ResearchPad - Urology https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[ST-elevation Myocardial Infarction and Complete Heart Block in a Nitrate-free Patient using a New Emerging Substance called Rhino]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N50d7681c-fb26-40c3-baf8-44d24742dd7e

The pervasive use of counterfeit sexual enhancement supplements is increasing worldwide. There are thousands of vendors on the internet while local gas stations and convenience stores are selling it across the United States (US). We report a case of right coronary artery ST-segment elevation and complete heart block in a nitrate-free patient shortly after consuming three 950 mg pills of a sexual enhancer known as rhino and completing sexual intercourse. Coronary angiography revealed 100% occlusion of the right coronary artery and a drug-eluting stent was inserted with a transvenous pacer that he tolerated well, and recovered without complications. The counterfeit drug has gained traction for its high user satisfaction and low cost among recreational customers. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), through its MedWatch program, has frequently released citations to consumers warning them against rhino since 2015, while their labs have recognized two prime ingredients: sildenafil and tadalafil. Although adverse cardiac risk with this therapeutic class is low, we aim to parse out its temporal relationship with rhino, an enhancer containing 14-200 times the prescription limits of sildenafil and tadalafil.

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<![CDATA[COVID-19 research: promising tracks leading to uro-oncology]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N12fc58fc-71f1-4dbc-9ca4-11b9cf9b393c ]]> <![CDATA[Knockdown of CDCA8 inhibits the proliferation and enhances the apoptosis of bladder cancer cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nd4a9157b-212f-455e-b9ca-1213b5c3dfd0

Bladder cancer is a tumour of the urinary system with high mortality, and there is also a great lack of therapeutic targets in the clinic. Cell division cycle associated 8 (CDCA8), an important component of the vertebrate chromosomal passenger complex, is highly expressed in various tumours and promotes tumour development. However, the role of CDCA8 in bladder cancer is not fully understood. This study aimed to reveal the function of CDCA8 in bladder cancer by determining the relationship between CDCA8 expression and proliferation, metastasis and apoptosis of bladder cancer cells. Firstly, we studied the mRNA expression of CDCA8 through the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) databases and analysed the correlation between CDCA8 expression and prognosis of patients with bladder cancer. We also verified CDCA8 expression in bladder cancer tissues by immunohistochemistry. In addition, CDCA8 expression was inhibited in bladder cancer T24 and 5637 cells, and the effects of CDCA8 on the proliferation, migration and invasion of bladder cancer cell lines were investigated using cell counting kit-8, colony formation, cell cycle, apoptosis, wound healing and Transwell invasion assays. Results showed that CDCA8 was highly expressed in bladder cancer compared with normal tissues, and the high CDCA8 expression was significantly correlated with the poor prognosis of patients. Inhibiting CDCA8 expression inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of T24 and 5637 cells and induced the apoptosis of bladder cancer cells. CDCA8 was involved in the regulation of the growth cycle of bladder cancer cells. Bioinformatics-based mechanism analysis revealed that high CDCA8 expression may affect the cell cycle and P53 signalling pathways. In conclusion, our results suggest that CDCA8 is highly expressed in bladder cancer and can promote tumour development. Hence, CDCA8 may serve as an effective therapeutic target for treatment of bladder cancer.

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<![CDATA[Does Gleason score of positive surgical margin after radical prostatectomy affect biochemical recurrence and oncological outcomes? Protocol for systematic review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N0960b75d-51f4-4ece-bdf9-1b092938e960

Introduction

Positive surgical margins (PSM) in cancer patients are commonly associated with worse prognosis and a higher risk of secondary treatment. However, the relevance of this parameter in prostate cancer patients undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP) remains controversial, given the inconsistencies in its ability to predict biochemical recurrence (BCR) and oncological outcomes. Hence, further assessment of the utility of surgical margins for prostate cancer prognosis is required to predict these outcomes more accurately. Over the last decade, studies have used the Gleason score (GS) of positive margins to predict outcomes. Herein, the authors aim to conduct a systematic review investigating the role of GS of PSM after radical prostatectomy in predicting BCR and oncological outcomes.

Methods and analysis

We will perform a search using MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS and COCHRANE databases. The review will be reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. We will screen titles and abstracts to select articles appropriate for full-text review. Studies discussing GS of PSM after RP will be included. Given the change in reporting of GS, only articles from 2005 to 2019 will be included. The quality of the studies chosen will be assessed using the Newcastle Ottawa tool for non-randomised and Cochrane risk of bias for randomised control studies. We will adopt the grading of recommendations, assessment, development and evaluation framework to comment on quality of cumulative evidence. The primary outcome measure will be time to BCR. Secondary outcome measures include secondary treatment, disease-specific survival, disease progression-free and overall mortality at follow-up period. We aim to perform a meta-analysis if the level of heterogeneity is acceptable (I2 <50%).

Ethics and dissemination

The review does not require ethics approval as it is a review of published literature. The findings of the review will be submitted for peer-reviewed publications and presented at scientific meetings.

PROSPERO registration number

CRD42019131800.

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<![CDATA[Feasibility of establishing an HIV vaccine preparedness cohort in a population of the Uganda Police Force: Lessons learnt from a prospective study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Ne890bb8a-5661-4c39-82f7-6f40a2e69675

Background

Members of uniformed armed forces are considered to be at high risk for HIV infection and have been proposed as suitable candidates for participation in HIV intervention studies. We report on the feasibility of recruitment and follow up of individuals from the community of the Uganda Police Force (UPF) for an HIV vaccine preparedness study.

Methods

HIV-negative volunteers aged 18–49 years, were identified from UPF facilities situated in Kampala and Wakiso districts through community HIV counselling and testing. Potential volunteers were referred to the study clinic for screening, enrolment and quarterly visits for one year. HIV incidence, retention rates were estimated and expressed as cases per 100 person years of observation (PYO). Rate ratios were used to determine factors associated with retention using Poisson regression models.

Results

We screened 560 to enroll 500 volunteers between November 2015 and May 2016. One HIV seroconversion occurred among 431 PYO, for an incidence rate of 0.23/100 PYO (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.03–1.64). Overall, retention rate was 87% at one year, and this was independently associated with residence duration (compared to <1 year, 1 to 5 years adjusted rate ratio (aRR) = 1.19, 95%CI: 1.00–1.44); and >5 years aRR = 1.34, 95%CI: 0.95–1.37); absence of genital discharge in the last 3 months (aRR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.38–2.83, absence of genital ulcers (aRR = 1.90, 95%CI: 1.26–2.87, reporting of new sexual partner in the last month (aRR = 0.57, 95%CI: 0.45–0.71, being away from home for more than two nights (aRR = 1.27, 95%CI: 1.04–1.56, compared to those who had not travelled) and absence of knowledge on HIV prevention (aRR = 2.67, 95%CI: 1.62–4.39).

Conclusions

While our study demonstrates the feasibility of recruiting and retaining individuals from the UPF for HIV research, we did observe lower than anticipated HIV incidence, perhaps because individuals at lower risk of HIV infection may have been the first to come forward to participate or participants followed HIV risk reduction measures. Our findings suggest lessons for recruitment of populations at high risk of HIV infection.

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<![CDATA[Prostate-specific Membrane Antigen Based Antibody-drug Conjugates for Metastatic Castration-resistance Prostate Cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nfb077e11-3b99-4441-9963-23805050de50

Cancer cells can be selectively targeted by identifying and developing antibodies to specific antigens present on the cancer cell surface. Cytotoxic agents can be conjugated to these antibodies that bind to these cell surface antigens in order to significantly increase the therapeutic index of whichever cytotoxic agent is utilized. This approach of conjugating the cytotoxic drugs to antibodies to target specific surface antigens enhances the anti-tumor activity of antibodies and improves the tumor-to-normal tissue selectivity of chemotherapy. Critical parameters in the development of these antibody-drug conjugates include: 1) selection of most appropriate antigen, 2) the ability of an antibody to be internalized after binding to the antigen, 3) cytotoxic drug potency and 4) stability of the antibody-drug conjugate. For prostate cancer, prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA, also known as folate hydrolase-1) is the most validated theragnostic target to date. PSMA is overexpressed on the prostate cancer cell surface, which makes it an even better target for selective drug delivery through conjugated antibodies. Here, we review the PSMA-based antibody-drug conjugates for metastatic castration-resistance prostate cancer (mCRPC).

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<![CDATA[Editorial Comment: Does pre-operative urodynamics lead to better outcomes in management of urinary incontinence in women? A linked systematic review and meta-analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Ne37d8bcf-b502-460a-bf96-47a46fbc211b ]]> <![CDATA[Editorial Comment: Impact of the advent of collagenase clostridium histolyticum on the surgical management of Peyronie's disease: a population-based analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N6a682779-54ad-4ade-9b2a-a355952c529b ]]> <![CDATA[Editorial Comment: The clinical role of LASER for vulvar and vaginal treatments in gynecology and female urology: An ICS/ISSVD best practice consensus document]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Ncd7b334e-a930-4b9f-9485-7607351f661a ]]> <![CDATA[Editorial Comment: Penile prosthesis implant in the special populations: diabetics, neurogenic conditions, fibrotic cases, concurrent urinary continence surgery, and salvage implants]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N717108a2-cebe-4fa6-99fb-25e774cff0ce ]]> <![CDATA[Editorial Comment: Feasibility and safety of irreversible electroporation (IRE) in patients with small renal masses: Results of a prospective study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N6e2e5e60-afae-4d7f-b94c-ca4fb0935a80 ]]> <![CDATA[Editorial Comment: Comparison of Immediate vs Deferred Cytoreductive Nephrectomy in Patients With Synchronous Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Receiving Sunitinib: The SURTIME Randomized Clinical Trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N6fee5f49-c29d-4f12-bbf8-1212fbf92b2a ]]> <![CDATA[Editorial Comment: Impact of preoperative urodynamics on women undergoing pelvic organ prolapse surgery]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Ne6c9f01a-8ef2-43b8-aded-3f5551f3c5d3 ]]> <![CDATA[Editorial Comment: The Emerging Role of Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy for Primary Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N27ee745a-c7c7-4c50-bf73-298ff7339d86 ]]> <![CDATA[Editorial Comment: A 16-yr Follow-up of the European Randomized study of Screening for Prostate Cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N80581996-6648-456c-8c8e-ec5e72989dc3 ]]> <![CDATA[Editorial Comment: Diagnostic ureteroscopy prior to nephroureterectomy for urothelial carcinoma is associated with a high risk of bladder recurrence despite technical precautions to avoid tumor spillage]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N170ab266-ecd2-4c95-83f5-2da2f74819eb ]]> <![CDATA[Geographic Distribution of Racial Differences in Prostate Cancer Mortality]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nbcb0dd24-3bf1-4251-97ff-119fe3ad5cb7

Key Points

Question

How do race-based disparities in prostate cancer outcomes differ geographically within the US?

Findings

In this cohort study of 229 771 men in 17 geographic registries within the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database, black men had a higher risk of mortality overall compared with white men. The greatest race-based survival difference was seen in men with low-risk prostate cancer in the Atlanta, Georgia, registry, where mortality risk among black men was increased more than 5-fold.

Meaning

These findings suggest that race-based survival differences in prostate cancer vary regionally, which may allow for targeted interventions to mitigate these disparities.

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<![CDATA[Estimated Costs Associated With Radiation Therapy for Positive Surgical Margins During Radical Prostatectomy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N054b4aba-8685-4277-8191-83d86d2ea3cc

Key Points

Question

What are the costs associated with positive surgical margins (PSMs) during radical prostatectomy?

Findings

In this cohort study of 230 175 US men, the attributable cost of a PSM was $17 356. The overall health burden attributable to PSMs was estimated to be $52 068 000 each year.

Meaning

The financial burden of PSMs is substantial, and efforts in reducing the rate of PSMs could be associated with a reduction in the overall health costs associated with surgically treated prostate cancer.

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<![CDATA[Review of Lutetium-177-labeled Anti-prostate-specific Membrane Antigen Monoclonal Antibody J591 for the Treatment of Metastatic Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N3b91da1d-4d08-4f5d-bf45-076fe6a85ecf

Prostate cancer is the most common non-cutaneous cancer in men in the United States and is the second most common cause of cancer deaths after lung cancer in men. Despite all advances in the field of prostate cancer imaging and treatment, currently, it is sub-optimally responsive to all available treatment options. Radioimmunotherapy with a monoclonal antibody (mAb), J591, has shown promising results in the treatment of prostate cancer. J591 is a deimmunized mAb that targets the extracellular domain of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), a surface-bound and internalizing glycoprotein that is upregulated in prostate cancer. Phase I/II clinical trials have shown accurate tumor targeting, biochemical and radiographic responses, and increased overall survival in patients with mCRPC with tolerable, predictable, and reversible myelotoxicity. Ongoing studies focus on improving the therapeutic index of radiolabeled J591. Herein, the literature on published clinical trials involving therapeutic J591 conjugated to b-emitter, lutetium-177 for mCRPC, is sequentially reviewed.

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<![CDATA[Small Cell Carcinoma of the Prostate: A Case Report and Review of the Literature]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N658eb756-734a-4e4c-ac9a-ae7754cf31bf

Small cell carcinoma of the prostate (SCCP) is a rare malignancy that is considered a lethal entity of prostate cancer. Once it is diagnosed, patients characteristically experience an aggressive clinical course with poor overall survival rates, which unfortunately still holds even with modern treatments. In this report, we discuss the case of a 63-year-old African American male who initially presented to the hospital with an elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level of 9.41 ng/mL and was found to have locally extensive SCCP. After one cycle of chemotherapy, the patient's symptoms worsened, and his disease continued to progress with an increased metastatic burden. In a matter of just a few months, the patient’s disease progressed from a locally advanced entity to a diffusely metastatic one, showcasing the true aggressive nature of this disease. Through an extensive literature review, this case report also sheds further light on SCCP's histological characteristics, its apparent differences from adenocarcinoma of the prostate, and its aggressive nature even through treatment.

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