ResearchPad - academicsubjects-med00060 https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Targeted Nutrient Modifications in Purified Diets Differentially Affect Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Metabolic Disease Development in Rodent Models]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_16171 The pathophysiology of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is still not completely understood, nor are there any approved therapies for treating this disorder, so there is a need for further research. Rodent models are typically used as surrogates for human disease and this article provides examples of how targeted nutrient manipulations in rodent diets influence NAFLD development in mice, rats, and hamsters. This article also focuses on study design details including nutritional components of the diets (and their controls), proper control diet choice, animal model/strain, and length of the study to clearly outline the strengths and drawbacks of the different dietary methods of inducing NAFLD in rodents.

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<![CDATA[Vitamin D, magnesium, calcium, and their interaction in relation to colorectal cancer recurrence and all-cause mortality]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12388 Higher concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] at diagnosis are associated with a lower mortality risk in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. However, magnesium and calcium are important in vitamin D metabolism.ObjectivesWe aimed to investigate 25(OH)D3, magnesium, or calcium and their interaction among patients with CRC in relation to recurrence and all-cause mortality.MethodsThe study population included 1169 newly diagnosed stage I–III CRC patients from 2 prospective cohorts. Associations between 25(OH)D3 concentrations, magnesium or calcium intake through diet and/or supplements at diagnosis, and recurrence and all-cause mortality were evaluated using multivariable Cox proportional hazard models. The interaction between 25(OH)D3 and magnesium or calcium was assessed by investigating 1) joint compared with separate effects, using a single reference category; and 2) the effect estimates of 1 factor across strata of another.ResultsSerum 25(OH)D3, calcium, and magnesium, alone and their interactions, were not associated with recurrence. Serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations seemed to be associated with all-cause mortality. An inverse association between magnesium intake (HRQ3 vs. Q1: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.32, 0.95 and HRQ4 vs. Q1: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.35, 1.21), but not calcium intake, and all-cause mortality was observed. When investigating the interaction between 25(OH)D3 and magnesium, we observed the lowest risk of all-cause mortality in patients with sufficient vitamin D concentrations (≥50 nmol/L) and a high magnesium intake (median split) (HR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.31, 0.89) compared with patients who were vitamin D deficient (<50 nmol/L) and had a low magnesium intake. No interactions between calcium and vitamin D in relation to all-cause mortality were observed.ConclusionsOur findings suggest that the presence of an adequate status of 25(OH)D3 in combination with an adequate magnesium intake is essential in lowering the risk of mortality in CRC patients, yet the underlying mechanism should be studied. In addition, diet and lifestyle intervention studies are needed to confirm our findings. The COLON study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03191110. The EnCoRe study was registered at trialregister.nl as NTR7099. ]]> <![CDATA[The EAT-Lancet Commission's Dietary Composition May Not Prevent Noncommunicable Disease Mortality]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12386 The recently published EAT-Lancet Commission report on dietary impacts on the environment suggested that their proposed diet could prevent more than 10 million annual premature mortalities from noncommunicable diseases globally. The report did not meet standards for transparency and replicability, nor did it fully account for statistical uncertainty. Our attempt to replicate the mortality calculations for the United States revealed flaws in the assumptions and methods used to estimate the avoided mortalities. After correcting some calculation errors and fully accounting for uncertainty in the avoided mortalities, the mortality reduction effect of the EAT-Lancet proposed diet in the USA is no greater than the impact of energy consumption changes that would prevent under-weight, over-weight, and obesity alone. As our findings call into question the global conclusions of the EAT-Lancet report, futher independent validation is needed before it can be used to inform dietary guidelines.

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<![CDATA[Nutrition Intervention Using Behavioral Change Communication without Additional Material Inputs Increased Expenditures on Key Food Groups in Bangladesh]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12384 Behavioral change communication (BCC) promotes skills and knowledge to improve infant and young child feeding, but without additional material inputs, recipients must develop strategies to translate knowledge into action. Using data from the Alive & Thrive initiative in Bangladesh (2010–2014), we aimed to test whether households receiving the intensive intervention (opposed to the nonintensive intervention) increased expenditures on key foods for mothers and children (e.g., foods that were promoted by the intervention and also changed in maternal and child diets).MethodsThe intensive intervention provided interpersonal counseling, community mobilization, and mass media campaigns to promote breastfeeding and complementary feeding. A cluster-randomized design compared 20 subdistricts randomly assigned to the intensive (4281 households) or nonintensive (4284 households) intervention. Measures included food and nonfood expenditures, dietary diversity, and women's economic resources. Linear and logistic regression tested difference-in-differences (DD) in expenditures and dietary diversity, accounting for subdistricts as clusters, and the association between maternal and child consumption of specific food groups and corresponding food expenditures.ResultsExpenditures on eggs and flesh foods increased more in intensive areas than in nonintensive areas by 53 (P < 0.01) and 471 (P < 0.01) taka/mo, respectively. Household food expenditures increased more in intensive areas by 832 taka (P = 0.02), whereas changes in nonfood expenditures did not differ. Women's employment and control of income increased more in intensive areas by 12 (P = 0.03) and 13 (P < 0.01) percentage points, respectively, while jewelry ownership decreased more by 23 percentage points (P < 0.01). Higher expenditures on food groups were reflected in higher consumption by women and children.ConclusionsRecipients in the intensive intervention mobilized additional resources to improve diets, reflected in increased expenditures and consumption of promoted foods. BCC interventions should document how recipients produce desired results without additional material inputs, particularly for behaviors that likely require additional resources. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01678716. ]]> <![CDATA[Better Predictions of Vitamin A Total Body Stores by the Retinol Isotope Dilution Method Are Possible with Deeper Understanding of the Mathematics and by Applying Compartmental Modeling]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12382 Retinol isotope dilution (RID) is a well-accepted technique for assessing vitamin A status [i.e., total body stores (TBS)]. Here, in an effort to increase understanding of the method, we briefly review RID equations and discuss their included variables and their coefficients (i.e., assumptions that account for the efficiency of absorption of an orally administered tracer dose of vitamin A, mixing of the dose with endogenous vitamin A, and loss due to utilization). Then, we focus on contributions of another technique, model-based compartmental analysis and especially the “super-person” approach, that advance the RID method. Specifically, we explain how adding this modeling component, which involves taking 1 additional blood sample from each subject, provides population-specific estimates for the RID coefficients that can be used in the equation instead of values derived from the literature; using model-derived RID coefficients results in improved confidence in predictions of TBS for both a group and its individuals. We note that work is still needed to identify the optimal time for applying RID in different groups and to quantify vitamin A absorption efficiency. Finally, we mention other contributions of modeling, including the use of theoretical data to verify the accuracy of RID predictions and the additional knowledge that model-based compartmental analysis provides about whole-body vitamin A kinetics.

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<![CDATA[Gut Microbial Metabolites and Biochemical Pathways Involved in Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Effects of Diet and Nutrition on the Microbiome]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12379 The food we consume and its interactions with the host and their gut microbiota affect normal gut function and health. Functional gut disorders (FGDs), including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), can result from negative effects of these interactions, leading to a reduced quality of life. Certain foods exacerbate or reduce the severity and prevalence of FGD symptoms. IBS can be used as a model of perturbation from normal gut function with which to study the impact of foods and diets on the severity and symptoms of FGDs and understand how critical processes and biochemical mechanisms contribute to this impact. Analyzing the complex interactions between food, host, and microbial metabolites gives insights into the pathways and processes occurring in the gut which contribute to FGDs. The following review is a critical discussion of the literature regarding metabolic pathways and dietary interventions relevant to FGDs. Many metabolites, for example bile acids, SCFAs, vitamins, amino acids, and neurotransmitters, can be altered by dietary intake, and could be valuable for identifying perturbations in metabolic pathways that distinguish a “normal, healthy” gut from a “dysfunctional, unhealthy” gut. Dietary interventions for reducing symptoms of FGDs are becoming more prevalent, but studies investigating the underlying mechanisms linked to host, microbiome, and metabolite interactions are less common. Therefore, we aim to evaluate the recent literature to assist with further progression of research in this field.

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<![CDATA[Identification of Milk and Cheese Intake Biomarkers in Healthy Adults Reveals High Interindividual Variability of Lewis System–Related Oligosaccharides]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12376 The use of biomarkers of food intake (BFIs) in blood and urine has shown great promise for assessing dietary intake and complementing traditional dietary assessment tools whose use is prone to misreporting.ObjectiveUntargeted LC-MS metabolomics was applied to identify candidate BFIs for assessing the intake of milk and cheese and to explore the metabolic response to the ingestion of these foods.MethodsA randomized controlled crossover study was conducted in healthy adults [5 women, 6 men; age: 23.6 ± 5.0 y; BMI (kg/m2): 22.1 ± 1.7].  After a single isocaloric intake of milk (600 mL), cheese (100 g), or soy-based drink (600 mL), serum and urine samples were collected postprandially up to 6 h and after fasting after 24 h. Untargeted metabolomics was conducted using LC-MS. Discriminant metabolites were selected in serum by multivariate statistical analysis, and their mass distribution and postprandial kinetics were compared.ResultsSerum metabolites discriminant for cheese intake had a significantly lower mass distribution than metabolites characterizing milk intake (P = 4.1 × 10−4). Candidate BFIs for milk or cheese included saccharides, a hydroxy acid, amino acids, amino acid derivatives, and dipeptides. Two serum oligosaccharides, blood group H disaccharide (BGH) and Lewis A trisaccharide (LeA), specifically reflected milk intake but with high interindividual variability. The 2 oligosaccharides showed related but opposing trends: subjects showing an increase in either oligosaccharide did not show any increase in the other oligosaccharide. This result was confirmed in urine.ConclusionsNew candidate BFIs for milk or cheese could be identified in healthy adults, most of which were related to protein metabolism. The increase in serum of LeA and BGH after cow-milk intake in adults calls for further investigations considering the beneficial health effects on newborns of such oligosaccharides in maternal milk. The trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02705560. ]]> <![CDATA[Could vitamin D reduce obesity-associated inflammation? Observational and Mendelian randomization study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12372 Obesity is associated with inflammation but the role of vitamin D in this process is not clear.ObjectivesWe aimed to assess the associations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], BMI, and 16 inflammatory biomarkers, and to assess the role of vitamin D as a potential mediator in the association between higher BMI and inflammation.MethodsNorthern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (NFBC1966) 31-y data on 3586 individuals were analyzed to examine the observational associations between BMI, 25(OH)D, and 16 inflammatory biomarkers. Multivariable regression analyses and 2-sample regression-based Mendelian randomization (MR) mediation analysis were performed to assess any role of vitamin D in mediating a causal effect of BMI on inflammatory biomarkers [soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP)] for which observational associations were detected. For MR, genome-wide association study summary results ranging from 5163 to 806,834 individuals were used for biomarkers, 25(OH)D, and BMI. Findings were triangulated with a literature review of vitamin D supplementation trials.ResultsIn NFBC1966, mean BMI (kg/m2) was 24.8 (95% CI: 24.7, 25.0) and mean 25(OH)D was 50.3 nmol/L (95% CI: 49.8, 50.7 nmol/L). Inflammatory biomarkers correlated as 4 independent clusters: interleukins, adhesion molecules, acute-phase proteins, and chemokines. BMI was positively associated with 9 inflammatory biomarkers and inversely with 25(OH)D (false discovery rate < 0.05). 25(OH)D was inversely associated with sICAM-1, hs-CRP, and AGP, which were positively associated with BMI. The MR analyses showed causal association of BMI on these 3 inflammatory biomarkers. There was no observational or MR evidence that circulating 25(OH)D concentrations mediated the association between BMI and these 3 inflammatory markers. Review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) supported our findings showing no impact of vitamin D supplementation on inflammatory biomarkers.ConclusionsThe findings from our observational study and causal MR analyses, together with data from RCTs, do not support a beneficial role of vitamin D supplementation on obesity-related inflammation. ]]> <![CDATA[Effects of distraction on taste-related neural processing: a cross-sectional fMRI study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12368 In the current obesogenic environment we often eat while electronic devices, such as smart phones, computers, or the television, distract us. Such “distracted eating” is associated with increased food intake and overweight. However, the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms of this phenomenon are unknown.ObjectiveOur aim was to elucidate these mechanisms by investigating whether distraction attenuates processing in the primary and secondary taste cortices, located in the insula and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), respectively.MethodsForty-one healthy, normal-weight participants received fixed amounts of higher- and lower-sweetness isocaloric chocolate milk while performing a high- or low-distracting detection task during fMRI in 2 test sessions. Subsequently, we measured ad libitum food intake.ResultsAs expected, a primary taste cortex region in the right insula responded more to the sweeter drink (P < 0.001, uncorrected). Distraction did not affect this insular sweetness response across the group, but did weaken sweetness-related connectivity of this region to a secondary taste region in the right OFC (P–family-wise error, cluster, small-volume corrected = 0.020). Moreover, individual differences in distraction-related attenuation of taste activation in the insula predicted increased subsequent ad libitum food intake after distraction (= 0.36).ConclusionsThese results reveal a mechanism explaining how distraction during consumption attenuates neural taste processing. Moreover, our study shows that such distraction-induced decreases in neural taste processing contribute to individual differences in the susceptibility for overeating. Thus, being mindful about the taste of food during consumption could perhaps be part of successful prevention and treatment of overweight and obesity, which should be further tested in these target groups. This study was preregistered at the Open Science Framework as https://bit.ly/31RtDHZ. ]]> <![CDATA[Supplementation with Sea Vegetables <i>Palmaria mollis</i> and <i>Undaria pinnatifida</i> Exerts Metabolic Benefits in Diet-Induced Obesity in Mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10250 Sea vegetable Pacific dulse and wakame supplementation exhibits protective effects against obesity-associated metabolic complications in C57BL/6J mice by increasing lipid excretion, reducing systemic inflammatory markers, and mitigating gut microbiome alteration.

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<![CDATA[Resetting the Narrative in Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Nutrition Research]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10006 As the oldest continuous living civilizations in the world, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples have strength, tenacity, and resilience. Initial colonization of the landscape included violent dispossession and removal of people from Country to expand European land tenure and production systems, loss of knowledge holders through frontier violence, and formal government policies of segregation and assimilation designed to destroy ontological relationships with Country and kin. The ongoing manifestations of colonialism continue to affect food systems and food knowledges of Aboriginal peoples, and have led to severe health inequities and disproportionate rates of nutrition-related health conditions. There is an urgent need to collaborate with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples to address nutrition and its underlying determinants in a way that integrates Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples’ understandings of food and food systems, health, healing, and well-being. We use the existing literature to discuss current ways that Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples are portrayed in the literature in relation to nutrition, identify knowledge gaps that require further research, and propose a new way forward.

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<![CDATA[Citrus Peel Flavonoids as Potential Cancer Prevention Agents]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N3a231d2f-88ab-4d1e-b7ba-ac233150aa0e Citrus fruit and in particular flavonoid compounds from citrus peel have been identified as agents with utility in the treatment of cancer. This review provides a background and overview regarding the compounds found within citrus peel with putative anticancer potential as well as the associated in vitro and in vivo studies. Historical studies have identified a number of cellular processes that can be modulated by citrus peel flavonoids including cell proliferation, cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, metastasis, and angiogenesis. More recently, molecular studies have started to elucidate the underlying cell signaling pathways that are responsible for the flavonoids’ mechanism of action. These growing data support further research into the chemopreventative potential of citrus peel extracts, and purified flavonoids in particular. This critical review highlights new research in the field and synthesizes the pathways modulated by flavonoids and other polyphenolic compounds into a generalized schema.

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<![CDATA[End-Stage Renal Disease Patients Lose a Substantial Amount of Amino Acids during Hemodialysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ndf56d4fc-ace3-4ff5-bc7c-e2cfbadc3068 Poor nutritional status is frequently observed in end-stage renal disease patients and associated with adverse clinical outcomes and increased mortality. Loss of amino acids (AAs) during hemodialysis (HD) may contribute to protein malnutrition in these patients.ObjectiveWe aimed to assess the extent of AA loss during HD in end-stage renal disease patients consuming their habitual diet.MethodsTen anuric chronic HD patients (mean ± SD age: 67.9 ± 19.3 y, BMI: 23.2 ± 3.5 kg/m2), undergoing HD 3 times per week, were selected to participate in this study. Spent dialysate was collected continuously and plasma samples were obtained directly before and after a single HD session in each participant. AA profiles in spent dialysate and in pre-HD and post-HD plasma were measured through ultra-performance liquid chromatography to determine AA concentrations and, as such, net loss of AAs. In addition, dietary intake before and throughout HD was assessed using a 24-h food recall questionnaire during HD. Paired-sample t tests were conducted to compare pre-HD and post-HD plasma AA concentrations.ResultsDuring an HD session, 11.95 ± 0.69 g AAs were lost via the dialysate, of which 8.26 ± 0.46 g were nonessential AAs, 3.69 ± 0.31 g were essential AAs, and 1.64 ± 0.17 g were branched-chain AAs. As a consequence, plasma total and essential AA concentrations declined significantly from 2.88 ± 0.15 and 0.80 ± 0.05 mmol/L to 2.27 ± 0.11 and 0.66 ± 0.05 mmol/L, respectively (P < 0.05). AA profiles of pre-HD plasma and spent dialysate were similar. Moreover, AA concentrations in pre-HD plasma and spent dialysate were strongly correlated (Spearman's ρ = 0.92, P < 0.001).ConclusionsDuring a single HD session, ∼12 g AAs are lost into the dialysate, causing a significant decline in plasma AA concentrations. AA loss during HD can contribute substantially to protein malnutrition in end-stage renal disease patients. This study was registered at the Netherlands Trial Registry (NTR7101). ]]> <![CDATA[Cognitive Distraction at Mealtime Decreases Amount Consumed in Healthy Young Adults: A Randomized Crossover Exploratory Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N1e514a2c-d3ad-4f35-ba84-cee983733806 Environmental distractions have been shown to affect eating patterns.ObjectiveThe purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a cognitive distraction on amount, preference, and memory of food consumed and perceptions of fullness, hunger, and enjoyment of food in a healthy young-adult population.MethodsA randomized controlled crossover study of 119 healthy adults (20.2 ± 1.4 y; 57% women; 48% white) assigned participants to begin under either the distracted (DIS, n = 55) or control (CON, n = 64) conditions. DIS participants consumed a meal of quiche while completing a Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVIP) for 15 min. CON participants ate without any task assignment. After a 30-min rest period, participants were offered a snack and given 5 min to eat ad libitum. Participants completed a survey assessing fullness, hunger, and enjoyment of the meal using 100 mm visual analogue scales. One week later, participants completed the opposite condition. Data were analyzed using ANOVA.ResultsThose in DIS consumed 13 g less of the meal (P < 0.001), even when comparing by initial condition (P < 0.001) and adjusting for sex (P < 0.001). A carryover effect of initial condition was found (P < 0.001), such that participants first assigned to DIS condition consumed less (95.2 ± 61.7 g) when distracted compared to all other condition combinations (127–133 g). Those in DIS had decreased accuracy for both memory of quiche received (absolute difference, 1.1 ± 1.6 compared with 0.7 ± 1.2 for CON, P < 0.001) and memory of quiche consumed (0.8 ± 1.1 for DIS compared with 0.7 ± 1.2 for CON, P = 0.007).ConclusionsWhen distracted, healthy young adults consumed significantly less food and their memory of the meal was dampened. These findings underscore the potential importance of cognitive distraction in affecting food intake. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT04078607. ]]> <![CDATA[Examination of Carbohydrate Products in Feces Reveals Potential Biomarkers Distinguishing Exclusive and Nonexclusive Breastfeeding Practices in Infants]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N68dfe8ef-bf00-4c50-ae0a-8ebfe1c61fb7 The stable isotope deuterium dose-to-mother (DTM) technique to estimate nonbreast milk water intake demonstrates that maternal self-report methods of infant feeding overestimate the true prevalence of exclusively breastfeeding practices.ObjectiveWe aimed to determine potential monosaccharide and oligosaccharide markers that distinguish between exclusively breastfed (EBF) versus nonexclusively breastfed (non-EBF) infants utilizing LC-MS-based methods.MethodsData for the analysis were collected as part of a larger, longitudinal study of 192 breastfed Indonesian infants aged 2 mo and followed up at 5 mo. Feces samples were collected from infants aged 2 mo (n = 188) and 5 mo (n = 184). EBF and non-EBF strata at each time point were determined via the DTM technique. Feces samples were analyzed to determine monosaccharide content using ultra-high-performance LC-triple quadrupole MS (UHPLC-QqQ MS). Relative abundances of fecal oligosaccharides were determined using nano-LC-Chip-quadrupole time-of-flight MS (nano-LC-Chip-Q-ToF MS).ResultsAt age 2 mo, monosaccharide analysis showed the abundance of fructose and mannose were significantly higher (+377% and +388%, respectively) in non-EBF compared with EBF infants (P <0.0001). Fructose and mannose also showed good discrimination with areas under the curve (AUC) of 0.86 and 0.82, respectively. Oligosaccharide analysis showed that a 6-hexose (Hex6) isomer had good discrimination (AUC = 0.80) between EBF and non-EBF groups at 5 mo.ConclusionCarbohydrate products, particularly fecal mono- and oligosaccharides, differed between EBF and non-EBF infants aged under 6 mo and can be used as potential biomarkers to distinguish EBF versus non-EBF feeding practices. ]]> <![CDATA[The associations of longitudinal changes in consumption of total and types of dairy products and markers of metabolic risk and adiposity: findings from the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)–Norfolk study, United Kingdom]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc5cc96cc-4861-4bbe-9e48-1cbfff4c23a8 The consumption of some types of dairy products has been associated with lower cardiometabolic disease incidence. Knowledge remains limited about habitual dairy consumption and the pathways to cardiometabolic risk.ObjectiveWe aimed to investigate associations of habitual consumption of total and types of dairy products with markers of metabolic risk and adiposity among adults in the United Kingdom.MethodsWe examined associations of changes in dairy consumption (assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire) with parallel changes in cardiometabolic markers using multiple linear regression among 15,612 adults aged 40–78 y at baseline (1993–1997) and followed up over 1998–2000 (mean ± SD: 3.7±0.7 y) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)–Norfolk study.ResultsFor adiposity, an increase in fermented dairy products [yogurt (total or low-fat) or low-fat cheese] consumption was associated with a lower increase in body weight and body mass index (BMI). For example, over 3.7 y, increasing yogurt consumption by 1 serving/d was associated with a smaller increase in body weight by 0.23 kg (95% CI: −0.46, −0.01 kg). An increase in full-fat milk, high-fat cheese, and total high-fat dairy was associated with greater increases in body weight and BMI [e.g., for high-fat dairy: β = 0.13 (0.05, 0.21) kg and 0.04 (0.01, 0.07) kg/m2, respectively]. For lipids, an increase in milk (total and low-fat) or yogurt consumption was positively associated with HDL cholesterol. An increase in total low-fat dairy was negatively associated with LDL cholesterol (−0.03 mmol/L; −0.05, −0.01 mmol/L), whereas high-fat dairy (total, butter, and high-fat cheese) consumption was positively associated [e.g., 0.04 (0.02, 0.06) mmol/L for total high-fat dairy]. For glycemia, increasing full-fat milk consumption was associated with a higher increase in glycated hemoglobin (P = 0.027).ConclusionsThe habitual consumption of different dairy subtypes may differently influence cardiometabolic risk through adiposity and lipid pathways. ]]> <![CDATA[Increased Iron Status during a Feeding Trial of Iron-Biofortified Beans Increases Physical Work Efficiency in Rwandan Women]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N1ff71a67-609b-48a5-95f0-ff460c50dd90 Iron-biofortified staple foods can improve iron status and resolve iron deficiency. However, whether improved iron status from iron biofortification can improve physical performance remains unclear.ObjectiveThis study aimed to examine whether changes in iron status from an iron-biofortified bean intervention affect work efficiency.MethodsA total of 125 iron-depleted (ferritin <20 μg/L) female Rwandan university students (18–26 y) were selected from a larger sample randomly assigned to consume iron-biofortified beans (Fe-Bean; 86.1 mg Fe/kg) or conventional beans (control: 50.6 mg Fe/kg) twice daily for 18 wk (average of 314 g beans consumed/d). Blood biomarkers of iron status (primary outcome) and physical work efficiency (secondary outcome) were measured before and after the intervention. Work performed was assessed during 5-min steady-state periods at 0-, 25-, and 40-W workloads using a mechanically braked cycle ergometer. Work efficiency was calculated at 25 W and 40 W as the work accomplished divided by the energy expended at that workload above that expended at 0 W. General linear models were used to evaluate the relation between changes in iron status biomarkers and work efficiency.ResultsThe Fe-Bean intervention had significant positive effects on hemoglobin, serum ferritin, and body iron stores but did not affect work efficiency. However, 18-wk change in hemoglobin was positively related to work efficiency at 40 W in the full sample (n = 119; estimate: 0.24 g/L; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.48 g/L; P = 0.044) and among women who were anemic (hemoglobin <120 g/L) at baseline (n = 43; estimate: 0.64 g/L; 95% CI: 0.05, 1.23 g/L; P = 0.036). Among women who were nonanemic at baseline, change in serum ferritin was positively related to change in work efficiency at 40 W (n = 60; estimate: 0.50 μg/L; 95% CI: 0.06, 0.95 μg/L; P = 0.027).ConclusionsIncreasing iron status during an iron-biofortified bean feeding trial improves work efficiency in iron-depleted, sedentary women. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01594359. ]]> <![CDATA[Association between regional selenium status and reported outcome of COVID-19 cases in China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2c403ff5-8cc4-428c-839d-ecc59d5d6854 <![CDATA[Choice of Laboratory Rodent Diet May Confound Data Interpretation and Reproducibility]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N3f2c15c7-6922-409a-8be5-65105b36cc6d

ABSTRACT

The reproducibility of experimental data is challenged by many factors in both clinical and preclinical research. In preclinical studies, several factors may be responsible, and diet is one variable that is commonly overlooked, especially by those not trained in nutrition. In particular, grain-based diets contain complex ingredients, each of which can provide multiple nutrients, non-nutrients, and contaminants, which may vary from batch to batch. Thus, even when choosing the same grain-based diet used in the past by others, its composition will likely differ. In contrast, purified diets contain refined ingredients that offer the ability to control the composition much more closely and maintain consistency from one batch to the next, while minimizing the presence of non-nutrients and contaminants. In this article, we provide several different examples or scenarios showing how the diet choice can alter data interpretation, potentially affecting reproducibility and knowledge gained within any given field of study.

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<![CDATA[Metabolic Syndrome Is Reduced in C57BL/6J Mice Fed High-Fat Diets Supplemented with Oak Tannins]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nbfb4caab-92d8-472b-a01e-30fc6851f2b6

ABSTRACT

Background

Wine aged in oak barrels will incorporate polyphenols inherent in the staves, suggesting that wine stored in these wooden containers will introduce oak compounds into the human body after consumption.

Objective

The purpose of the present study is to test whether consumption of these oak compounds could favorably influence metabolism in mice fed an obesogenic diet.

Methods

C57BL/6  male mice (n = 8) were fed diets for 10 wk as follows: low-fat (LF), high-fat (HF), and HF containing 0.17% of oak tannin (HF+OT). A second 10-wk study was completed; mice were provided LF, HF, and HF diets supplemented with 7.0% of concentrates made from oaked wine (HF+OWC) or unoaked wine (HF+UWC). Physiological parameters were measured during the feeding trial and serum markers and hepatic gene expression measured from samples obtained at necropsy.

Results

Intake of HF+OT significantly reduced body-weight gain (18.4 ± 1.2 g in HF vs. 13.2 ± 1.4 g in HF+OT, P < 0.05). Serum resistin concentrations were lower in HF+OT mice compared with HF mice (301 ± 10.1 pg/mL in HF+OT vs. 374 ± 10.9 pg/mL in HF; P < 0.05). Hepatic lipid accumulation and expression of glutathione-S-transferase-m2 (Gstm2) and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (Nqo1) mRNAs were significantly decreased in HF+OT compared with HF mice (P < 0.05). When compared with HF-fed mice, intake of both OWC and UWC decreased body-weight gain (P < 0.05), with no significant impact on food consumption. Fasting glucose concentrations, serum insulin, and hepatic lipid accumulation were reduced in HF+OWC-fed mice compared with HF+UWC-fed mice (P < 0.05). Furthermore, hepatic glutathione-S-transferase-a1 (Gsta1) mRNA levels were significantly reduced in OWC-supplemented (0.25 ± 0.08) compared with UWC-supplemented (1.71 ± 0.24) mice (P < 0.05).

Conclusions

In this mouse model of metabolic disease, intake of OTs and a concentrate made from an oaked wine had a potent impact on alleviating HF-induced metabolic syndrome. Thus, intake of OTs, provided passively in oaked wine or as a dietary supplement, may act as an agent to attenuate the markers of metabolic syndrome.

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