Multiple Organ Failure in major trauma. However, this relationship has been incompletely investigated. The objective of this analysis is to further evaluate the association between organ dysfunction and microcirculation after trauma.

Materials and methods

This is a retrospective subgroup analysis on 28 trauma patients enrolled for the Microcirculation DAIly MONitoring in critically ill patients study (NCT 02649088). Patients were divided in two groups according with their Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score at day 4. At admission and every 24 hours, the sublingual microcirculation was evaluated with Sidestream Darkfield Imaging (SDF) and peripheral tissue perfusion was assessed with Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) and Vascular Occlusion Test (VOT). Simultaneously, hemodynamic, clinical/laboratory parameters and main organ supports were collected.

Results

Median SOFA score at Day 4 was 6.5. Accordingly, patients were divided in two groups: D4-SOFA ≤6.5 and D4-SOFA >6.5. The Length of Stay in Intensive Care was significantly higher in patients with D4-SOFA>6.5 compared to D4-SOFA≤6.5 (p = 0.013). Total Vessel Density of small vessels was significantly lower in patients with high D4-SOFA score at Day 1 (p = 0.002) and Day 2 (p = 0.006) after admission; the Perfused Vessel Density was lower in patients with high D4-SOFA score at Day 1 (p = 0.007) and Day 2 (p = 0.033). At Day 1, NIRS monitoring with VOT showed significantly faster tissue oxygen saturation downslope (p = 0.018) and slower upslope (p = 0.04) in patients with high D4-SOFA.

Discussion

In our cohort of major traumas, sublingual microcirculation and peripheral microvascular reactivity were significantly more impaired early after trauma in those patients who developed more severe organ dysfunctions. Our data would support the hypothesis that restoration of macrocirculation can be dissociated from restoration of peripheral and tissue perfusion, and that microvascular alterations can be associated with organ failure.

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<![CDATA[Modified shape index for object-based random forest image classification of agricultural systems using airborne hyperspectral datasets]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c8acce5d5eed0c484990263

This paper highlights the importance of optimized shape index for agricultural management system analysis that utilizes the contiguous bands of hyperspectral data to define the gradient of the spectral curve and improve image classification accuracy. Currently, a number of machine learning methods would resort to using averaged spectral information over wide bandwidths resulting in loss of crucial information available in those contiguous bands. The loss of information could mean a drop in the discriminative power when it comes to land cover classes with comparable spectral responses, as in the case of cultivated fields versus fallow lands. In this study, we proposed and tested three new optimized novel algorithms based on Moment Distance Index (MDI) that characterizes the whole shape of the spectral curve. The image classification tests conducted on two publicly available hyperspectral data sets (AVIRIS 1992 Indian Pine and HYDICE Washington DC Mall images) showed the robustness of the optimized algorithms in terms of classification accuracy. We achieved an overall accuracy of 98% and 99% for AVIRIS and HYDICE, respectively. The optimized indices were also time efficient as it avoided the process of band dimension reduction, such as those implemented by several well-known classifiers. Our results showed the potential of optimized shape indices, specifically the Moment Distance Ratio Right/Left (MDRRL), to discriminate between types of tillage (corn-min and corn-notill) and between grass/pasture and grass/trees, tree and grass under object-based random forest approach.

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<![CDATA[Physical assessment, spectroscopic and chemometric analysis of starch-based foils with selected functional additives]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c6dc9cdd5eed0c48452a1f6

The paper presents the results of studies related to the impact of functional additives in the form of polylactide (PLA), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and keratin hydrolysate (K) on the physical characteristics of biopolymer foils. TPS granulate was obtained using a TS-45 single-screw extruder with L/D = 16. Foil was produced with the use of an L/D = 36 extruder with film-blowing section. The impact of the quantity and type of the functional additives on the processing efficiency and energy consumption of granulate extrusion, as well as the physical characteristics of the foil produced: thickness, basis weight, and colour were determined. By measuring the FTIR spectra it was determined the type and origin of the respective functional groups. It was observed that foils produced from granulates with the addition of 3% PVA were characterised by the lowest thickness and basis weight. Addition of 2 and 3% of PLA increased thickness and basis weight of starch-based foils significantly. Increasing the content of keratin in SG/K samples resulted in a decrease of brightness and intensify the yellow tint of foils, especially when 2 and 3% of keratin was used. In terms of the other samples, it was observed that the colour remained almost unchanged irrespective of the percentage content of the additive used. Infrared analyses conducted on foil containing PVA, PLA, and K revealed a change in spectra intensity in the frequency range associated with–OH groups originating from the forming free, intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds. Based on an analysis of the respective bands within the IR range it was also concluded that considerable structural changes took place with respect to the glycosidic bonds of starch itself. The application of the mentioned additives had a significant structural impact on the produced starch-based foils. Furthermore, the conducted UV-Vis analyses revealed a substantial increase in absorbance and a related reduction of the permeability (colour change) of the obtained materials in the range of ultraviolet and visible light.

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<![CDATA[Frequency-resolved analysis of coherent oscillations of local cerebral blood volume, measured with near-infrared spectroscopy, and systemic arterial pressure in healthy human subjects]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c6c75b8d5eed0c4843d006b

We report a study on twenty-two healthy human subjects of the dynamic relationship between cerebral hemoglobin concentration ([HbT]), measured with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in the prefrontal cortex, and systemic arterial blood pressure (ABP), measured with finger plethysmography. [HbT] is a measure of local cerebral blood volume (CBV). We induced hemodynamic oscillations at discrete frequencies in the range 0.04–0.20 Hz with cyclic inflation and deflation of pneumatic cuffs wrapped around the subject’s thighs. We modeled the transfer function of ABP and [HbT] in terms of effective arterial (K(a)) and venous (K(v)) compliances, and a cerebral autoregulation time constant (τ(AR)). The mean values (± standard errors) of these parameters across the twenty-two subjects were K(a) = 0.01 ± 0.01 μM/mmHg, K(v) = 0.09 ± 0.05 μM/mmHg, and τ(AR) = 2.2 ± 1.3 s. Spatially resolved measurements in a subset of eight subjects reveal a spatial variability of these parameters that may exceed the inter-subject variability at a set location. This study sheds some light onto the role that ABP and cerebral blood flow (CBF) play in the dynamics of [HbT] measured with NIRS, and paves the way for new non-invasive optical studies of cerebral blood flow and cerebral autoregulation.

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<![CDATA[S100A4 inhibits cell proliferation by interfering with the S100A1-RAGE V domain]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c75ac75d5eed0c484d087e3

The Ca2+-dependent human S100A4 (Mts1) protein is part of the S100 family. Here, we studied the interactions of S100A4 with S100A1 using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. We used the chemical shift perturbed residues from HSQC to model S100A4 and S100A1 complex with HADDOCK software. We observed that S100A1 and the RAGE V domain have an analogous binding area in S100A4. We discovered that S100A4 acts as an antagonist among the RAGE V domain and S100A1, which inhibits tumorigenesis and cell proliferation. We used a WST-1 assay to examine the bioactivity of S100A1 and S100A4. This study could possibly be beneficial for evaluating new proteins for the treatment of diseases.

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<![CDATA[Haralick texture feature analysis for quantifying radiation response heterogeneity in murine models observed using Raman spectroscopic mapping]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c706766d5eed0c4847c6fbd

Tumour heterogeneity plays a large role in the response of tumour tissues to radiation therapy. Inherent biological, physical, and even dose deposition heterogeneity all play a role in the resultant observed response. We here implement the use of Haralick textural analysis to quantify the observed glycogen production response, as observed via Raman spectroscopic mapping, of tumours irradiated within a murine model. While an array of over 20 Haralick features have been proposed, we here concentrate on five of the most prominent features: homogeneity, local homogeneity, contrast, entropy, and correlation. We show that these Haralick features can be used to quantify the inherent heterogeneity of the Raman spectroscopic maps of tumour response to radiation. Furthermore, our results indicate that Haralick-calculated textural features show a statistically significant dose dependent variation in response heterogeneity, specifically, in glycogen production in tumours irradiated with clinically relevant doses of ionizing radiation. These results indicate that Haralick textural analysis provides a quantitative methodology for understanding the response of murine tumours to radiation therapy. Future work in this area can, for example, utilize the Haralick textural features for understanding the heterogeneity of radiation response as measured by biopsied patient tumour samples, which remains the standard of patient tumour investigation.

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<![CDATA[Raman spectroscopic evaluation of human serum using metal plate and 785- and 1064-nm excitation lasers]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c70675fd5eed0c4847c6f69

In this study, we utilized a stainless steel (SUS304) plate for measuring the Raman scattering spectra of body fluid samples. Using this stainless steel plate, we recorded the Raman scattering spectra of 99.5% ethanol and human serum samples by performing irradiation with 785- and 1064-nm lasers. Raman scattering spectra with intensities equal to or greater than those reported previously were obtained. In addition, the Raman scattering spectra acquired using the 1064-nm laser were less influenced by autofluorescence than those obtained via use of the shorter-wavelength laser. Moreover, the shapes of the spectra did not show any dependence on integration time, and denaturation of the samples was minimal. Our method, based on 1064-nm laser and the stainless steel plate, provides performance equal to or better than the methods reported thus far for the measurement of Raman scattering spectra from liquid samples. This method can be employed to rapidly evaluate the components of serum in liquid form without using surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

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<![CDATA[Temporal evolution and pathway models of poly(ethylene-terephthalate) degradation under multi-factor accelerated weathering exposures]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c70673ad5eed0c4847c6c71

Photolytic and hydrolytic degradation of poly(ethylene-terephthalate) (PET) polymers with different stabilizers were performed under multiple accelerated weathering exposures and changes in the polymers were monitored by various evaluation techniques. Yellowing was caused by photolytic degradation and haze formation was induced by combined effects of photolytic and hydrolytic degradation. The formation of light absorbing chromophores and bleaching of the UV stabilizer additive were recorded through optical spectroscopy. Chain scission and crystallization were found to be common mechanisms under both photolytic and hydrolytic conditions, based on the infrared absorption of the carbonyl (C = O) band and the trans ethylene glycol unit, respectively. The degradation mechanisms determined from these evaluations were then used to construct a set of degradation pathway network models using the network structural equation modeling (netSEM) approach. This method captured the temporal evolution of degradation by assessing statistically significant relationships between applied stressors, mechanistic variables, and performance level responses. Quantitative pathway equations provided the contributions from mechanistic variables to the response changes.

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