ResearchPad - Surgery https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Massively Dilated Lower Pole Ectopic Megaureter with Involuted Lower Pole Renal Moiety and Collecting System: An Exception to the Meyer-Weigert Rule]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11609 Duplicated collecting systems have a predictable draining pattern that is described by the Meyer-Weigert rule. When there are abnormalities associated with duplicating collecting systems, the upper pole moiety drains inferomedially (most commonly associated with obstruction), and the lower pole moiety drains superolaterally (most commonly associated with vesicoureteral reflux). We present a case of an infant with a duplicated collecting system that violates the Meyer-Weigert rule with lower pole megaureter with massive dilation, ectopic insertion, and associated involuted lower pole renal moiety. To our knowledge, this is the only reported case of a lower pole ectopic ureter with an involuted lower pole renal moiety. 

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<![CDATA[Exploring the knowledge and attitudes of Cameroonian medical students towards global surgery: A web-based survey]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11233 Global surgery is a growing field studying the determinants of safe and affordable surgical care and advocating to gain the global health community's attention. In Cameroon, little is known about the level of knowledge and attitudes of students. Our survey aimed to describe the knowledge and attitudes of Cameroonian medical students towards global surgery.Materials and methodsWe performed an anonymous online survey of final-year Cameroonian medical students. Mann-Whitney U test and Spearman correlation analysis were used for bivariate analysis, and the alpha value was set at 0.05. Odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated.Results204 respondents with a mean age of 24.7 years (±2.0) participated in this study. 58.3% were male, 41.6% had previously heard or read about global surgery, 36.3% had taken part in a global surgery study, and 10.8% had attended a global surgery event. Mercy Ships was well known (46.5%), and most students believed that surgical interventions were more costly than medical treatments (75.0%). The mean score of the global surgery evaluation was 47.4% (±29.6%), and being able to recognize more global surgery organizations was correlated with having assumed multiple roles during global surgery studies (p = 0.008) and identifying more global surgery indicators (p = 0.04). Workforce, infrastructure, and funding were highlighted as the top priorities for the development of global surgery in Cameroon.ConclusionMedical students are conscious of the importance of surgical care. They lack the opportunities to nurture their interest and should be taught global surgery concepts and skills. ]]> <![CDATA[Right Ventricular Perforation Presenting as Tingling of the Left Breast]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10714 Pacemaker lead-associated cardiac perforation is a rare phenomenon. Lead perforations can be acute, subacute, or chronic following lead placement. Symptoms are typically nonspecific and depend on the location of the displaced lead. Diagnostic workup requires interrogation of the pacemaker and imaging studies. Management of lead displacement is dependent on multiple risk factors such as age, gender, corticosteroid use, and anticoagulation therapy.

A 74-year-old female with a history of myosin light chain kinase (MYLK) 2 hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, Sjogren’s syndrome, Raynaud’s disease, and sick sinus syndrome was evaluated for an abnormal finding on pacemaker interrogation. The patient’s only symptom was tingling of her left breast. Imaging studies confirmed pacemaker lead perforation. Right ventricle perforation due to a pacemaker lead displacement can cause severe complications. Early identification and treatment by physicians can reduce the risk of mortality.

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<![CDATA[Successful Conservative Management of Acute Appendicitis in a Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Patient]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10711 Appendectomy is the gold standard of treatment for acute appendicitis; however, recent evidence suggests conservative management with intravenous antibiotics may provide similar outcomes and can be used as an alternative in selected patients. Performing appendectomy in acute appendicitis patients with 2019 novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) is challenging, as it involves considerable operative risks for the patients and risks for health care professionals (HCPs) exposed to COVID-19. Medical management eliminates the morbidity and mortality associated with surgery but involves significant risks of treatment failures that, in turn, may lead to perforation, peritonitis, and death. We are reporting a case of a middle-aged man with multiple co-morbidities, who was diagnosed with COVID-19 and acute appendicitis. Our patient received intravenous antibiotics for seven days with a significant improvement in symptoms. Our case report illustrates the implementation of successful conservative treatment for acute appendicitis in COVID-19 patients.

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<![CDATA[Postrenal Acute Renal Failure Due to Giant Fecaloma-related Bilateral Hydronephrosis: A Case Report and Brief Literature Review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10544 An 88-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with abdominal distention, fever, and constipation of about a week's duration. Laboratory tests showed impaired kidney function tests and fluid electrolyte values. Bilateral hydroureteronephrosis was observed on non-contrasted abdominal CT. Imaging revealed no intrinsic urological pathology (ureteral stones, etc.) that could lead to obstruction in the urinary system; however, excessively dilated and feces-loaded rectum and colon were observed. The patient was treated with conservative methods. Unfortunately, she passed away due to general condition disorder.

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<![CDATA[Clinico-radiological Outcomes of Using Modified Stoppa Approach for Treating Acetabular Fractures: An Institutional Review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10538 Introduction

Acetabular fractures are complex intra-articular fractures. The extra-pelvic ilioinguinal (IL) has been the workhorse for the anterior approach and remains the gold standard. The major difference between the IL and the Stoppa approaches is that Stoppa allows for the avoidance of the middle window of the IL approach. Hence, the modified Stoppa approach (MSA) can be adopted by a comparatively less experienced surgeon with minimal complications. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the radiological and functional outcomes of patients operated on using the MSA.

Materials and methods

Patients operated on by the MSA for acetabular fractures with a minimum of one year of clinical and radiographic follow-ups were reviewed. CT scans and radiographs were evaluated for the fracture pattern, time to surgery, operative time, blood loss, quality of reduction (Matta criterion), FO [Harris hip score (HHS) and Nach Merle d'Aubigné and Postel score (NMAPS)] and complications (perioperative and follow-up). Twenty-three of 26 patients with 45 acetabular fractures operated between January 2016 and November 2018 were included. Descriptive statistics were used for demographic data, and Pearson’s chi-squared statistic was calculated for the association between radiological and functional outcomes.

Results 

Among the 23 patients, the mean age was 38.5 years (range: 15-65) with a male-to-female ratio of 18:5. The average time to surgery was 11.5 days (range: 2-32), operating time was 155 minutes (range: 90-243), and average blood loss was 650 ml (range: 500-1,250). A supplemental lateral window was used in 20 patients (87%), and three underwent the combined anterior and posterior [Kocher Langenbacks (KL)] approach. All cases were unilateral. The transverse fracture was the most common pattern (eight patients) followed by the associated both-column fracture in six and T-type, isolated anterior column fracture, and anterior column and posterior hemi-transverse fractures seen in three patients each. Iliac blade (high anterior column) fracture was seen in 14 cases and one patient had associated sacral type II fracture. Road traffic accidents accounted for 61% of the injuries and injury severity score (ISS) of >15 (polytrauma) was seen in more than 50% of the cases (associated with other organ injuries). The radiological outcome was anatomical in 52% of the cases, imperfect in 39%, and poor in 9%. The functional outcomes were good to excellent in 74% (HHS) and 79% (NMAPS) of the cases. The association and correlation between them were nonsignificant (p-value: >0.5). Two patients developed a superficial infection and three had iatrogenic obturator nerve palsy. One patient had a direct inguinal hernia, one had grade 3 bedsores, and two patients developed grade 2 arthritic changes during the follow-up. No case of vessel injury was encountered.

Conclusion

Adoption of the MSA for the treatment of acetabular fractures leads to a good-to-excellent anatomical reduction in most cases while providing direct visualization of the quadrilateral plate and posterior column. The learning curve is smaller for less-experienced surgeons in terms of complications and results. We recommend this technique as a viable alternative to the IL approach for anterior acetabular fixation.

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<![CDATA[The Effect of Preoperative Hematocrit Level on Early Outcomes After Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10537 Introduction: Low hematocrit level is a hematological problem that is frequently encountered in the preoperative evaluation of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of preoperative hematocrit level on the first 30-day outcomes in patients undergoing CABG surgery.

Methods: Ninety-four patients undergoing isolated CABG were included in the study. The patients were divided into two groups as patients with preoperative low hematocrit levels (<36%) in Group 1 and patients with preoperative normal hematocrit levels (≥36%) in Group 2.

Results: Forty-six patients in Group 1 (mean age: 63.6 ± 7.9 years) and 48 patients in Group 2 (mean age: 56.5 ± 8.8 years) were enrolled. European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE) scoring was statistically significantly higher in Group 1 (p = 0.011). In the postoperative period, the amount of drainage, transfusion of blood, and blood products were significantly higher in Group 1 (p < 0.001). The mortality rate of Group 1 was statistically higher in the first 30 days postoperatively (p = 0.020).

Conclusion: Low preoperative hematocrit levels are associated with increased mortality after CABG surgery. We suggest that patients’ preoperative hematocrit levels must be added to the risk scoring systems as an assessment parameter.

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<![CDATA[Amyand's Hernia: Perforated Appendix in an Incarcerated Inguinal Hernia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9470 Amyand’s hernia is an unusual condition characterized by the presence of a normal or inflamed appendix located within an inguinal hernia. We present a rare situation wherein a 56-year-old male patient presented with an incarcerated inflamed appendix in a right inguinal hernia. He was emergently taken to the operating room, with diagnostic laparoscopy changed to open, due to incarcerated cecum and terminal ileum. The incarcerated segment had to be resected with primary anastomosis. The inflamed and purulent contents were washed out, and the hernia defect was left unrepaired due to the presence of abscess in the inguinal canal. 

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<![CDATA[Unusual Chemotherapeutic Resistant Testicular Embryonal Germ Cell Tumor with Widespread Metastasis in a Case of Klinefelter Syndrome: A Case Report]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9446 Cryptorchidism is an undeniable risk factor for testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) and is also commonly associated with Klinefelter syndrome (KS) patients. Embryonal cell carcinoma usually shows strong expression of CD30 and OCT3/4, with patchy staining of PLAP1. Most patients with nonseminomatous GCTs (NSGCTs) can achieve total remission with proactive chemotherapy, and most can be cured. We present an extremely rare case of a testicular embryonal germ cell tumor that is atypical in its gene expression and response to chemotherapy treatment.

A 71-year-old male patient presented in July 2019 with abdominal pain of unknown duration, weight loss for one year, and recent history of altered bowel habits. His past medical history is significant for KS and congenital unilateral cryptorchidism. Physical examination yielded mild abdominal distention and bilateral inguinal lymphadenopathy. Imaging revealed a posterior mediastinal mass and large retroperitoneal masses. The above features, in addition to the history of KS and unilateral cryptorchidism, were highly suggestive of a testicular retroperitoneal germ cell tumor. Serologic studies revealed elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) while other tumor markers were normal. Excisional biopsy of inguinal lymph nodes revealed poorly differentiated embryonal cell carcinoma with strong expression of SALL4, a rare expression of OCT 3/4, and the absence of expression of CD30 and placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP). The patient was given four cycles of bleomycin, etoposide and platinum (BEP) chemotherapy, as is the standard chemotherapy regimen for these tumors, without any significant change in the size of the masses or lymph nodes.

Unfortunately, there are no specific guidelines when it comes to the management of KS patients with testicular GCTs (embryonal cell carcinoma) with aberrant histological markers and normal serum tumor markers. These findings in combination with chemotherapeutic resistance indicate a need for more specific treatment modalities and follow-up for unusual testicular embryonal GCTs in KS patients.

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<![CDATA[Laparoscopic Myomectomy for the Removal of Large Uterine Myomas]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9408 Laparoscopic myomectomy (LM) is a minimally invasive surgery. However, several complications may occur in cases of extremely large myomas. For example, it can be difficult to acquire a full visual field, and the operation is limited by both technical and physiological restrictions. In addition, the volume of intraoperative bleeding is often increased in comparison to typically sized myomas; therefore, surgical indications are limited for technical reasons and for ensuring safety of the patient. Suturing and ligation techniques, which are indispensable in LM, are difficult procedures to perform. If clinicians are not confident in performing these procedures or experience difficulty in controlling bleeding, then they can alternatively choose to make a small incision in the abdominal wall and perform a procedure called laparoscopically assisted myomectomy.

In this article, we describe the process of effectively using LM in cases with giant myomas.

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<![CDATA[Diffuse Leiomyomatosis: Complete Myomectomy for Innumerable Small Nodules to Achieve Fertility Sparing and Childbearing]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9407 Diffuse leiomyomatosis is a rare condition among benign smooth muscle neoplasms of the uterus, being defined as innumerable small myomatous nodules that mainly occur in the submucosal area. Young women with this disease suffer from menorrhagia, pains, and infertility. It is essential to perform extensive myomectomy after opening the endometrial cavity by a deep, median, longitudinal incision of the uterine corpus, followed by careful suture and reconstruction of the uterus for fertility spearing and childbearing in young women with this disease. So far, there have been no experiences of the uterine rupture during pregnancy even after such myomectomy, but Caesarean section is recommended for safe delivery.

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<![CDATA[Abdominal Myomectomy for Huge Uterine Myomas with Intra-arterial Balloon Occlusion: Approach to Reduce Blood Loss]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9405 Abdominal myomectomy for a huge myomas, especially uterine cervical myoma, is difficult because of risks, such as intraoperative bleeding or injury to adjacent organs. Therefore, understanding of the positional relationships among a huge myoma, especially cervical or intraligamental myoma, and the vascular plexuses in the right and left cardinal ligaments is important for prevention of massive bleeding during myomectomy. While sufficiently performing preoperative assessment with pelvic examination, ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), etc., surgeons should always keep in mind how they can reduce the blood loss volume, while safely and surely performing resections. For a cervical myoma of the uterus and giant uterine leiomyoma that leave no intrapelvic space and prevent palpation and identification of the uterine arteries and the internal iliac arteries, surgery can be performed safely by preoperatively placing balloon catheters in the internal iliac arteries. Hemostaic strategies for myomectomy and tips of subsequent pregnancy following myomectomy are also described.

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<![CDATA[Becker Implant Intracapsular Rupture with Contralateral Axillary Silicone Lymphadenopathy in an Asymptomatic Patient: A Case Report and Literature Review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9390 Silicone gel implants are widely used for cosmetic and reconstructive breast surgery. There has been a paradigm shift with increased utilization of implant-based breast reconstruction compared to autologous reconstruction in the United States over the past couple of decades. Implant rupture is a known complication of silicone gel implants with variable incidence and increased propensity with the age of the implant. Usually, the clinical findings suggestive of implant rupture are not obvious to the patient and surgeon. Intracapsular implant rupture, when the shell of the implant ruptures but the fibrous capsule formed by the breast remains intact, occurs in the majority of cases. While extracapsular rupture, which denotes silicone leakage extending beyond the capsule, is less common. In rare cases, silicone migrates beyond the capsule to distant sites, regional sites, and lymph nodes, leading to a variety of symptoms. Following mastectomy with lymph node dissection, the disruption of normal breast lymphatic drainage may result in aberrant drainage to internal mammary nodes and contralateral axillary lymph nodes. We present a unique case of axillary silicone lymphadenopathy due to contralateral breast intracapsular implant rupture in a patient with no previous ipsilateral breast surgery. The condition was found during a routine breast cancer screening. We also engage in a review of the relevant literature.

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<![CDATA[Robotic versus Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: Case-Control Outcome Analysis and Surgical Resident Training Implications]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9386 Background

The robotic approach in surgery is becoming more widely used in many subspecialties. Robot-assisted laparoscopic procedures provide potential improvements in clinical outcomes due to improved visualization and enhanced surgical ergonomics. In this study, we measured and compared outcomes of robot-assisted laparoscopic cholecystectomy with the conventional laparoscopic technique, as well as the implications for the training of surgical residents.

Method

We compared a total of 244 patients undergoing minimally invasive cholecystectomies performed by one surgeon between July 2013 and June 2016 examining relevant clinical outcomes including operative room (OR) time, length of hospital stay (LOS), readmission to the hospital, post-operative emergency department (ED) visits, and post-operative pain between laparoscopic single-incision cholecystectomy and robot-assisted laparoscopic cholecystectomy. A chi-square test and Student’s t-test were used to compare these variables between the two groups. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used using gender, age, and body mass index (BMI) as variables.

Results

From the total number of procedures of 244, 144 were included in the laparoscopic group and 100 in the robot-assisted group. The robot-assisted patients had a shorter post-operative LOS (mean: 0.8 vs. 1.6 days; p = 0.002). There was no significant difference in the OR time (mean: 64.8 vs. 65.0 minutes; p = 0.945), readmissions (4.0% vs. 3.5%; p = 0.830), post-operative ED visits (7.0% vs. 7.6%; p = 0.851), or post-operative pain (13.0% vs. 21.3%; p= 0.137). Robotic cholecystectomy patients were younger (mean: 46 vs. 52 years; p = 0.023) and had lower BMIs (mean: 31 vs. 33; p = 0.038). Because of these differences, we compared the two groups using PSM that confirmed the shorter LOS in the robotic group (mean: 0.9 vs. 1.9; p = 0.009).

Conclusions

These results demonstrate that robotic cholecystectomies can reduce LOS for patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy, without increasing OR time. Increased surgeon experience with robotic procedures and improved OR efficiency will allow greater opportunities for resident participation. Robotic training curricula need to be employed and objectively evaluated to improve surgical resident skill acquisition and provide earlier and progressive clinical participation in robotic procedures.

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<![CDATA[Lymph Node Ratio as a Prognostic Marker in Rectal Cancer Survival: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9385 Introduction 

The lymph node ratio (LNR) is defined as the ratio of the number of positive lymph nodes to the total number of nodes retrieved. LNR has recently emerged as a prognostic factor in rectal cancer. The objective of our study was to pool eligible studies to elucidate the prognostic role of LNR on overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in rectal cancer patients using a meta-analysis.

Methods

A systematic database search was performed in MEDLINE and Embase for relevant studies that reported LNR in rectal cancer. Two authors independently screened the relevant articles for selection and data extraction. As a result, a list of such studies and references, published in English up to December 2019, was obtained, and a total of 4,486 node-positive patients in 18 studies were included in this meta-analysis. RevMan software 5.3 (Cochrane Collaboration, the Nordic Cochrane Centre, Copenhagen) was used for conducting all statistical analyses.

Results

A higher LNR was significantly correlated with worse OS [hazard ratio (HR): 2.60; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.21-3.06; p≤.00001] and DFS (HR: 2.43; 95% CI: 2.11-2.80; p≤.00001) in node-positive rectal cancer patients. Besides, LNR is an independent predictive and prognostic marker of OS and DFS (HR: 2.52; 95% CI: 2.17-2.94; p≤.00001 with I2=0%; p=.32 and HR: 2.63; 95% CI: 2.17-3.18; p≤.00001 with I2=0%; p=.63 respectively, irrespective of lymph nodal harvest).

Conclusions

Our present study demonstrates that LNR is an independent predictor of survival in rectal cancer. LNR should be considered as a parameter in future oncological staging systems. Further well-designed randomized control trials to prospectively assess LNR as an independent predictor of rectal cancer survival are necessary before its application in daily practice.

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<![CDATA[The Effectiveness of Endovenous Radiofrequency Ablation Application in Varicose Vein Diseases of the Lower Extremity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9382 We aimed to determine the outcome, complications, and quality of life effects of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in the treatment of superficial venous insufficiency.

A total of 134 extremities from 100 patients were evaluated in this retrospective study performed at the Cardiovascular Surgery Department of Atatürk University Faculty of Medicine. Treatment success was determined by occlusion. The clinical, etiologic, anatomic, and pathophysiologic (CEAP) and venous clinical severity score (VCSS) scores of patients were assessed pre- and postoperatively to evaluate clinical outcome and quality of life. The pain was assessed with the Wong-Baker score. Complications and their frequency were assessed and recorded.

Treatment success, as measured by occlusion rate, was 99% percent. Prior to treatment, the CEAP clinical score was C2 (81.0%), while after treatment, it was C0 (54.0%) (p<0.001). The pretreatment median VCSS score was 5 (min-max: 1-9) while the post-treatment median was 1 (min-max: 1-3) (p<0.001). The mean pain score was 1.34; only one patient reported a score of 6 while the minimum score was 1. A total of 15 complications occurred; only one was a major complication (deep vein thrombosis or DVT) while the remaining 14 were minor complications.

While longstanding surgical treatments still provide significant success, the RFA technique not only surpasses them in success rate but also in terms of pain, complications, and better patient satisfaction. The results of our study indicate that RFA is an effective and safe option for the treatment of superficial venous insufficiency.

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<![CDATA[PREDICtors for health-related quality of life after elective sigmoidectomy for DIVerticular disease: the PREDIC-DIV study protocol of a prospective multicentric transnational observational study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9139 Diverticulitis is among the most common abdominal disorders. The best treatment strategy for this complicated disease as well as for recurrent stages is still under debate. Moreover, little knowledge exists regarding the effect of different therapeutic strategies on the health-related quality of life (HrQoL). Therefore, the PREDIC-DIV (PREDICtors for health-related quality of life after elective sigmoidectomy for DIVerticular disease) study aims to assess predictors of a change in HrQoL in patients after elective sigmoidectomy for diverticular disease.Methods and analysisA prospective multicentre transnational observational study was started in November 2017. Patients undergoing elective sigmoid resection for diverticular disease were included. Primary outcome includes HrQoL 6 months postoperatively, staged by the Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index (GIQLI). Secondary outcomes include HrQoL 6 months after sigmoidectomy, assessed using the Short Form 36 Questionnaire and a custom-made Visual Analogue Scale-based inventory; HrQoL after 12 and 24 months; postoperative morbidity; mortality; influence of surgical technique (conventional laparoscopic multiport operation vs robotic approach); histological grading of inflammation and morphological characteristics of the bowel wall in the resected specimen; postoperative functional changes (faecal incontinence, faecal urge, completeness of emptying, urinary incontinence, sexual function); disease-specific healthcare costs; and changes in economic productivity, measured by the iMTA Productivity Cost Questionnaire. The total follow-up will be 2 years.Ethics and disseminationThe protocol was approved by the medical ethical committee of the Bavarian Medical Council (report identification number: 2017-177). The study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. The findings of this study will be submitted to a peer-reviewed journal (BMJ Open, Annals of Surgery, British Journal of Surgery, Diseases of the Colon and the Rectum). Abstracts will be submitted to relevant national and international conferences.Trial registration numberThe study is registered with the ClinicalTrials.gov register as NCT03527706; Pre-results. ]]> <![CDATA[MON-LB108 Measurement Of Carotid Intima,hepatic Steatosis And Inflammatory Markers In Obese Children]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8593 Measurement of carotid intima,hepatic steatosis and inflammatory markers in obese children. Elevated levels of inflammatory factors and increased mean intimal carotid thickness (IMT) would increase the risk of atherothrombotic events and contribute to the progression of cardiovascular disease in obese children. Objectives: Evaluate inflammatory factors, metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic liver steatosis and carotid IMT as an early cardiovascular risk marker. Patients and methods: Descriptive cross-sectional exploratory study. Consider 41 obese children both sexes between 6- 12 years old. Evaluated: anthropometry and determinations of lipid and liver profile, blood glucose, insulin, HOMA, ultrasensitive CRP, fibrinogen. Hepatic ultrasound and measurement of carotid IMT with ESAOTE Mylab 50 Exdicion equipment. . Results: From 41 studied patients, 57% were female. 51% presented MS and 68% elevated triglycerides. CRP> 1 was found in 71% of cases. Hepatic steatosis was observed in 60%, which only 10% had altered transaminases. 12% presented high fibrinogen. Patients with MS had a significant positive difference in the IMTCC (X = 0.41 ± 0.12; p 0.024), HDL (X 37.89 ± 1.72; p 0.004) triglycerides (X 149.42 ± 10.69; p 0.002) in relation to patients without MS. Conclusion: CRP is an inflammatory risk factor associated with elevated BMI and MS. There was a higher prevalence of MS in our study. The increase in the average intimal thickness is significantly related to the presence of MS and RCP>1. The determination of marker molecules of an inflammatory state and measurement of carotid IMT would contribute to the implementation of strategies to prevent cardiovascular, hepatic and metabolic risk since childhood.

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<![CDATA[MON-590 Presence of Diabetes Diminishes the Ultimate Weight Loss After Bariatric Surgery]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8574 Background

Obesity and diabetes as well as their related complications result in both individual and global health burdens. Among patients who present with both obesity and diabetes, bariatric surgery can lead to remission of both these diseases. However, the possible impact of diabetes on the magnitude of weight loss outcomes after bariatric surgery has not been quantified.

Methods

To address this question, we extracted data from Michigan Bariatric Surgery Cohort (MI-BASiC) to see whether diabetes at baseline could be a predictor of weight loss outcomes. Consecutive patients 18 years of age or older undergoing gastric bypass (GB) or sleeve gastrectomy (SG) for obesity at the University of Michigan between January 2008 and November 2013 were included in our retrospective cohort. All patients had either body mass index (BMI) > 40 kg/m2 or BMI 35 – 39.9 kg/m2 with comorbid condition. Firstly, we performed Generalized Linear Mixed Model (GLMM) analysis to compare the probability of achieving BMI under 30kg/m2 or achieving excess body weight loss (EBWL) 50% or more for patients with or without diabetes. We then further tested the effect of presence of diabetes for the BMI outcomes across time using Linear Mixed Model (LMM) analysis. Finally, we conducted a LMM analysis to determine if diabetes is a predictor of the future weight loss, percentage of total weight loss or percentage of excess weight loss over 5 years of follow up.

Results

Based on our criteria, 380 patients were included for GB [female 305 (80.3%), mean age 43.6±0.6 years, mean BMI 47.3±0.4kg/m2, diabetes 149 (39.2%), on insulin 45 (11.8%)] and 334 for SG [female 259 (77.5%), mean age 45.3±0.6 years, mean BMI 49.9±0.5kg/m2, diabetes 108 (32.3%), on insulin 29(8.7%)]. From GLMM analysis, the presence of diabetes at baseline did not impact the probability of achieving BMI under 30kg/m2 (p=0.0848), but substantially impacted the probability of achieving 50% or more EBWL (p=0.0021) with individuals without diabetes having a 1.6 (odds ratio 1.56, 95% CL [1.18-2.08]) times higher chance to achieve this threshold. We also showed that individuals with diabetes at baseline had a significant effect to modify BMI points lost, regardless of the surgery type (p=0.0178). The presence of diabetes at baseline diminished weight loss by 1.2 BMI points (95% CL [0.21- 2.20]) which is roughly 10 to 15% of the total BMI points to be lost. LMM analysis further confirmed that after adjusting the time, surgery type, age, gender and baseline weight, there was still a significant difference of absolute weight loss (p=0.0110), percentage of total weight loss (p=0.0089) and percentage of excess weight loss (p=0.0365) between individuals with diabetes versus individuals without diabetes.

Conclusion

In conclusion, our data demonstrate that diabetes diminishes the ultimate weight loss effect of bariatric surgery. Further research is needed to understand why this is the case.

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<![CDATA[MON-596 Effects of Angiotensin Type 1 Receptor Blockers (ARBs) on the Expression and Secretion of Adiponectin and Leptin in Human White Adipocytes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8534 [Introduction]

Adiponectin and leptin are adipokines that are mainly produced in adipocytes and exert various functions. Adiponectin decreases atherosclerosis, oxidative stress, angiogenesis, inflammation, and apoptosis, whereas leptin works oppositely. Angiotensin type-1 receptor (AT1R) blockers (ARBs) are widely used as antihypertensive drugs. Some ARBs are known to activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ, which is a key regulator of fatty acid metabolism. It is reported that adiponectin secretion increases by pioglitazone, a full agonist of PPARγ, and some ARBs via PPAR γ activation. However, the effects of ARBs on leptin secretion are controversial. The present study aimed to examine the effects of ARBs on the expression and secretion of adiponectin and leptin in human white adipocytes.

[Materials and Methods]

Human white preadipocytes (Promo Cell) were differentiated into mature adipocytes in the medium containing insulin, dexamethasone, thyroxin and isobutylmethylxanthine. Pioglitazone and ARBs including telmisartan, irbesartan, azilsartan, candesartan, losartan, olmesartan and valsartan (1µM) were administered in the culture medium on day 4 and 8. The medium was collected on day 12 and the concentrations of adiponectin and leptin were measured by enzyme immunoassay. Real time PCR was performed to quantitate the mRNA expression of adiponectin and leptin in adipocytes. The experiments were performed in quadruplicate.

[Results]

Pioglitazone significantly increased adiponectin secretion (386.7 ± 133.7 vs. 7.3 ± 1.9 ng/ml in control) from human adipocytes. Among ARBs, adiponectin secretion significantly increased by telmisartan (136.7 ± 16.3 ng/ml) and irbesartan (69.7 ± 23.1 ng/ml), while the other 5 ARBs did not have any influence on adiponectin secretion. Real-time PCR also showed that mRNA expression increased 5.1-fold, 3.8-fold and 1.5-fold by pioglitazone, telmisartan and irbesartan, respectively. Leptin secretion significantly decreased by pioglitazone (27.7 ± 5.0 vs. 82.5 ± 3.8 ng/ml in control). Among ARBs, only telmisartan (38.7 ± 4.2 ng/ml) decreased leptin secretion. Real-time PCR also showed that mRNA expression decreased to be 0.5-fold and 0.7-fold by pioglitazone and telmisartan, respectively. GW9662, a selective antagonist of PPARγ, potently blocked pioglitazone-induced changes of adiponectin and leptin expression and secretion. On the other hand, GW9662 did not reverse telmisartan and irbesartan induced changes.

[Conclusion]

The changes in adiponectin and leptin secretion by pioglitazone are via PPARγ activation, while those by telmisartan and irbesartan may occur in PPARγ-independent manner.

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