ResearchPad - Waste Management and Disposal https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Assessment of soil water, carbon and nitrogen cycling in reseeded grassland on the North Wyke Farm Platform using a process-based model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bf08b44d5eed0c4849da5be <![CDATA[Modelling water and nutrient fluxes in the Danube River Basin with SWAT]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bf08b45d5eed0c4849da617 <![CDATA[Straw use and availability for second generation biofuels in England]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bcf6ae140307c74ebb862af <![CDATA[Environmental Safety of the Use of Major Surfactant Classes in North America]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5ad7d681463d7e12f460f25b

This paper brings together over 250 published and unpublished studies on the environmental properties, fate, and toxicity of the four major, high-volume surfactant classes and relevant feedstocks. The surfactants and feedstocks covered include alcohol sulfate or alcohol sulfate (AS), alcohol ethoxysulfate (AES), linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), alcohol ethoxylate (AE), and long-chain alcohol (LCOH). These chemicals are used in a wide range of personal care and cleaning products. To date, this is the most comprehensive report on these substance's chemical structures, use, and volume information, physical/chemical properties, environmental fate properties such as biodegradation and sorption, monitoring studies through sewers, wastewater treatment plants and eventual release to the environment, aquatic and sediment toxicity, and bioaccumulation information. These data are used to illustrate the process for conducting both prospective and retrospective risk assessments for large-volume chemicals and categories of chemicals with wide dispersive use. Prospective risk assessments of AS, AES, AE, LAS, and LCOH demonstrate that these substances, although used in very high volume and widely released to the aquatic environment, have no adverse impact on the aquatic or sediment environments at current levels of use. The retrospective risk assessments of these same substances have clearly demonstrated that the conclusions of the prospective risk assessments are valid and confirm that these substances do not pose a risk to the aquatic or sediment environments. This paper also highlights the many years of research that the surfactant and cleaning products industry has supported, as part of their environmental sustainability commitment, to improve environmental tools, approaches, and develop innovative methods appropriate to address environmental properties of personal care and cleaning product chemicals, many of which have become approved international standard methods.

]]>
<![CDATA[A retrospective approach to assess human health risks associated with growing air pollution in urbanized area of Thar Desert, western Rajasthan, India]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989db06ab0ee8fa60bc8806

Air pollution has been a matter of great concern globally because of the associated health risks to individuals. The situation is getting worse in developing countries with more urbanization, industrialization and more importantly the rapidly growing population posing a threat to human life in the form of pulmonary, cardiovascular, carcinogenic or asthmatic diseases by accumulating toxic pollutants, harmful gases, metals, hydrocarbons etc.

Objective

The present study was undertaken to assess the magnitude of ambient air pollutants and their human health risks like respiratory ailments, infectious diseases, cardiovascular diseases and cancer using a Retrospective Approach of Bart Ostra.

Methodology

The parameters PM2.5, PM10, NOx, SO2, NH3 and O3 were monitored at all selected study sites monitored through a high volume sampler (APM 451 Envirotech, Envirotech Instruments Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, India). Retrospective Approach was used for assessment of risk factors and disease burden of respiratory and cardiopulmonary health problems.

Results

Environmental burden of disease showed that the problem of health related to air pollution is a main concern particularly in the growing cities of India. High to critical level of air pollution including PM10, PM2.5, NOx, SO2, NH3 and O3 was observed in all seasons at traffic intersections and commercial sites. The respiratory infections (25% incidence in population exposed to indoor smoke problems) and a prevalence of asthma/COPD (4.4%) in households exposed to high vehicular pollution along with signs of coronary artery/heart disease and/or hypertension and cancers (37.9-52.2%), were reported requiring preventive measures.

Conclusion

The study reflects a great concern for the mankind with the need of having streamline ways to limit air pollution and emphasize upon efficiently determining the risk of illness upon exposure to air pollution.

]]>
<![CDATA[Response surface analysis of photocatalytic degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether by core/shell Fe3O4/ZnO nanoparticles]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989da86ab0ee8fa60b9c3ca

The degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) was investigated in the aqueous solution of coated ZnO onto magnetite nanoparticale based on an advanced photocatalytic oxidation process. The photocatalysts were synthesized by coating of ZnO onto magnetite using precipitation method. The sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and vibration sample magnetometer (VSM). Besides, specific surface area was also determined by BET method. The four effective factors including pH of the reaction mixture, Fe3O4/ZnO magnetic nanoparticles concentration, initial MTBE concentration and molar ratio of [H2O2]/ [MTBE] were optimized using response surface modeling (RSM). Using the four-factor-three-level Box–Behnken design, 29 runs were designed considering the effective ranges of the influential factors. The optimized values for the operational parameters under the respective constraints were obtained at PH of 7.2, Fe3O4/ZnO concentration of 1.78 g/L, initial MTBE concentration of 89.14 mg/L and [H2O2]/ [MTBE] molar ratio of 2.33. Moreover, kinetics of MTBE degradation was determined under optimum condition. The study about core/shell magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) recycling were also carried out and after about four times, the percentage of the photocatalytic degradation was about 70%.

]]>
<![CDATA[Linearised and non-linearised isotherm models optimization analysis by error functions and statistical means]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989dad5ab0ee8fa60bb78ba

In adsorption study, to describe sorption process and evaluation of best-fitting isotherm model is a key analysis to investigate the theoretical hypothesis. Hence, numerous statistically analysis have been extensively used to estimate validity of the experimental equilibrium adsorption values with the predicted equilibrium values. Several statistical error analysis were carried out. In the present study, the following statistical analysis were carried out to evaluate the adsorption isotherm model fitness, like the Pearson correlation, the coefficient of determination and the Chi-square test, have been used. The ANOVA test was carried out for evaluating significance of various error functions and also coefficient of dispersion were evaluated for linearised and non-linearised models. The adsorption of phenol onto natural soil (Local name Kalathur soil) was carried out, in batch mode at 30 ± 20 C. For estimating the isotherm parameters, to get a holistic view of the analysis the models were compared between linear and non-linear isotherm models. The result reveled that, among above mentioned error functions and statistical functions were designed to determine the best fitting isotherm.

]]>
<![CDATA[Greenhouse Gases Life Cycle Assessment (GHGLCA) as a decision support tool for municipal solid waste management in Iran]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989dad6ab0ee8fa60bb7f4b

Background

One of the most problems in developing countries is the integrated waste management and the effects on Greenhouse Gases (GHG) emission, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is used in this paper as a decision supporting tool in planning Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) managements.

Methods

In this paper the EPA’s Waste Reduction Model (WARM) that provide GHG emission factors for waste stream components that are based on life Cycle Inventory (LCI) framework were used and The MSW management methods comprised in seven scenarios.

Results

The amount of GHG which was generated from Iran’s waste sector estimated about 17836079 Metric Tons of Carbon dioxide Equivalents (MT CO2e) in this study. The lowest amount of GHG was generated by LFG capture system with energy recovery (557635 MT CO2e), while Incineration of materials being sent to landfill (1756823 MT CO2e), Landfill Gas (LFG) capture system with flaring (2929150 MT CO2e) and Improved source reduction and recycling (4780278 MT CO2e) emitted fewer GHG than the other scenarios. Lowest levels of gross energy consumption occur in source reduction with recycling and composting (-89356240 Mega British Thermal Unit, M BTU), recycling and composting (-86772060 M BTU) as well as Improved source reduction with recycling and composting (-54794888 M BTU).

Conclusions

It appears that recycling and composting each offer significant GHG emissions and energy consumption reductions (scenarios 4, 5 and 6). Upon of the GHG emission and energy consumption results concluded that improved source reduction and recycling scenario has been the Balanced and appropriate technology for handling the solid waste streams in municipalities.

]]>
<![CDATA[Bioremediation of p-Nitrophenol by Pseudomonas putida 1274 strain]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989dac1ab0ee8fa60bb0eba

Background

p-Nitrophenol (PNP) occurs as contaminants of industrial effluents and it is the most important environmental pollutant and causes significant health and environmental risks, because it is toxic to many living organisms. Nevertheless, the information regarding PNP degradation pathways and their enzymes remain limited.

Objective

To evaluate the efficacy of the Pseudomonas Putida 1274 for removal of PNP.

Methods

P. putida MTCC 1274 was obtained from MTCC Chandigarh, India and cultured in the minimal medium in the presence of PNP. PNP degradation efficiency was compared under different pH and temperature ranges. The degraded product was isolated and analyzed with different chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques.

Results

P. putida 1274 shows good growth and PNP degradation at 37°C in neutral pH. Acidic and alkali pH retarded the growth of P. putida as well as the PNP degradation. On the basis of specialized techniques, hydroquinone was identified as major degraded product. The pathway was identified for the biodegradation of PNP. It involved initial removal of the nitrate group and formation of hydroquinone as one of the intermediates.

Conclusion

Our results suggested that P. putida 1274 strain would be a suitable aspirant for bioremediation of nitro-aromatic compounds contaminated sites in the environment.

]]>
<![CDATA[Removal of tetracycline from wastewater using pumice stone: equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989daddab0ee8fa60bba7cc

In this study, pumice stone was used for the removal of tetracyline (TC) from aqueous solutions. It was characterized by XRD, FT-IR, SEM and BET analyses. Cation exchange capacity of pumice stone was found to be 9.9 meq/100 g. Effect of various parameters such as solution pH (2–11), adsorbent dosage (0.5-10 g/L), contact time (2.5-120 min), initial TC concentration (5–300 mg/L) and temperature (20–50°C) on TC adsorption onto pumice was investigated. Also the adsorption of TC on pumice stone was studied as a function of Na+ and Cu2+ cations changing pH from 2 to 11 using batch experiments. The best removal efficiency performance was exhibited at adsorbent dosage 10 g/L, pH 3, contact time 120 min. Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm models were applied to the equilibrium data. The result has shown that the adsorption was favorable, physicochemical in nature and agrees well with Langmuir and Freundlich models. The maximum Langmuir adsorption capacity was found to be 20.02 mg/g. The adsorption behavior of TC on pumices stone was fitted well in the pseudo-second order kinetics model. Thermodynamic parameters calculated from the adsorption data at different temperature showed that the adsorption reaction was feasible, spontaneous and exothermic.

]]>
<![CDATA[Ambient x-ray pollution assessment at inspection gates of airports- a case study of Mehrabad and Imam Khomeini Airports in Iran]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989da0aab0ee8fa60b7757f

Background

As a well-known, physical carcinogen, ambient X-ray pollution assessment would be of great importance in today’s modern world. Accordingly, the present study was done to measure the exposure level of ambient X-ray at inspection gates of two airports in Iran. According to which, the X-ray was measured at different points of the inspection gates including closed and opened Curtain, as well as seating place of operators beside the X-ray inspection systems. The recorded data were then analyzed by “sign” and t-tests.

Results

The total average exposure level of the measured x-ray was 2.68 ± 0.73 μsv.h-1. The measured x-ray exposure level was 2.07 ± 0.61 (μsv.h-1) released from RAPISCAN X-ray inspection system and 3.3 ± 1.34 (μsv.h-1) emitted from HEIMANN X-ray inspection system. Comparison of average x-ray doses of the systems in both airports showed that the minimum and maximum exposure levels were recorded at 1(m) far from the devices and at the entrance of the devices, respectively.

Conclusions

The exposure levels at all measurement points were lower than the occupational exposure limit. This reveals the fact that the exposed operators are not probably at risk of adverse health effects.

]]>
<![CDATA[Harmful metals concentration in sediments and fishes of biologically important estuary, Bay of Bengal]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989da6cab0ee8fa60b933b9

Study on the accumulation level of heavy metals was conducted on sediment and fishes from estuaries of Bay of Bengal. Heavy metals were determined by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES) and the results were compared to permissible limits of WHO/USEPA. The accumulation patterns of Fe and Cd were found predominantly in all samples tested when correlated with other metals. It was found that the concentration of metals such as Cd (3.90 ± 0.25 μg/g), Cr (0.44 ± 0.05 μg/g), Ni (0.33 ± 0.01 μg/g), and Mn (1.1 ± 0.11 μg/g) were exceeding the permissible limit, whereas Fe, Co, Pb, and Zn were found within the limit of WHO/USEPA at station 1. In station 2, Cd (16.5 ± 0.4 μg/g), Mn (0.67 ± 0.11 μg/g), and Cr (0.80 ± 0.01 μg/g) were exceeding the permissible limit, whereas Fe, Co, Pb, Ni, and Zn were found within the limit. This study emphasizes that Cd and Mn levels in both stations, are far higher than the acceptable values set by WHO/USEPA and may therefore present human health hazards. It is therefore mandatory to carry out extensive research to evaluate the possible environmental risk factors in the vicinity of both estuaries with respect to heavy metals.

]]>
<![CDATA[Development of pilot scale nanofiltration system for yeast industry wastewater treatment]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989daebab0ee8fa60bbf32e

The treatment of the yeast industry wastewater was investigated by nanofiltration (NF) membrane process on a pilot scale. Two wastewaters were used as feed: (i) dilute wastewater with COD 2000 mg/L and (ii) concentrate wastewater with COD 8000 mg/L. The permeate flux, COD retention, color and electrical conductivity (EC) removal were evaluated in relation to trans-membrane pressure and long-term filtration. A linear growth in permeate flux was found with increasing in trans-membrane pressure for wastewaters. In addition, the COD retention, color and EC removal increased with trans-membrane pressure enhancement. The results obtained from the long-term nanofiltration of dilute wastewater indicated that the permeate flux decreased from 2300 L/day to 1250 L/day and COD retention increased from 86% to 92%. The quality of the permeate in term of COD is lower than the discharge standard in river (200 mg/L). Thus, this process is useful for treatment of wastewaters produced by yeast industry.

]]>
<![CDATA[Oily wastewaters treatment using Pseudomonas sp. isolated from the compost fertilizer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989da75ab0ee8fa60b964a7

Background

Discharging the oily wastewater in the environment causes serious problems, because of the oil compounds and organic materials presence. Applying biological methods using the lipase enzyme producer microorganisms can be an appropriate choice for treatment of these wastewaters. The aim of this study is to treat those oil wastewaters having high concentration of oil by applying lipase enzyme producer bacteria.

Materials and methods

Oil concentration measurement was conducted using the standard method of gravimetric and the wastewater under study was synthetically made and contained olive, canola and sunflower oil. The strain used in this study was Pseudomonas strain isolated from compost fertilizer. The oil under study had concentration of 1.5 to 22 g/l.

Results

The oil removal amount in concentrations lower than 8.4 g/l was over 95 ± 1.5%. Increase of the oil's concentration to 22 g/l decreases the amount of removal in retention time of 44 hours to 85 ± 2.5%. The best yield of removing this strain in retention time of 44 hours and temperature of 30°C was achieved using Ammonium Nitrate as the nitrogen resource which yield was about 95 percent.

Conclusion

The findings of the research showed that Pseudomonas bacteria isolated from the compost fertilizer can degrade high concentration oils.

]]>
<![CDATA[Annual effective dose from environmental gamma radiation in Bushehr city]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989dab7ab0ee8fa60bad606

Background

Present study was an attempt to measure outdoor and indoor gamma dose rates in Bushehr city to determine corresponding annual effective dose and, to assess effect of active nuclear power plant located in Bushehr city on background radiation level of this city.

Methods

All measurements were performed by G.M (Geiger Muller) detector (X5C plus) calibrated in Iran Atomic Energy Agency. In order to avoid effects of ground on outdoor and indoor measurements, G.M detector was placed one meter higher than ground level. Also, during the outdoor measurements, G.M detector was used at least six meters away from the walls of any building nearby to avoid unwanted effects of the materials used in the buildings on measurements.

Results

Average gamma dose rates of outdoor and indoor measurements were determined as 51.8 ± 8.8 nSv/h and 60.2 ± 7.2 nSv/h, respectively. Annual effective dose due to background gamma radiation was calculated as 0.36 mSv which was lower than average global level.

Conclusions

The average annual effective dose from background gamma radiation in Bushehr city was less than global level. Comparison of the results of present study, as follow up, with previous attempt performed in 2004 to determine effective dose of environmental gamma radiation in Bushehr province revealed that, during eight years, nuclear power plant located in this city has not significantly increased level of annual effective dose of Bushehr city.

]]>
<![CDATA[Changes in the forest ecosystems in areas impacted by aridization in south-western Romania]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989da28ab0ee8fa60b8152f

Background

In the past few decades, global climate change has accentuated the intensification of aridization in South-Western Romania, with direct and indirect consequences on the quality of forest ecosystems. In addition to qualitative deterioration, the quantitative changes brought about by intensive anthropic deforestation have created the conditions for a decline in the size of forest areas on vast tracts of land. The paper aims to analyze the qualitative and quantitative changes in the forest ecosystems in South-Western Romania, changes due to the synergic context of the global climate changes and the anthropic pressures of the past three decades. In order to capture the evolution of aridization in the study area, specific aridization indexes have been calculated, such as the De Martonne index and the UNEP aridity index. 1990 and 2011 satellite images have been used in order to quantify the qualitative changes.

Results

The results obtained indicated that, in the past two decades, the quality of the biomass declined as a result of the increase in the climatic aridity conditions (De Martonne si UNEP aridity index, indicating in the last decades, annual values under 15 mm/°C, and under 0.5 mm/mm, that means that the values situated under these thresholds, describe arid and semi-arid climate conditions). Also, the uncontrolled logging across vast surfaces caused the loss of forest ecosystems by 7% in the overall study area, during the last three decades.

Conclusions

The severe effects of aridization meant, first of all, a significant decline in the quality of the ecosystem services supplied by forests. In the absence of viable actions to correct the present situation, the extremely undesirable consequences of an ecological and social nature will arise in the near future.

]]>
<![CDATA[Urban runoff treatment using nano-sized iron oxide coated sand with and without magnetic field applying]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989dae7ab0ee8fa60bbdfde

Increase of impervious surfaces in urban area followed with increases in runoff volume and peak flow, leads to increase in urban storm water pollution. The polluted runoff has many adverse impacts on human life and environment. For that reason, the aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of nano iron oxide coated sand with and without magnetic field in treatment of urban runoff. In present work, synthetic urban runoff was treated in continuous separate columns system which was filled with nano iron oxide coated sand with and without magnetic field. Several experimental parameters such as heavy metals, turbidity, pH, nitrate and phosphate were controlled for investigate of system efficiency. The prepared column materials were characterized with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA) instruments. SEM and EDXA analyses proved that the sand has been coated with nano iron oxide (Fe3O4) successfully. The results of SEM and EDXA instruments well demonstrate the formation of nano iron oxide (Fe3O4) on sand particle. Removal efficiency without magnetic field for turbidity; Pb, Zn, Cd and PO4 were observed to be 90.8%, 73.3%, 75.8%, 85.6% and 67.5%, respectively. When magnetic field was applied, the removal efficiency for turbidity, Pb, Zn, Cd and PO4 was increased to 95.7%, 89.5%, 79.9%, 91.5% and 75.6% respectively. In addition, it was observed that coated sand and magnetic field was not able to remove NO3 ions. Statistical analyses of data indicated that there was a significant difference between removals of pollutants in two tested columns. Results of this study well demonstrate the efficiency of nanosized iron oxide-coated sand in treatment of urban runoff quality; upon 75% of pollutants could be removed. In addition, in the case of magnetic field system efficiency can be improved significantly.

]]>
<![CDATA[Biochemical responses of juvenile European sturgeon, (Huso huso) to a sub-lethal level of copper and cadmium in freshwater and brackish water environments]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989d9e9ab0ee8fa60b6c2f5

In Caspian Sea basin, sturgeons spend the larval and juvenile stages in freshwaters of rivers and then, they migrate to brackish waters of the sea where they grow and mature. With regard to the elevation of the metal concentrations in coastal waters and sediments of the Caspian Sea and its adjacent rivers, it is likely that juvenile sturgeon are exposed to sub-lethal levels of metals during seawater entry process. We compared the biochemical responses of juvenile European sturgeon, (Beluga, Huso huso) exposed to a sub-lethal level of copper (Cu, 20 μg/L) and cadmium (Cd, 300 μg/L) in freshwater (FW, 0 ppt) and brackish water (BW, 11 ppt) for seven days. The results showed that the levels of plasma glucose increased significantly in BW and in all metal exposed groups. Also, plasma cortisol concentrations showed significant increases when juveniles were exposed to BW, Cu(FW/BW) and Cd(BW). The activity of liver superoxide dismutase (SOD) decreased significantly in BW compared with FW. Moreover, Cu and Cd exposure enhanced the activity of SOD in BW, while SOD did not show any changes in FW. The levels of tissue and plasma proteins as well as plasma triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and liver Catalase (CAT) activity remained constant when animals were exposed to Cu/Cd in both FW and BW environments. Our data indicate that exposure of juvenile beluga to BW stimulated the general biochemical responses of stress such as cortisol and glucose, while sub-lethal exposure to Cu and Cd caused oxidative stress in BW environment but not in FW.

]]>
<![CDATA[Transport properties of carboxylated nitrile butadiene rubber (XNBR)-nanoclay composites; a promising material for protective gloves in occupational exposures]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989db3dab0ee8fa60bd5869

This study was conducted in response to one of the research needs of National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), i.e. the application of nanomaterials and nanotechnology in the field of occupational safety and health. In order to fill this important knowledge gap, the equilibrium solubility and diffusion of carbon tetrachloride and ethyl acetate through carboxylated nitrile butadiene rubber (XNBR)-clay nanocomposite, as a promising new material for chemical protective gloves (or barrier against the transport of organic solvent contaminant), were examined by swelling procedure. Near Fickian diffusion was observed for XNBR based nanocomposites containing different amounts of nanoclay. Decontamination potential is a key factor in development of a new material for reusable chemical protective gloves applications, specifically for routine or highly toxic exposures. A thermal decontamination regime for nanocomposite was developed for the first time. Then, successive cycles of exposure/decontamination for nanocomposite were performed to the maximum 10 cycles for the first time. This result confirms that the two selected solvents cannot deteriorate the rubber-nanoclay interaction and, therefore, such gloves can be reusable after decontamination.

]]>
<![CDATA[Design and implementation of integrated solid wastes management pattern in industrial zones, case study of Shahroud, Iran]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989d9d5ab0ee8fa60b6577d

Background

The aim of the study was to design and implementation of integrated solid wastes management pattern in Shahroud industrial zone, evaluates the results and determine possible performance problems. This cross - sectional study was carried out for 4 years in Shahroud industrial zone and the implementation process included:1- Qualitative and quantitative analysis of all solid waste generated in the city, 2- determine the current state of solid waste management in the zone and to identify programs conducted, 3- Design and implementation of integrated solid wastes management pattern including design and implementation of training programs, laws, penalties and incentives and explain and implement programs for all factories and 4- The monitoring of the implementation process and determine the results.

Results

Annually, 1,728 tons of solid wastes generated in the town including 1603 tons of industrial wastes and 125 tons of municipal wastes. By implementing this pattern, the two separated systems of collection and recycling of domestic and industrial wastes was launched in this zone. Also consistent with the goals, the amount of solid wastes generated and disposed in 2009 was 51.5 and 28.6 kg per 100 million Rials production, respectively.

Conclusion

Results showed that implementation of pattern of separated collection, training programs, capacity building, providing technical services, completing chain of industries and strengthening the cooperation between industrial estate management and industrial units could greatly reduce the waste management problems.

]]>