ResearchPad - Surgery Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Disparities in Access to Bariatric Surgery in Texas 2013–2017]]>


Access to bariatric care varies across regions, ethnic, and racial groups. Some of these variations may be due to insurance status or socioeconomic status. There are also regional and state variations in access to metabolic and bariatric surgery (MBS). The Texas Inpatient Public Use Data File (IPUDF) and Texas Outpatient Public Use Data File is a state-mandated database that collects information on demographics, procedures, diagnoses, and cost on almost all admissions in Texas. We used them to examine racial disparities in MBS over a 5-y period.


The IPUDF and Texas Outpatient Public Use Data File were examined from the years 2013 through, 2017. We included all patients undergoing a laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy and examined the demographics of these patients. Race and ethnicity are reported separately. We used U.S. Census Bureau statistics and the Texas Department of State Health Services statistics to determine the crude (unadjusted) and adjusted procedure rates of patients undergoing MBS.


In the IUPUDF, the crude unadjusted procedure rate for blacks undergoing MBS was 7.29 per 10,000 population followed by 6.85 per 10,000 for non-Hispanic whites. Hispanics had the lowest rate at 3.20 per 10,000. When adjusted for sex, obesity, age, and race, blacks still had a higher rate of access followed by whites and then Hispanics.


There are disparities to access for bariatric surgery in Texas. Blacks have the greatest access followed by whites. Hispanics have the lowest procedure rate per population.

<![CDATA[PREDICtors for health-related quality of life after elective sigmoidectomy for DIVerticular disease: the PREDIC-DIV study protocol of a prospective multicentric transnational observational study]]>


Diverticulitis is among the most common abdominal disorders. The best treatment strategy for this complicated disease as well as for recurrent stages is still under debate. Moreover, little knowledge exists regarding the effect of different therapeutic strategies on the health-related quality of life (HrQoL). Therefore, the PREDIC-DIV (PREDICtors for health-related quality of life after elective sigmoidectomy for DIVerticular disease) study aims to assess predictors of a change in HrQoL in patients after elective sigmoidectomy for diverticular disease.

Methods and analysis

A prospective multicentre transnational observational study was started in November 2017. Patients undergoing elective sigmoid resection for diverticular disease were included. Primary outcome includes HrQoL 6 months postoperatively, staged by the Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index (GIQLI). Secondary outcomes include HrQoL 6 months after sigmoidectomy, assessed using the Short Form 36 Questionnaire and a custom-made Visual Analogue Scale-based inventory; HrQoL after 12 and 24 months; postoperative morbidity; mortality; influence of surgical technique (conventional laparoscopic multiport operation vs robotic approach); histological grading of inflammation and morphological characteristics of the bowel wall in the resected specimen; postoperative functional changes (faecal incontinence, faecal urge, completeness of emptying, urinary incontinence, sexual function); disease-specific healthcare costs; and changes in economic productivity, measured by the iMTA Productivity Cost Questionnaire. The total follow-up will be 2 years.

Ethics and dissemination

The protocol was approved by the medical ethical committee of the Bavarian Medical Council (report identification number: 2017-177). The study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. The findings of this study will be submitted to a peer-reviewed journal (BMJ Open, Annals of Surgery, British Journal of Surgery, Diseases of the Colon and the Rectum). Abstracts will be submitted to relevant national and international conferences.

Trial registration number

The study is registered with the register as NCT03527706; Pre-results.

<![CDATA[MON-596 Effects of Angiotensin Type 1 Receptor Blockers (ARBs) on the Expression and Secretion of Adiponectin and Leptin in Human White Adipocytes]]>



Adiponectin and leptin are adipokines that are mainly produced in adipocytes and exert various functions. Adiponectin decreases atherosclerosis, oxidative stress, angiogenesis, inflammation, and apoptosis, whereas leptin works oppositely. Angiotensin type-1 receptor (AT1R) blockers (ARBs) are widely used as antihypertensive drugs. Some ARBs are known to activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ, which is a key regulator of fatty acid metabolism. It is reported that adiponectin secretion increases by pioglitazone, a full agonist of PPARγ, and some ARBs via PPAR γ activation. However, the effects of ARBs on leptin secretion are controversial. The present study aimed to examine the effects of ARBs on the expression and secretion of adiponectin and leptin in human white adipocytes.

[Materials and Methods]

Human white preadipocytes (Promo Cell) were differentiated into mature adipocytes in the medium containing insulin, dexamethasone, thyroxin and isobutylmethylxanthine. Pioglitazone and ARBs including telmisartan, irbesartan, azilsartan, candesartan, losartan, olmesartan and valsartan (1µM) were administered in the culture medium on day 4 and 8. The medium was collected on day 12 and the concentrations of adiponectin and leptin were measured by enzyme immunoassay. Real time PCR was performed to quantitate the mRNA expression of adiponectin and leptin in adipocytes. The experiments were performed in quadruplicate.


Pioglitazone significantly increased adiponectin secretion (386.7 ± 133.7 vs. 7.3 ± 1.9 ng/ml in control) from human adipocytes. Among ARBs, adiponectin secretion significantly increased by telmisartan (136.7 ± 16.3 ng/ml) and irbesartan (69.7 ± 23.1 ng/ml), while the other 5 ARBs did not have any influence on adiponectin secretion. Real-time PCR also showed that mRNA expression increased 5.1-fold, 3.8-fold and 1.5-fold by pioglitazone, telmisartan and irbesartan, respectively. Leptin secretion significantly decreased by pioglitazone (27.7 ± 5.0 vs. 82.5 ± 3.8 ng/ml in control). Among ARBs, only telmisartan (38.7 ± 4.2 ng/ml) decreased leptin secretion. Real-time PCR also showed that mRNA expression decreased to be 0.5-fold and 0.7-fold by pioglitazone and telmisartan, respectively. GW9662, a selective antagonist of PPARγ, potently blocked pioglitazone-induced changes of adiponectin and leptin expression and secretion. On the other hand, GW9662 did not reverse telmisartan and irbesartan induced changes.


The changes in adiponectin and leptin secretion by pioglitazone are via PPARγ activation, while those by telmisartan and irbesartan may occur in PPARγ-independent manner.

<![CDATA[MON-590 Presence of Diabetes Diminishes the Ultimate Weight Loss After Bariatric Surgery]]>



Obesity and diabetes as well as their related complications result in both individual and global health burdens. Among patients who present with both obesity and diabetes, bariatric surgery can lead to remission of both these diseases. However, the possible impact of diabetes on the magnitude of weight loss outcomes after bariatric surgery has not been quantified.


To address this question, we extracted data from Michigan Bariatric Surgery Cohort (MI-BASiC) to see whether diabetes at baseline could be a predictor of weight loss outcomes. Consecutive patients 18 years of age or older undergoing gastric bypass (GB) or sleeve gastrectomy (SG) for obesity at the University of Michigan between January 2008 and November 2013 were included in our retrospective cohort. All patients had either body mass index (BMI) > 40 kg/m2 or BMI 35 – 39.9 kg/m2 with comorbid condition. Firstly, we performed Generalized Linear Mixed Model (GLMM) analysis to compare the probability of achieving BMI under 30kg/m2 or achieving excess body weight loss (EBWL) 50% or more for patients with or without diabetes. We then further tested the effect of presence of diabetes for the BMI outcomes across time using Linear Mixed Model (LMM) analysis. Finally, we conducted a LMM analysis to determine if diabetes is a predictor of the future weight loss, percentage of total weight loss or percentage of excess weight loss over 5 years of follow up.


Based on our criteria, 380 patients were included for GB [female 305 (80.3%), mean age 43.6±0.6 years, mean BMI 47.3±0.4kg/m2, diabetes 149 (39.2%), on insulin 45 (11.8%)] and 334 for SG [female 259 (77.5%), mean age 45.3±0.6 years, mean BMI 49.9±0.5kg/m2, diabetes 108 (32.3%), on insulin 29(8.7%)]. From GLMM analysis, the presence of diabetes at baseline did not impact the probability of achieving BMI under 30kg/m2 (p=0.0848), but substantially impacted the probability of achieving 50% or more EBWL (p=0.0021) with individuals without diabetes having a 1.6 (odds ratio 1.56, 95% CL [1.18-2.08]) times higher chance to achieve this threshold. We also showed that individuals with diabetes at baseline had a significant effect to modify BMI points lost, regardless of the surgery type (p=0.0178). The presence of diabetes at baseline diminished weight loss by 1.2 BMI points (95% CL [0.21- 2.20]) which is roughly 10 to 15% of the total BMI points to be lost. LMM analysis further confirmed that after adjusting the time, surgery type, age, gender and baseline weight, there was still a significant difference of absolute weight loss (p=0.0110), percentage of total weight loss (p=0.0089) and percentage of excess weight loss (p=0.0365) between individuals with diabetes versus individuals without diabetes.


In conclusion, our data demonstrate that diabetes diminishes the ultimate weight loss effect of bariatric surgery. Further research is needed to understand why this is the case.

<![CDATA[MON-LB108 Measurement Of Carotid Intima,hepatic Steatosis And Inflammatory Markers In Obese Children]]>


Measurement of carotid intima,hepatic steatosis and inflammatory markers in obese children. Elevated levels of inflammatory factors and increased mean intimal carotid thickness (IMT) would increase the risk of atherothrombotic events and contribute to the progression of cardiovascular disease in obese children. Objectives: Evaluate inflammatory factors, metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic liver steatosis and carotid IMT as an early cardiovascular risk marker. Patients and methods: Descriptive cross-sectional exploratory study. Consider 41 obese children both sexes between 6- 12 years old. Evaluated: anthropometry and determinations of lipid and liver profile, blood glucose, insulin, HOMA, ultrasensitive CRP, fibrinogen. Hepatic ultrasound and measurement of carotid IMT with ESAOTE Mylab 50 Exdicion equipment. . Results: From 41 studied patients, 57% were female. 51% presented MS and 68% elevated triglycerides. CRP> 1 was found in 71% of cases. Hepatic steatosis was observed in 60%, which only 10% had altered transaminases. 12% presented high fibrinogen. Patients with MS had a significant positive difference in the IMTCC (X = 0.41 ± 0.12; p 0.024), HDL (X 37.89 ± 1.72; p 0.004) triglycerides (X 149.42 ± 10.69; p 0.002) in relation to patients without MS. Conclusion: CRP is an inflammatory risk factor associated with elevated BMI and MS. There was a higher prevalence of MS in our study. The increase in the average intimal thickness is significantly related to the presence of MS and RCP>1. The determination of marker molecules of an inflammatory state and measurement of carotid IMT would contribute to the implementation of strategies to prevent cardiovascular, hepatic and metabolic risk since childhood.

<![CDATA[Amyand's Hernia: Perforated Appendix in an Incarcerated Inguinal Hernia]]>

Amyand’s hernia is an unusual condition characterized by the presence of a normal or inflamed appendix located within an inguinal hernia. We present a rare situation wherein a 56-year-old male patient presented with an incarcerated inflamed appendix in a right inguinal hernia. He was emergently taken to the operating room, with diagnostic laparoscopy changed to open, due to incarcerated cecum and terminal ileum. The incarcerated segment had to be resected with primary anastomosis. The inflamed and purulent contents were washed out, and the hernia defect was left unrepaired due to the presence of abscess in the inguinal canal. 

<![CDATA[Unusual Chemotherapeutic Resistant Testicular Embryonal Germ Cell Tumor with Widespread Metastasis in a Case of Klinefelter Syndrome: A Case Report]]>

Cryptorchidism is an undeniable risk factor for testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) and is also commonly associated with Klinefelter syndrome (KS) patients. Embryonal cell carcinoma usually shows strong expression of CD30 and OCT3/4, with patchy staining of PLAP1. Most patients with nonseminomatous GCTs (NSGCTs) can achieve total remission with proactive chemotherapy, and most can be cured. We present an extremely rare case of a testicular embryonal germ cell tumor that is atypical in its gene expression and response to chemotherapy treatment.

A 71-year-old male patient presented in July 2019 with abdominal pain of unknown duration, weight loss for one year, and recent history of altered bowel habits. His past medical history is significant for KS and congenital unilateral cryptorchidism. Physical examination yielded mild abdominal distention and bilateral inguinal lymphadenopathy. Imaging revealed a posterior mediastinal mass and large retroperitoneal masses. The above features, in addition to the history of KS and unilateral cryptorchidism, were highly suggestive of a testicular retroperitoneal germ cell tumor. Serologic studies revealed elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) while other tumor markers were normal. Excisional biopsy of inguinal lymph nodes revealed poorly differentiated embryonal cell carcinoma with strong expression of SALL4, a rare expression of OCT 3/4, and the absence of expression of CD30 and placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP). The patient was given four cycles of bleomycin, etoposide and platinum (BEP) chemotherapy, as is the standard chemotherapy regimen for these tumors, without any significant change in the size of the masses or lymph nodes.

Unfortunately, there are no specific guidelines when it comes to the management of KS patients with testicular GCTs (embryonal cell carcinoma) with aberrant histological markers and normal serum tumor markers. These findings in combination with chemotherapeutic resistance indicate a need for more specific treatment modalities and follow-up for unusual testicular embryonal GCTs in KS patients.

<![CDATA[Lymph Node Ratio as a Prognostic Marker in Rectal Cancer Survival: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis]]>


The lymph node ratio (LNR) is defined as the ratio of the number of positive lymph nodes to the total number of nodes retrieved. LNR has recently emerged as a prognostic factor in rectal cancer. The objective of our study was to pool eligible studies to elucidate the prognostic role of LNR on overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in rectal cancer patients using a meta-analysis.


A systematic database search was performed in MEDLINE and Embase for relevant studies that reported LNR in rectal cancer. Two authors independently screened the relevant articles for selection and data extraction. As a result, a list of such studies and references, published in English up to December 2019, was obtained, and a total of 4,486 node-positive patients in 18 studies were included in this meta-analysis. RevMan software 5.3 (Cochrane Collaboration, the Nordic Cochrane Centre, Copenhagen) was used for conducting all statistical analyses.


A higher LNR was significantly correlated with worse OS [hazard ratio (HR): 2.60; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.21-3.06; p≤.00001] and DFS (HR: 2.43; 95% CI: 2.11-2.80; p≤.00001) in node-positive rectal cancer patients. Besides, LNR is an independent predictive and prognostic marker of OS and DFS (HR: 2.52; 95% CI: 2.17-2.94; p≤.00001 with I2=0%; p=.32 and HR: 2.63; 95% CI: 2.17-3.18; p≤.00001 with I2=0%; p=.63 respectively, irrespective of lymph nodal harvest).


Our present study demonstrates that LNR is an independent predictor of survival in rectal cancer. LNR should be considered as a parameter in future oncological staging systems. Further well-designed randomized control trials to prospectively assess LNR as an independent predictor of rectal cancer survival are necessary before its application in daily practice.

<![CDATA[The Effectiveness of Endovenous Radiofrequency Ablation Application in Varicose Vein Diseases of the Lower Extremity]]>

We aimed to determine the outcome, complications, and quality of life effects of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in the treatment of superficial venous insufficiency.

A total of 134 extremities from 100 patients were evaluated in this retrospective study performed at the Cardiovascular Surgery Department of Atatürk University Faculty of Medicine. Treatment success was determined by occlusion. The clinical, etiologic, anatomic, and pathophysiologic (CEAP) and venous clinical severity score (VCSS) scores of patients were assessed pre- and postoperatively to evaluate clinical outcome and quality of life. The pain was assessed with the Wong-Baker score. Complications and their frequency were assessed and recorded.

Treatment success, as measured by occlusion rate, was 99% percent. Prior to treatment, the CEAP clinical score was C2 (81.0%), while after treatment, it was C0 (54.0%) (p<0.001). The pretreatment median VCSS score was 5 (min-max: 1-9) while the post-treatment median was 1 (min-max: 1-3) (p<0.001). The mean pain score was 1.34; only one patient reported a score of 6 while the minimum score was 1. A total of 15 complications occurred; only one was a major complication (deep vein thrombosis or DVT) while the remaining 14 were minor complications.

While longstanding surgical treatments still provide significant success, the RFA technique not only surpasses them in success rate but also in terms of pain, complications, and better patient satisfaction. The results of our study indicate that RFA is an effective and safe option for the treatment of superficial venous insufficiency.

<![CDATA[Robotic versus Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: Case-Control Outcome Analysis and Surgical Resident Training Implications]]>


The robotic approach in surgery is becoming more widely used in many subspecialties. Robot-assisted laparoscopic procedures provide potential improvements in clinical outcomes due to improved visualization and enhanced surgical ergonomics. In this study, we measured and compared outcomes of robot-assisted laparoscopic cholecystectomy with the conventional laparoscopic technique, as well as the implications for the training of surgical residents.


We compared a total of 244 patients undergoing minimally invasive cholecystectomies performed by one surgeon between July 2013 and June 2016 examining relevant clinical outcomes including operative room (OR) time, length of hospital stay (LOS), readmission to the hospital, post-operative emergency department (ED) visits, and post-operative pain between laparoscopic single-incision cholecystectomy and robot-assisted laparoscopic cholecystectomy. A chi-square test and Student’s t-test were used to compare these variables between the two groups. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used using gender, age, and body mass index (BMI) as variables.


From the total number of procedures of 244, 144 were included in the laparoscopic group and 100 in the robot-assisted group. The robot-assisted patients had a shorter post-operative LOS (mean: 0.8 vs. 1.6 days; p = 0.002). There was no significant difference in the OR time (mean: 64.8 vs. 65.0 minutes; p = 0.945), readmissions (4.0% vs. 3.5%; p = 0.830), post-operative ED visits (7.0% vs. 7.6%; p = 0.851), or post-operative pain (13.0% vs. 21.3%; p= 0.137). Robotic cholecystectomy patients were younger (mean: 46 vs. 52 years; p = 0.023) and had lower BMIs (mean: 31 vs. 33; p = 0.038). Because of these differences, we compared the two groups using PSM that confirmed the shorter LOS in the robotic group (mean: 0.9 vs. 1.9; p = 0.009).


These results demonstrate that robotic cholecystectomies can reduce LOS for patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy, without increasing OR time. Increased surgeon experience with robotic procedures and improved OR efficiency will allow greater opportunities for resident participation. Robotic training curricula need to be employed and objectively evaluated to improve surgical resident skill acquisition and provide earlier and progressive clinical participation in robotic procedures.

<![CDATA[Becker Implant Intracapsular Rupture with Contralateral Axillary Silicone Lymphadenopathy in an Asymptomatic Patient: A Case Report and Literature Review]]>

Silicone gel implants are widely used for cosmetic and reconstructive breast surgery. There has been a paradigm shift with increased utilization of implant-based breast reconstruction compared to autologous reconstruction in the United States over the past couple of decades. Implant rupture is a known complication of silicone gel implants with variable incidence and increased propensity with the age of the implant. Usually, the clinical findings suggestive of implant rupture are not obvious to the patient and surgeon. Intracapsular implant rupture, when the shell of the implant ruptures but the fibrous capsule formed by the breast remains intact, occurs in the majority of cases. While extracapsular rupture, which denotes silicone leakage extending beyond the capsule, is less common. In rare cases, silicone migrates beyond the capsule to distant sites, regional sites, and lymph nodes, leading to a variety of symptoms. Following mastectomy with lymph node dissection, the disruption of normal breast lymphatic drainage may result in aberrant drainage to internal mammary nodes and contralateral axillary lymph nodes. We present a unique case of axillary silicone lymphadenopathy due to contralateral breast intracapsular implant rupture in a patient with no previous ipsilateral breast surgery. The condition was found during a routine breast cancer screening. We also engage in a review of the relevant literature.

<![CDATA[Rates of knee arthroplasty in patients with a history of arthroscopic chondroplasty: results from a retrospective cohort study utilising the National Hospital Episode Statistics for England]]>


The purpose of this study was to analyse the rate of knee arthroplasty in the population of patients with a history of arthroscopic chondroplasty of the knee, in England, over 10 years, with comparison to general population data for patients without a history of chondroplasty.


Retrospective cohort study.


English Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) data.

Participants and interventions

Patients undergoing arthroscopic chondroplasty in England between 2007/2008 and 2016/2017 were identified. Patients undergoing previous arthroscopic knee surgery or simultaneous cruciate ligament reconstruction or microfracture in the same knee were excluded.


Patients subsequently undergoing a knee arthroplasty in the same knee were identified and mortality-adjusted survival analysis was performed (survival without undergoing knee arthroplasty). A Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify factors associated with knee arthroplasty. Relative risk of knee arthroplasty (total or partial) in comparison to the general population was determined.


Through 2007 to 2017, 157 730 eligible chondroplasty patients were identified. Within 1 year, 5.91% (7984/135 197; 95% CI 5.78 to 6.03) underwent knee arthroplasty and 14.22% (8145/57 267; 95% CI 13.94 to 14.51) within 5 years. Patients aged over 30 years with a history of chondroplasty were 17.32 times (risk ratio; 95% CI 16.81 to 17.84) more likely to undergo arthroplasty than the general population without a history of chondroplasty.


Patients with cartilage lesions of the knee, treated with arthroscopic chondroplasty, are at greater risk of subsequent knee arthroplasty than the general population and for a proportion of patients, there is insufficient benefit to prevent the need for knee arthroplasty within 1 to 5 years. These important new data will inform patients of the anticipated outcomes following this procedure. The risk in comparison to non-operative treatment remains unknown and there is an urgent need for a randomised clinical trial in this population.

<![CDATA[Strategies aimed at preventing chronic opioid use in trauma and acute care surgery: a scoping review protocol]]>


Globally every year, millions of patients sustain traumatic injuries and require acute care surgeries. A high incidence of chronic opioid use (up to 58%) has been documented in these populations with significant negative individual and societal impacts. Despite the importance of this public health issue, optimal strategies to limit the chronic use of opioids after trauma and acute care surgery are not clear. We aim to identify existing strategies to prevent chronic opioid use in these populations.

Methods and analysis

We will perform a scoping review of peer-reviewed and non-peer-reviewed literature to identify studies, reviews, recommendations and guidelines on strategies aimed at preventing chronic opioid use in patients after trauma and acute care surgery. We will search MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINHAL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, ProQuest and websites of trauma and acute care surgery, pain, government and professional organisations. Databases will be searched for papers published from 1 January 2005 to a maximum of 6 months before submission of the final manuscript. Two reviewers will independently evaluate studies for eligibility and extract data from included studies using a standardised data abstraction form. Preventive strategies will be classified according to their types and targeted trauma populations and acute care surgery procedures.

Ethics and dissemination

Research ethics approval is not required as this study is based on the secondary use of published data. This work will inform research and clinical stakeholders on the required next steps towards the uptake of effective strategies aimed at preventing chronic opioid use in trauma and acute care surgery patients.

<![CDATA[Recurrence Rate in a Patient Treated with Colon Resection Followed by Chemotherapy in Comparison to a Patient Treated with Colon Resection without Chemotherapy]]>

Given that colon cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers worldwide, it is essential to employ strategies to try to reduce its incidence and recurrence rate. Though colon cancer is a sporadic disease in the vast majority of cases, multiple risk factors are linked to this disease, namely, obesity and cigarette smoking. Additionally, not many studies have been done in Saudi Arabia studying the recurrence rate of colon cancer. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective cohort study at King Khalid Hospital, King Abdulaziz Medical City, National Guard Health Affairs (NGHA), Jeddah, Saudi Arabia to investigate the recurrence rate of colon cancer in patients treated with complete colon resection followed by chemotherapy versus patients treated with colon resection alone via electronic and paper medical records. A total of 120 patients were included in this study; 61 were males (50.8%) and 59 were females (49.2%). According to our findings, the recurrence rate in patients who underwent surgical resection with adjuvant chemotherapy was 15.6% (n = 10), while the recurrence rate in patients with surgery alone was 21.4% (n = 12). Cancer recurrence is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Therefore, further studies should be done to investigate the recurrence rate in patients with risk factors to identify and deal with the causes of recurrence.

<![CDATA[Manometry of the Human Ileum and Ileocaecal Junction in Health, Disease and Surgery: A Systematic Review]]>

Background: The terminal ileum and ileocaecal junction form a transition zone in a relatively inaccessible portion of the gastrointestinal tract. Little is known about the motility of this region with few detailed studies, indicating the need for a robust synthesis of current knowledge. This review aimed to evaluate the quantitative and qualitative data on the manometry findings of the terminal ileum and ileocaecal junction during the fasting and post-prandial periods in healthy individuals and patients with motility disorders or patients after bowel surgery.

Methods: A systematic search of five databases (Medline, Pubmed, Embase, Scopus, and Cochrane Library) was performed. Studies that presented manometry data from the human ileum or ileocaecal junction were included.

Results: Forty-two studies met the inclusion criteria. The main motility patterns reported in the terminal ileum during fasting were the migrating motor complex, discrete clustered contractions, prolonged propagated contractions and phasic contractions. Post-prandial motility featured irregular, intense contractions. Some studies found a region of sustained increased pressure at the ileocaecal junction while others did not. Patients with motility disorders showed differences in manometry including retrograde propagation of phase III. Patients post-bowel surgery showed differences including higher incidence of phase III.

Conclusion: Motility patterns of the terminal ileum differ between fasting and fed states. Large variability existed in manometry recordings of the terminal ileum. Technical challenges and lack of standardized definitions may reduce accuracy of manometry assessment. Further research is needed to understand how this key portion of the gut physiologically functions.

<![CDATA[Awareness and experiences of cosmetic treatment providers with body dysmorphic disorder in Saudi Arabia]]>

Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) is defined as a constant obsession with one’s external appearance and flaws, and it falls under the criteria of neuropsychiatric disorders. Individuals suffering from this disorder may seek unnecessary cosmetic procedures from cosmetic treatment providers such as dermatologists or plastic surgeons. Cosmetic treatments have become readily available, which has led to an influx of undiagnosed BDD patients electing to undergo such treatments. Therefore, physicians should have the clinical knowledge about BDD to diagnose and manage these cases to avoid psychological and physical harm to these patients. However, there were no studies conducted in our region to assess the awareness of BDD among physicians who provide cosmetic treatments with regards to their attitude toward such cases and how they would manage it. This study aims to assess the awareness of Body Dysmorphic Disorder among Saudi physicians who provide cosmetic treatments. We conducted an observational cross-sectional study among physicians practicing in hospitals and cosmetic clinics in Riyadh and Jeddah city (Saudi Arabia), who perform cosmetic procedures, namely dermatologists, plastic surgeons, and otorhinolaryngologists. A paper-based questionnaire consisting of multiple-choice questions was distributed among them. The total number of participants was 155 physicians: 113 (72.9%) males and 42 (27.1%) females. Eighty-two (52.9%) participants reported that they have been familiar with the diagnostic criteria of BDD for a long time and ninety-nine (63.8%) reported being familiar with the clinical picture of BDD. Sixty-three (40.6%) participants estimated the prevalence of BDD cases seen in cosmetic practice to range from 1%-5%, and most agreed on an equal prevalence of BDD among female and male patients. Half of the participants (n = 76) (49%) reported that they sometimes share knowledge about BDD with patients whom they suspect to suffer from this condition. In conclusion, cosmetic treatment providers in Saudi Arabia are aware of BDD, but we have identified a discrepancy between the self-reported participant knowledge of diagnostic criteria and their ability to accurately estimate the prevalence of BDD cases seen in clinical practice.

<![CDATA[Comparison of early-stage changes of osteoarthritis in cartilage and subchondral bone between two different rat models]]>

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic degenerative joint disease and the major cause of joint pain and disability in the elderly. It is mainly characterized by articular cartilage degradation and subchondral bone remodeling. There are two main types of OA: natural occurring OA and secondary OA, mainly associated with aging and trauma, respectively. In this study, we established two OA models in rat knee joints to simulate the two types of OA, using the type II collagenase injection (CI) and anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT), respectively. After intervention for 2–6 weeks, cartilage and subchondral bone changes were detected in histological staining, immunochemistry, and micro-CT. Results showed that both models with typical pathology changes of OA were successfully induced, while the development and severity of OA process in the models were different. In ACLT rats, the cartilage damage was milder, lasted for a shorter time, and subchondral bone reconstruction occurred earlier, compared with the changes in CI rats. The cartilage damage was secondary to subchondral bone change in ACLT rats, while subchondral bone change was secondary to cartilage degeneration in CI rats. In conclusion, the interaction between cartilage and subchondral bone is different between the natural-occurring and secondary OA models. These two models not only suggest potential different mechanisms of the two types of OA, but also provide new directions for OA treatment and prevention.

<![CDATA[Predicting Death After Thrombectomy in the Treatment of Acute Stroke]]>

Introduction: Treatments for acute stroke have significantly improved in the past decade, with emergent thrombectomy emerging as the standard of care. Despite these advancements, death after successful thrombectomy continues to pose a significant problem. Identifying patients least likely to benefit from thrombectomy would improve use of a limited resource and management of patient expectations.

Method: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients who underwent emergent thrombectomy of either anterior or posterior circulation strokes between January 2012 and January 2017. Relevant patient clinical data was collected and analyzed in a multivariable regression with a primary outcome of death at 90 days.

Results: A total of 134 patients underwent emergent endovascular thrombectomy during the study period; sufficient clinical data was available in 111 of the them. Of these, 42 patients died during the 90 day post-procedural period and 69 patients survived this period. The mean NIHSS score at presentation was 14.9 in surviving patients and 19.6 in non-surviving patients (p < 0.002). Surviving patients were less likely to have a history of cancer (4.4% vs. 26.2%, p < 0.002), achieved higher rates of revascularization (78.3% vs. 50.0%, p < 0.003), had a lower rate of hemorrhagic conversion (21.7% vs. 47.6%, p < 0.004), and experienced fewer technical complications during their treatment (7.4% vs. 26.2%, p < 0.01). Overall, there were 16 intraprocedural complications and no procedural deaths.

Conclusion: As emergent thrombectomy for the treatment of acute stroke becomes more prevalent, appropriate patient selection will be crucial in the utilization of a limited and costly intervention. Death within 90 days after thrombectomy appears to be more prevalent among patients with higher NIHSS at presentation, those with postprocedural hemorrhage or intraprocedural complications, and those with a history of cancer.

<![CDATA[A Novel Rat Model to Test Intra-Abdominal Anti-adhesive Therapy]]>

Background: Adhesion formation after abdominal surgery is considered almost inevitable and a major cause of morbidity. Novel treatments have been proposed, however there is a lack of suitable small animal models for pre-clinical evaluation, mainly due to inconsistency in adhesion formation in positive control animals. Here, we propose a new rat model of abdominal adhesions using Kaolin as the adhesion-inducing agent at an optimized dosage for testing newer agents in respect to their anti-adhesive property.

Materials and Methods: Twenty-five adult (8–10 week old) male Wistar albino rats underwent midline laparotomy and caecal abrasion and were randomized to receive topical applications of normal saline or different concentrations and volumes of a Kaolin-based formulation. At day 14 rats were humanely killed, and adhesions graded macroscopically by an investigator blinded to the treatment groups, using pre-determined adhesion scores and microscopically using histopathology.

Results: Kaolin at 0.005 g/mL caused consistent adhesions without compromising rat viability. At higher doses significant morbidity and mortality was observed in the animals treated.

Conclusions: Kaolin induced adhesion in a rat abdominal surgery model is reliable and can be safely used to test the efficacy of novel anti-adhesive formulations to prevent intra-abdominal adhesions.

<![CDATA[Benign Ectopic Thyroid Tissue in the Neck: A Case Report of a Rare Finding]]>

Ectopic thyroid tissue (ETT), though an uncommon finding, is prone to be clustered along the midline in the neck and rarely it shows up as a lateral neck mass. Whenever the ETT is discovered in unusual places, the possibility of malignancy is higher, and rarely a benign variant. We present a 71-year-old female with a past history of hypertension, hypercholesteremia, and thyroid nodules presented to the physician’s office complaining of an unusual swelling in the right side of a neck. The physical examination revealed a rubbery, non-tender, mobile, dominant mass in the right upper neck at the jugulodiagastric region in the upper anterior cervical triangle. Ultrasonography (USG) and computed tomography (CT) of the neck strongly suggested the benign characteristics of the mass. The postoperative histological examination of the specimen was indicative of benign thyroid tissue with no metastatic potential and no lymphoid tissue confirming the diagnosis of ETT. To better understand the clinical, pathological, and radiological nature of this rare disease, we present a rare case of ETT in the lateral cervical area which was resected.