ResearchPad - Transplantation https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Pre-transplant testosterone and outcome of men after allogeneic stem cell transplantation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N6ef801ef-f95f-49de-8a9a-268e4e371415

Testosterone is an important determinant of endothelial function and vascular health in men. As both factors play a role in mortality after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT), we retrospectively evaluated the impact of pre-transplant testosterone levels on outcome in male patients undergoing alloSCT. In the discovery cohort (n=346), an impact on outcome was observed only in the subgroup of patients allografted for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (n=176, hereafter termed ‘training cohort’). In the training cohort, lower pre-transplant testosterone levels were significantly associated with shorter overall survival (OS) [hazard ratio (HR) for a decrease of 100 ng/dL: 1.11, P=0.045]. This was based on a higher hazard of non-relapse mortality (NRM) (cause-specific HR: 1.25, P=0.013), but not relapse (cause-specific HR: 1.06, P=0.277) in the multivariable models. These findings were replicated in a confirmation cohort of 168 male patients allografted for AML in a different center (OS, HR: 1.15, P=0.012 and NRM, cause-specific HR: 1.23; P=0.008). Next, an optimized cut-off point for pre-transplant testosterone was derived from the training set and evaluated in the confirmation cohort. In multivariable models, low pre-transplant testosterone status (<250 ng/dL) was associated with worse OS (hazard ratio 1.95, P=0.021) and increased NRM (cause-specific HR 2.68, P=0.011) but not with relapse (cause-specific HR: 1.28, P=0.551). Our findings may provide a rationale for prospective studies on testosterone/androgen assessment and supplementation in male patients undergoing alloSCT for AML.

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<![CDATA[Conned by Conn’s: The Manifestation of Conn’s Syndrome Post-renal Transplant in a Patient with Polycystic Kidney Disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N7cf5652e-d78b-427e-ac95-c868bc6b14f5

We present the case of a 66-year-old African-American male with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) secondary to polycystic kidney disease (PCKD), with well-controlled hypertension. He was placed on peritoneal dialysis for two years before successfully undergoing a cadaveric renal transplant. There was an immediate graft function with no relevant postoperative complications. On regular follow-ups two months later, the patient now presents with worsening control of hypertension despite an increase in anti-hypertensive medications. Common causes of new-onset hypertension, such as renal artery stenosis, anti-calcineurin therapy, and allograft injury, were excluded. The patient’s biochemistry revealed the presence of hypokalemia, which was absent in previous reports. In light of this, plasma aldosterone and renin levels were sent and were found to be elevated: aldosterone: 50.4 ng/dL, renin: 0.4 ng/dL, aldosterone-renin Ratio (ARR): 126. In retrospect, a routine CT (computed tomography) scan performed in 2017 revealed an adrenal adenoma of 17 x 13 mm, which was diagnosed as an incidental finding at that time. A repeat CT scan was performed and showed no change in the size of the adenoma. In view of the new symptoms, the patient was started on spironolactone with little to no improvement in blood pressure and potassium levels. We present a case of Conn's syndrome in a patient with PCKD manifesting only after a renal transplant.

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<![CDATA[Association of Intimal Neovessels Noted by Optical Coherence Tomography with Cardiac Allograft Vasculopathy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nf29502a9-1312-47a1-8b7b-0ee64fe37448

Background

Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is a leading cause of graft failure in cardiac transplant recipients. Progression of intimal thickening noted during routine surveillance intracoronary imaging is associated with the development of CAV. However, mechanisms of CAV development are poorly understood and targets for therapy modification remain elusive. We investigated the association of neovessels (INs) within the intima, noted by optical coherence tomography (OCT) during routine CAV surveillance imaging, with intimal thickening and co-incident CAV.

Methods

Coronary angiography and OCT images of 45 consecutive cardiac transplant recipients undergoing surveillance coronary imaging were reviewed. The presence of INs, defined as dark, tubular or rotund intimal structures, measuring 50-200 µm in diameter, noted in at least three OCT frames, was quantified. CAV diagnosis was determined by utilizing the International Society of Heart and Lung Transplant classification system. Demographic and clinical data was obtained by chart review. Significant associations between the presence of INs and CAV, intimal thickening, and demographic features were evaluated.

Results

INs were observed in 22/45 evaluated patients (49%), while angiographic CAV was observed in 24/45 patients, with a significant association noted between the presence of INs and CAV (p < 0.001). INs were also associated with increasing intimal thickness (p < 0.001), co-morbid hypertension (p = 0.010), and increasing transplant age (p= 0.002) on multivariate analysis.

Conclusion

INs are prevalent in cardiac transplant recipients and are significantly associated with CAV, increased intimal thickness, increasing transplant age, and co-morbid hypertension. Further investigation is warranted regarding the temporal relationship of IN development and the onset of CAV, as well as the mechanisms of IN development in this population.

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<![CDATA[Drug induced pancreatitis: A systematic review of case reports to determine potential drug associations]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N8c4889da-2d62-467b-8b66-b271dff2cf8d

Objective

A current assessment of case reports of possible drug-induced pancreatitis is needed. We systematically reviewed the case report literature to identify drugs with potential associations with acute pancreatitis and the burden of evidence supporting these associations.

Methods

A protocol was developed a priori (PROSPERO CRD42017060473). We searched MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and additional sources to identify cases of drug-induced pancreatitis that met accepted diagnostic criteria of acute pancreatitis. Cases caused by multiple drugs or combination therapy were excluded. Established systematic review methods were used for screening and data extraction. A classification system for associated drugs was developed a priori based upon the number of cases, re-challenge, exclusion of non-drug causes of acute pancreatitis, and consistency of latency.

Results

Seven-hundred and thirteen cases of potential drug-induced pancreatitis were identified, implicating 213 unique drugs. The evidence base was poor: exclusion of non-drug causes of acute pancreatitis was incomplete or poorly reported in all cases, 47% had at least one underlying condition predisposing to acute pancreatitis, and causality assessment was not conducted in 81%. Forty-five drugs (21%) were classified as having the highest level of evidence regarding their association with acute pancreatitis; causality was deemed to be probable or definite for 19 of these drugs (42%). Fifty-seven drugs (27%) had the lowest level of evidence regarding an association with acute pancreatitis, being implicated in single case reports, without exclusion of other causes of acute pancreatitis.

Discussion

Much of the case report evidence upon which drug-induced pancreatitis associations are based is tenuous. A greater emphasis on exclusion of all non-drug causes of acute pancreatitis and on quality reporting would improve the evidence base. It should be recognized that reviews of case reports, are valuable scoping tools but have limited strength to establish drug-induced pancreatitis associations.

Registration

CRD42017060473.

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<![CDATA[Therapeutic Effects of Mesenchymal Stem Cells on a Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis Model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nab345a18-2a00-473d-9dd2-5565f0d0bdc2

Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN) are the most severe cutaneous drug hypersensitivity reactions, which are unpredictable adverse drug reactions. SJS/TEN is associated with significant mortality and morbidity; however, effective treatment is difficult. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are well-known for their anti-inflammatory and tissue regeneration properties. The purpose of the present study was to verify whether MSCs could be applied for the treatment of SJS/TEN. We developed an SJS/TEN mouse model using peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a lamotrigine-induced SJS patient. MSCs were injected into the model to verify the treatment effect. In SJS model mice treated with MSCs, ocular damage rarely occurred, and apoptosis rate was significantly lower. We demonstrated a therapeutic effect of MSCs on SJS/TEN, with these cells presenting a potential novel therapy for the management of this disorder.

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<![CDATA[Nocturnal hypercapnia with daytime normocapnia in patients with advanced pulmonary arterial hypertension awaiting lung transplantation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nacc6463a-eb28-4f4a-acf0-c81fc9df01f4

Background

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is frequently complicated by sleep disordered breathing (SDB), and previous studies have largely focused on hypoxemic SDB. Even though nocturnal hypercapnia was shown to exacerbate pulmonary hypertension, the clinical significance of nocturnal hypercapnia among PAH patients has been scarcely investigated.

Method

Seventeen patients with PAH were identified from 246 consecutive patients referred to Kyoto University Hospital for the evaluation of lung transplant registration from January 2010 to December 2017. Included in this study were 13 patients whose nocturnal transcutaneous carbon dioxide partial pressure (PtcCO2) monitoring data were available. Nocturnal hypercapnia was diagnosed according to the guidelines of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Associations of nocturnal PtcCO2 measurements with clinical features, the findings of right heart catheterization and pulmonary function parameters were evaluated.

Results

Nocturnal hypercapnia was diagnosed in six patients (46.2%), while no patient had daytime hypercapnia. Of note, nocturnal hypercapnia was found for 5 out of 6 patients with idiopathic PAH (83.3%). Mean nocturnal PtcCO2 levels correlated negatively with the percentage of predicted total lung capacity (TLC), and positively with cardiac output and cardiac index.

Conclusion

Nocturnal hypercapnia was prevalent among advanced PAH patients who were waiting for lung transplantation, and associated with %TLC. Nocturnal hypercapnia was associated with the increase in cardiac output, which might potentially worsen pulmonary hypertension especially during sleep. Further studies are needed to investigate hemodynamics during sleep and to clarify whether nocturnal hypercapnia can be a therapeutic target for PAH patients.

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<![CDATA[Update on Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome in Lung Transplantation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nc02bedb8-ddbf-4d62-b1ed-601cda8e5c5f

Lung transplantation has become an important therapeutic option for patients with end-stage organ dysfunction; however, its clinical usefulness has been limited by the relatively early onset of chronic allograft dysfunction and progressive clinical decline. Obliterative bronchiolitis is characterized histologically by luminal fibrosis of the respiratory bronchioles and clinically by bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) which is defined by a measured decline in lung function based on forced expiratory volume (FEV1). Since its earliest description, a number of risk factors have been associated with the development of BOS, including acute rejection, lymphocytic bronchiolitis, primary graft dysfunction, infection, donor specific antibodies, and gastroesophageal reflux disease. However, despite this broadened understanding, the pathogenesis underlying BOS remains poorly understood and once begun, there are relatively few treatment options to battle the progressive deterioration in lung function.

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<![CDATA[Outcomes of pancreas transplantation in older diabetic patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N1401ce9e-4f71-4d43-bbeb-b90a78ec9f77

Objective

Improvement in insulin alternatives is leading to a delayed presentation of microvascular and macrovascular complications of diabetes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcomes of older (≥50 years) diabetic patients who receive a pancreas transplantation (PT).

Research design and methods

We retrospectively evaluated all 338 PTs performed at our center between 2000 and 2016 (mean follow-up 9.4±4.9 years). Recipient and graft survivals were estimated for up to 10 years after PT. Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) before and after PT were included in the analysis.

Results

Thirty-nine patients (12%) were ≥50 years old (52.7±2.3 years) at the day of PT, of which 29 received a simultaneous pancreas–kidney transplantation (SPK) and 10 a pancreas after kidney transplantation (PAK). SPK recipients were first transplants, whereas in the PAK up to 50% were pancreas re-transplantations. Recipient and pancreas graft survivals at 10 years were similar between the group <50 years old and the older group for both SPK and PAK (log-rank p>0.05). The prevalence of MACE prior to PT was similar between both groups (31% vs 29%). Following PT, older recipients presented inferior post-transplant MACE-free survival. In a multivariate regression model, diabetes vintage (HR 1.054, p=0.03) and pre-transplantation MACE (HR 1.98, p=0.011), but not recipient age (HR 1.45, p=0.339), were associated with post-transplant MACE.

Conclusions

Long-term survival of older pancreas transplant recipients are similar to younger counterparts. Diabetes vintage, but not age, increased the risk of post-transplantation MACE. These results suggest pancreas transplantation is a valuable treatment alternative to older diabetic patients.

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<![CDATA[Post-transplantation plasma malondialdehyde is associated with cardiovascular mortality in renal transplant recipients: a prospective cohort study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N0a9ea835-c80f-4a5e-9315-f92a0cf6a173

Abstract

Background

In renal transplant recipients (RTRs), cardiovascular mortality is the most common cause of long-term renal graft loss. Oxidative stress (OS) has been associated with cardiovascular disease and is known to be enhanced in RTRs. We aimed to prospectively investigate whether the concentration of the OS biomarker malondialdehyde (MDA) is associated with long-term risk of cardiovascular mortality in a large cohort of RTRs.

Methods

The plasma MDA concentration was measured using the thiobarbituric acid reaction assay in 604 extensively phenotyped RTRs with a functioning allograft for ≥1 year. The association between MDA and cardiovascular mortality was assessed using Cox proportional hazard regression analyses in the overall cohort and within subgroups according to significant effect modifiers.

Results

Median circulating MDA concentration at baseline was 5.38 [interquartile range (IQR) 4.31–6.45] μmol/L. During a follow-up period of 6.4 (IQR 5.6–6.8) years, 110 (18%) RTRs died, with 40% of deaths due to cardiovascular causes. MDA concentration was significantly associated with the risk for cardiovascular mortality {hazard ratio [HR] 1.31 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03–1.67] per 1-SD increment}, independent of adjustment for potential confounders, including renal function, immunosuppressive therapy, smoking status and blood pressure. The association between MDA concentration and the risk for cardiovascular mortality was stronger in RTRs with relatively lower plasma ascorbic acid concentrations [≤42.5 µmol/L; HR 1.79 (95% CI 1.30–2.48) per 1-SD increment] or relatively lower estimated glomerular filtration rates [≤45 mL/min/1.73 m2; HR 2.09 (95% CI 1.45–3.00) per 1-SD increment].

Conclusions

Circulating MDA concentration is independently associated with long-term risk for cardiovascular mortality, particularly in RTRs with relatively lower ascorbic acid concentrations or renal function. Further studies are warranted to elucidate whether OS-targeted interventions could decrease cardiovascular mortality in RTRs.

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<![CDATA[Evidence-based, Skin-directed Treatments for Cutaneous Chronic Graft-versus-host Disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N1bae31d2-8402-4539-8291-a6b8a6b6d3ae

Chronic graft-versus host disease (cGVHD) occurs in 30% to 70% of patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Cutaneous cGVHD affects 75% of cGVHD patients, causing discomfort, limiting the range of movement, and increasing the risk of wound infections. Furthermore, systemic immunosuppression is often needed to treat cGVHD and long-term use can lead to adverse events. Optimal use of skin-directed therapies is integral to the management of cutaneous cGVHD and may decrease the amount of systemic immunosuppression required.

This study reviewed English-language articles published from 1990 to 2017 that evaluated the effect of skin-directed treatments for cutaneous cGVHD. A total of 201 papers were identified, 164 articles were screened, 46 were read, and 18 publications were utilized in the review. Skin-directed treatments for cGVHD included topical steroids, topical calcineurin inhibitors, psoralen with ultraviolet A (PUVA) irradiation, ultraviolet A1 (UVA1) irradiation, and ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation. We report the number of complete remissions, partial remissions, and systemic immunosuppression reduction in each study, as available.

Twenty-two out of 30 (73.3%) patients experienced overall improvement with topical calcineurin inhibitors. At least 26 out of 76 patients (34.2%) receiving PUVA experienced complete remission, and 30 out of 76 patients (39.5%) experienced partial remission. In UVA1 studies, 44 out of 52 (84.6%) patients experienced overall improvement. In UVB studies, nine out of 14 patients (64.3%) experienced complete remission and four out of 14 patients (28.6%) experienced partial remission.

As more HCTs are performed, more individuals will develop cGVHD. Awareness and optimal use of skin-directed therapies for cutaneous cGVHD may help improve patient outcomes and quality of life.

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<![CDATA[A Case Report of a Ventral Hernia Containing a Liver Cyst in a Patient with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nfee171cc-67a1-47a5-ba43-44a80951bdc3

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most commonly inherited renal disorder and the fourth most common cause of end-stage renal disease. ADPKD is a systemic disease with multiple extrarenal manifestations, including cystic involvement of other organs, such as the liver and pancreas, and connective tissue abnormalities. The prevalence of hernias is higher in patients with ADPKD. It has been hypothesized that these hernias are the result of abnormal extracellular matrix production and/or increased intra-abdominal pressure from the cyst burden. We present a case of a 56-year-old female with polycystic kidney disease who was admitted for an incarcerated ventral hernia. The patient presented with obstructive symptoms concerning for bowel impingement. The patient underwent operative management, and during the procedure, an incarcerated liver cyst was identified in the hernia sac. This was successfully reduced, and the hernia was repaired with mesh. 

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<![CDATA[Cytokine Profiles in Children After Pediatric Kidney Transplantation With Acute Cellular Compared to Chronic Antibody-mediated Rejection and Stable Patients: A Pilot Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nc32eec34-d1d2-4d02-a154-8b60423aa94f

Background.

Different patterns of plasma cytokines can be expected in the case of chronic active-antibody-mediated (cAMR) and acute cellular rejection (AR) after kidney transplantation (KTx).

Methods.

IL-2, 4, 6, 10, 17A, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interferon gamma were measured in 51 pediatric KTx recipients at time of renal biopsy (17 AR, 14 cAMR, 20 normal). Patients were divided into a training (n = 30) and a validation (n = 21) set.

Results.

IL-6 was significantly higher in AR patients and significantly lower in the case of cAMR. In children with s-creatinine increase, IL-6 values were significantly different between AR and cAMR. IL-10 levels showed similar tendencies. For IL-2, 4, 17A, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interferon gamma, no differences were found. In the independent validation cohort, the receiver operating characteristic area under the curve for IL-6 was 0.79 and 0.70 for AR and cAMR. In children with AR, an IL-6 <1141 fg/ml, and in those with cAMR, an IL-6 >721 fg/ml was associated with a specificity of 86%/76%, a sensitivity of 71%/80%, a positive predictive value of 56%/45%, and a negative predictive value of 92%/94%.

Conclusions.

In this pilot study, the plasma IL-6 level is a promising biomarker to identify pediatric kidney transplant recipients free from AR and cAMR and might help to distinguish between both entities, whereas there is only a nonsignificant trend toward the usability of IL-10. Validation in larger cohorts in combination with other biomarkers are warranted.

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<![CDATA[A Pilot Study of Postoperative Animal Welfare as a Guidance Tool in the Development of a Kidney Autotransplantation Model With Extended Warm Ischemia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N148ee4f2-8977-4577-9156-51842404df30

Background.

This pilot study aimed to maintain acceptable animal welfare in the development of a porcine autotransplantation model with severe and incremental renal ischemic injury, a model for usage in future intervention studies. Secondary aims were to develop and test methods to collect blood and urine without the need to restrain or use sedative and avoid transportation to optimize welfare of the pig.

Methods.

Kidneys from 7 female pigs were subjected to incremental durations of warm ischemia (WI) 30, 45, or 75 minutes by left renal artery and vein clamping. After static cold storage, contralateral nephrectomy was performed, and the injured graft was autotransplanted and animals observed for 14 days. Animal welfare was assessed and recorded using a structured scoring sheet before and 4 days after the kidney autotransplantation. Furthermore, blood samples were drawn daily the first week and every second day the following week using a semi-central venous catheter. An ostomy bag around the genitals was tested for urine collection. Measured glomerular filtration rate was calculated using renal clearance of chromium-51-labeled ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid on day 14.

Results.

None of the 7 animals died during the follow-up. The animal welfare was moderately affected when applying 75 minutes of WI (n = 2), and for that reason WI was not further increased. Pigs with lower WI had no observed welfare issues. With 75 minutes of WI peak, plasma creatinine was 1486 and 1317 µmol/L, reached on day 4. Lowest glomerular filtration rate levels were observed in the pigs with 75 minutes of WI.

Conclusions.

WI up to 75 minutes caused the intended severely impaired renal function without significantly compromising animal welfare. Blood and urine was collected postoperatively without sedation of the pigs or use of a metabolic cage.

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<![CDATA[Incidentally Detected Malignancies in Lung Transplant Explants]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nea23fc15-6fc6-432f-bdc4-9a93eeab087a

Background.

Active malignancy diagnosed within 5 years is an absolute contraindication for lung transplantation. In this study, we evaluated the rate of incidental malignancies detected in explanted lungs at our institution and assessed the posttransplant survival in patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Methods.

A retrospective chart review of lung transplant recipients at our institution from February 1999 to June 2017 was conducted. A literature review was performed to evaluate the prevalence and survival outcomes in patients with unexpected malignancies.

Results.

From 407 patients who underwent lung transplantation, 9 (2.2%) were discovered to have malignant neoplasms. There were 3 cases of adenocarcinoma, 3 cases of adenocarcinoma in situ, 2 cases of squamous cell carcinoma, and 1 case of metastatic renal cell carcinoma. An extensive literature review found 12 case reports or case series reporting malignancy discovered at the time of lung transplantation. The overall prevalence of incidental neoplasms among 6746 recipients is around 1.5% (n = 103). The most common neoplasms discovered included adenocarcinoma (n = 56, 54%) and squamous cell carcinoma (n = 29, 28%). The overall 3-year survival was 54.4% for patients with localized NSCLC compared to 5.7% for those with nonlocalized disease.

Conclusions.

Unidentified malignancies occur despite aggressive radiographic surveillance with poor posttransplant outcomes in patients with advanced malignancy. Malignancy-related radiographic findings may be missed pretransplant secondary to architectural distortion of lung parenchyma related to end-stage lung disease or because of the critical timing of surgery when donor lungs are available.

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<![CDATA[Development and Validation of a Socioeconomic Kidney Transplant Derailers Index]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N7a204c97-5da7-44bd-8037-e0c8e53ca66b

Supplemental Digital Content is available in the text.

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<![CDATA[Comparison of Supraceliac and Infrarenal Aortic Conduits in Liver Transplantation: Is There a Difference in Patency and Postoperative Renal Dysfunction?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Neae4d56e-c2a7-4b49-a3f9-29247d513cf3

Background.

Aorto-hepatic conduits can provide arterial inflow for liver transplants in cases where the native hepatic artery is unsuitable for use.

Methods.

Clinical outcomes of all patients undergoing liver transplantation (LT) with an aorto-hepatic conduit between 2000 and 2016 were included. Recipients were divided into 2 groups: those with a supraceliac (SC) aortic conduit (N = 22) and those with an infrarenal (IR) aortic conduit (N = 82).

Results.

There was no difference in calculated model for end-stage liver disease score between the 2 groups. The SC group received grafts with a higher mean donor risk index (1.69 versus 1.48; P = 0.02). Early allograft dysfunction was 18.2% in the SC group and 29.3% in the IR group (P = 0.30). In the SC group, 10.5% of patients required initiation of postoperative continuous renal replacement therapy compared to 12.1% of patients in the IR group (P = 0.69). No difference in the rate of postoperative acute kidney injury was seen between the 2 groups (P = 0.54). No significant difference in median creatinine at 1 year was seen between the SC (1.2 mg/dL; IQR 1–1.3) and IR (1.2 mg/dL; IQR 0.9–1.5) groups (P = 0.85). At a median follow-up of 5.3 years, thrombosis of the aortic conduit occurred in 0% of patients in the SC group and 6.1% of patients in the IR group (P = 0.24). Graft survival was not significantly different between the 2 groups (P = 0.47).

Conclusions.

No difference in renal dysfunction as demonstrated by need for post-LT continuous renal replacement therapy, acute kidney injury, or creatinine at 1 year post-LT was seen between SC and IR aortic conduits. A slight trend of higher conduit thrombosis rate was seen with IR compared to SC aortic conduits; however, this did not reach statistical significance. Both SC and IR aortic conduits represent reasonable options when the native hepatic artery is unsuitable for use.

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<![CDATA[Lung transplantation after ex vivo lung perfusion in two Scandinavian centres]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c9e59f2d5eed0c484243cc5

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

We reviewed our combined clinical outcome in patients who underwent lung transplantation after ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) and compared it to the contemporary control group.

METHODS

At 2 Scandinavian centres, lungs from brain-dead donors, not accepted for donation but with potential for improvement, were subjected to EVLP (n = 61) and were transplanted if predefined criteria were met. Transplantation outcome was compared with that of the contemporary control group consisting of patients (n = 271) who were transplanted with conventional donor lungs.

RESULTS

Fifty-four recipients from the regular waiting list underwent transplantation with lungs subjected to EVLP (1 bilateral lobar, 7 single and 46 double). In the EVLP and control groups, arterial oxygen tension/inspired oxygen fraction ratio at arrival in the intensive care unit (ICU) was 30 ± 14 kPa compared to 36 ± 14 (P = 0.005); median time to extubation was 18 h (range 2–912) compared to 7 (range 0–2280) (P = 0.002); median ICU length of stay was 4 days (range 2–65) compared to 3 days (range 1–156) (P = 0.002); Percentage of expected forced expiratory volume at 1s (FEV1.0%) at 1 year was 75 ± 29 compared to 81 ± 26 (P = 0.18); and the 1-year survival rate was 87% [confidence interval (CI) 82–92%] compared to 83% (CI 81–85), respectively. Follow-up to a maximum of 5 years did not show any significant difference in survival between groups (log rank, P = 0.63).

CONCLUSIONS

Patients transplanted with lungs after EVLP showed outcomes comparable to patients who received conventional organs at medium-term follow-up. Although early outcome immediately after transplantation showed worse lung function in the EVLP group, no differences were observed at a later stage, and we consider EVLP to be a safe method for increasing the number of transplantable organs.

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<![CDATA[Early predictors of outcomes of hospitalization for cirrhosis and assessment of the impact of race and ethnicity at safety-net hospitals]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c897747d5eed0c4847d28e2

Background

Safety-net hospitals provide care for racially/ethnically diverse and disadvantaged urban populations. Their hospitalized patients with cirrhosis are relatively understudied and may be vulnerable to poor outcomes and racial/ethnic disparities.

Aims

To examine the outcomes of patients with cirrhosis hospitalized at regionally diverse safety-net hospitals and the impact of race/ethnicity.

Methods

A study of patients with cirrhosis hospitalized at 4 safety-net hospitals in 2012 was conducted. Demographic, clinical factors, and outcomes were compared between centers and racial/ethnic groups. Study endpoints included mortality and 30-day readmission.

Results

In 2012, 733 of 1,212 patients with cirrhosis were hospitalized for liver-related indications (median age 55 years, 65% male). The cohort was racially diverse (43% White, 25% black, 22% Hispanic, 3% Asian) with cirrhosis related to alcohol and viral hepatitis in 635 (87%) patients. Patients were hospitalized mainly for ascites (35%), hepatic encephalopathy (20%) and gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) (17%). Fifty-four (7%) patients died during hospitalization and 145 (21%) survivors were readmitted within 30 days. Mortality rates ranged from 4 to 15% by center (p = .007) and from 3 to 10% by race/ethnicity (p = .03), but 30-day readmission rates were similar. Mortality was associated with Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD), acute-on-chronic liver failure, hepatocellular carcinoma, sodium and white blood cell count. Thirty-day readmission was associated with MELD and Charlson Comorbidity Index >4, with lower risk for GIB. We did not observe geographic or racial/ethnic differences in hospital outcomes in the risk-adjusted analysis.

Conclusions

Hospital mortality and 30-day readmission in patients with cirrhosis at safety-net hospitals are associated with disease severity and comorbidities, with lower readmissions in patients admitted for GIB. Despite geographic and racial/ethnic differences in hospital mortality, these factors were not independently associated with mortality.

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<![CDATA[Regeneration of esophagus using a scaffold-free biomimetic structure created with bio-three-dimensional printing]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c8c1978d5eed0c484b4d71e

Various strategies have been attempted to replace esophageal defects with natural or artificial substitutes using tissue engineering. However, these methods have not yet reached clinical application because of the high risks related to their immunogenicity or insufficient biocompatibility. In this study, we developed a scaffold-free structure with a mixture of cell types using bio-three-dimensional (3D) printing technology and assessed its characteristics in vitro and in vivo after transplantation into rats. Normal human dermal fibroblasts, human esophageal smooth muscle cells, human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells were purchased and used as a cell source. After the preparation of multicellular spheroids, esophageal-like tube structures were prepared by bio-3D printing. The structures were matured in a bioreactor and transplanted into 10-12-week-old F344 male rats as esophageal grafts under general anesthesia. Mechanical and histochemical assessment of the structures were performed. Among 4 types of structures evaluated, those with the larger proportion of mesenchymal stem cells tended to show greater strength and expansion on mechanical testing and highly expressed α-smooth muscle actin and vascular endothelial growth factor on immunohistochemistry. Therefore, the structure with the larger proportion of mesenchymal stem cells was selected for transplantation. The scaffold-free structures had sufficient strength for transplantation between the esophagus and stomach using silicon stents. The structures were maintained in vivo for 30 days after transplantation. Smooth muscle cells were maintained, and flat epithelium extended and covered the inner surface of the lumen. Food had also passed through the structure. These results suggested that the esophagus-like scaffold-free tubular structures created using bio-3D printing could hold promise as a substitute for the repair of esophageal defects.

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<![CDATA[Influence of donor liver telomere and G-tail on clinical outcome after living donor liver transplantation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c8acccbd5eed0c484990005

It has been reported that donor age affects patient outcomes after liver transplantation, and that telomere length is associated with age. However, to our knowledge, the impact of donor age and donor liver telomere length in liver transplantation has not been well investigated. This study aimed to clarify the influence of the length of telomere and G-tail from donor livers on the outcomes of living donors and recipients after living donor liver transplantation. The length of telomere and G-tail derived from blood samples and liver tissues of 55 living donors, measured using the hybridization protection assay. The length of telomeres from blood samples was inversely correlated with ages, whereas G-tail length from blood samples and telomere and G-tail lengths from liver tissues were not correlated with ages. Age, telomere, and G-tail length from blood did not affect postoperative liver failure and early liver regeneration of donors. On the other hand, the longer the liver telomere, the poorer the liver regeneration tended to be, especially with significant difference in donor who underwent right hemihepatectomy. We found that the survival rate of recipients who received liver graft with longer telomeres was inferior to that of those who received liver graft with shorter ones. An elderly donor, longer liver telomere, and higher Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score were identified as independent risk factors for recipient survival after transplantation. In conclusion, telomere shortening in healthy liver does not correlate with age, whereas longer liver telomeres negatively influence donor liver regeneration and recipient survival after living donor liver transplantation. These results can direct future studies and investigations on telomere shortening in the clinical and experimental transplant setting.

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