ResearchPad - academicsubjects-med00250 https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Letter to the Editor: “Our Response to COVID-19 as Endocrinologists and Diabetologists”]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12344 <![CDATA[SUN-LB96 Basal Contralateral Aldosterone Suppression Is Rare in Lateralized Primary Aldosteronism and Can Be Useful in Predicting Surgical Outcome]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9554 Background: Adrenal venous sampling (AVS) is performed to distinguish between unilateral or bilateral source of aldosterone in primary aldosteronism (PA). Unilateral aldosteronomas should lead to suppression of renin and contralateral (CL) aldosterone secretion, assessed by the CL suppression ratio. We recently found that CL aldosterone suppression was relatively rare using the ratio of basal aldosterone concentration of the opposite adrenal vein/periphery (AOPP/AP) in contrast to the traditional cortisol-corrected aldosterone ratio ((A/C)OPP(A/C)P). Pathology studies showed frequent zona glomerulosa (ZG) hyperplasia adjacent to a dominant aldosteronoma, which could also indicate probable ZG hyperplasia in the CL adrenal. The ratio of basal CL suppression could be a usefull parameter to predict cure following unilateral adrenalectomy (UA), but controversy remains in the literature.

Objectives:

1. To evaluate the prevalence of basal CL suppression using the AOPP/AP ratio as compared to the (A/C)OPP/(A/C)P ratio at previously established cut-offs.

2. To determine the best cut-off to predict clinical and biochemical surgical cure in two Canadian referral centers.

3. To compare the accuracy of the AOPP/AP ratio to the basal lateralization ratio (LR) and the post-ACTH LR in predicting the surgical outcome.

Methods: 330 patients with PA and successful bilateral simultaneous basal and post-ACTH stimulated AVS (selectivity index >2 basally and >5 post-ACTH) were included; 124 patients found to be lateralized underwent UA. The follow-up data were evaluated for clinical and biochemical cure at 3 and 12 months using the PASO criteria.

Results: Using AOPP/AP and (A/C)OPP/(A/C)P at the cut-off of 1, the prevalence of CL suppression is 6% and 45%, respectively. The median CL suppression ratio is 2.3 (1.3-5.1) in lateralized cases of PA using AOPP/AP. Using ROC curves, the AOPP/AP ratio is associated with clinical cure at 3 and 12 months and biochemical cure at 12 months. (A/C)OPP/(A/C)P is associated with biochemical cure only. The cut-offs for AOPP/AP offering the best sensitivity and specificity for clinical and biochemical cures at 12 months are 2.15 (Se 63% and Sp 71%) and 6.15 (Se 84% and Sp 77%), respectively. Basal LR and post-ACTH LR are associated with clinical cure but only the post-ACTH LR is associated with biochemical cure.

Conclusions: Basal CL suppression defined by the AOPP/AP ratio is rare and incomplete compared to the traditional (A/C)OPP/(A/C)P ratio in lateralized cases of PA. This may reflect the frequent micronodular hyperplasia adjacent to dominant aldosteronomas and possibly in the CL adrenal. Basal CL aldosterone suppression may predict clinical postoperative outcome, but with modest accuracy.

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<![CDATA[MON-372 Treatment-Resistant Vitamin D Deficiency: Is It a Vitamin D Binding Protein Issue?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9553 Introduction

Vitamin D is present in free and bound forms; the bound form is complexed mainly to vitamin D binding protein (DBP). Vitamin D levels are affected by age, pregnancy, liver disease, obesity, and DBP mutations. We report a patient with treatment-resistant vitamin D deficiency suggestive of a DBP with abnormal vitamin D binding.

Clinical Case

A 58-year-old Pakistani male with a history of hypertension, sleep apnea and hypogonadism presented to endocrine clinic with symptoms including fatigue, generalized muscle cramps, and joint pain. Evaluation of common causes of fatigue, such as anemia, thyroid dysfunction and adrenal insufficiency were ruled out with CBC, thyroid hormone levels and ACTH stimulation test results all within normal ranges. A 25-OH vitamin D level was profoundly low (4.2 ng/ml; normal 30-100), and a 1,25-OH vitamin D level was undetectable (<8 pg/ml; normal 18-72), leading to a presumptive diagnosis of severe vitamin D deficiency. However, his calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase and kidney function were in the normal range. Furthermore, the absence of osteoporosis, fracture history, or kidney stones suggested adequate vitamin D action at target tissues; PTH levels were high-normal to minimally elevated, ranging 70-94 pg/ml (12-88pg/mL). Aggressive supplementation with vitamin D3 at 50,000 IU 3 times a week and 5,000 IU daily failed to normalize 25-OH vitamin D (ranged 4.6-10ng/ml; normal 30-100) and 1,25-OH vitamin D levels remained undetectable. Addition of calcitriol resulted in mild hypercalcemia and was discontinued. Malabsorption did not appear to be a contributing factor, as a negative tTG antibody (with normal IgA) excluded celiac disease. Vitamin D metabolites levels measured with mass spectrometry showed undetectable 25-OH vitamin D levels (D2 <4 ng/ml, D3 <2 ng/ml; total <6ng/ml; normal 20-50) and 1,25-OH vitamin D levels (<8 pg/ml). Urine N-telopeptide, 24-hour urine calcium (177mg; 100-240) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase were all normal. Repeat testing over more than five years showed similar results. DBP levels of 269 ug/ml [104-477] excluded DBP deficiency.

Clinical Lesson

Vitamin D deficiency is increasingly part of routine testing in internal medicine and endocrinology clinics, as is repletion with high-dose vitamin D. However, in rare cases such as this, relying on 25-OH vitamin D levels can be misleading, and supplementation unnecessary or potentially harmful. Thus, treatment decisions should consider the full clinical context and further evaluation performed when warranted. This patient’s labs are suggestive of an abnormality in the DBP, supporting future examination using molecular testing.

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<![CDATA[SAT-141 Glycoprotein NMB (GPNMB) Is Pro-Tumorigenic in TSC2-Null Cancer Cells and Is a Potential Drug Target and Biomarker for Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9551 Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is an estrogen-sensitive lung disease found almost exclusively in women that is characterized by hyperproliferation of smooth muscle cells forming small tumors, or LAM lesions throughout the lungs of patients. Growth of these tumors leads to progressive loss of pulmonary function, and sometimes subsequent lung transplantation. LAM tumor cells contain mutations in either the TSC1 or TSC2 genes, leading to activation of the mTORC1 pathway. In fact, mTOR inhibitors such as sirolimus are commonly used to treat LAM; however, these drugs are not always effective and have significant side effects, suggesting the need for new therapeutic targets. Interestingly, another important feature of LAM cells is that they express melanocytic markers that are normally found in melanocytes or melanoma cells. From RNASeq analysis of a mouse model for LAM that we designed, we discovered significant upregulation of the melanocytic marker Glycoprotein Non-Metastatic Melanoma Protein B (GPNMB), a type I transmembrane protein. GPNMB was not only highly expressed in our mouse model (a uterine specific TSC2-null mouse), it was also expressed in TSC2-null cell lines, and human LAM patient lung samples. In our hands, knocking down GPNMB expression by siRNA directed against GPNMB mRNA decreased migration and proliferation in TSC2-null cells. Additionally, we found that GPNMB’s large ectodomain is shed by TSC2-null cells and can be detected in the blood of human patients with LAM. Finally, MMP 2 and 9 can be secreted as a result of ectodomain shedding and its interaction with integrins. Accordingly, we did indeed see a decrease in MMP 2/9 expression in TSC2-null cells with reduced GPNMB expression from treatment with siRNA directed against GPNMB mRNA. Overall, our results demonstrate the potential importance of GPNMB in LAM tumor progression, and suggest that GPNMB may be a possible LAM biomarker and target for its treatment.

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<![CDATA[MON-289 Pituitary Metastasis: A Systematic Review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9550 Metastatic lesions to the pituitary are uncommon as well as concerning as they do not always have a characteristic radiographic appearance and can be easily missed. We conducted a systematic review of all the published cases and case series of pituitary metastasis to further understand the unique characteristics of these lesions. Using Pubmed and Embase as the primary search engines, we reviewed all cases published from January 1980 to July 2019. A total of 175 unique cases were included in the study. Over 400 cases were collected amongst which a total of 278 cases were included in the study. As part of a challenge with any retrospective study some data points were missing from cases reviewed. Only English language publications were included in the study. The study revealed a predominance of females with 121 cases. Median age was noted to be 61 years. Only 40 patients had previously known metastatic disease. 70 patients were noted have primary cancer arising in the breast which was noted to be the most common primary cancer followed by 64 cases of primary cancer arising from the lungs. Majority of the patients (162 cases) had pituitary hypofunction with deficiency of one or more pituitary hormones. 97 cases were reported to have diabetes insipidus on presentation. Only 40 patients had no visual field deficits whereas 77 patients were reported to have abnormal eye movements. Displacement of the gland superiorly towards optic chiasm was the most common radiographic features in 137 reported cases. Although not commonly reported in most of the published literature, 45 cases were noted to have bony erosion due to expansion of the gland. Only 5 cases were reported to have no contrast enhancement, although many case reports did not specify contrast enhancement of the pituitary. 22 cases were noted to have an aggressive or rapid growth pattern of the pituitary. 13 cases were noted to have edema around the optic chiasm. The pituitary should not be overlooked as a site of metastasis. Many cases can present asymptomatically without biochemical or radiographic characteristics of metastatic lesion. Any biochemical or clinical sign of pituitary pathology in a patient with known cancer should raise suspicion for sellar metastasis. Unique radiographic characteristics should alert the clinicians to consider this possibility. Our study revealed many unique characteristics of metastatic lesions of the pituitary. This should allow clinicians to become aware of the more common findings in these patients allowing prompt diagnosis.

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<![CDATA[SAT-081 Hidden in Plain Sight: Rethinking Our Approach to Allan-Herndon-Dudley Syndrome]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8819 Background: Allan-Herndon-Dudley (AHD) is a rare X-linked disorder with neurological manifestations secondary to a mutation in monocarboxylate transporter 8, a protein that transports T3 into nerve cells in the brain. AHD is characterized by increased serum free T3, decreased serum free T4 and normal serum TSH levels as well as the severe neurological manifestations including global developmental delay, hypotonia, and joint contractures (1). A phase 2 trial using triodyothyroacetic acid has shown promise in treating this disorder (2). We report on three children who were diagnosed by whole exome sequencing after presenting with neurological manifestations.

Clinical Cases: Patient 1 presented at 4 months to the neurology clinic for seizures. He had a normal newborn screen. Worsening developmental delays and central hypotonia prompted a brain MRI that revealed delayed myelination for age. At 6 months a chromosomal microarray and metabolic work-up were performed and were nondiagnostic. Whole exome sequencing was obtained at the age of 4.5 years revealing a mutation in the SLC16A2 gene (p.Ser210Tyr). Thyroid studies were consistent with the diagnosis.

Patient 2 presented to neurology at 9 months for developmental delay. A brain MRI was obtained which was within normal limits. At 14 months an acylcarnitine profile was obtained which indicated a possible CPT1 deficiency, which did not fit his clinical picture. Chromosomal microarray as well as work-up for inborn errors of metabolism were performed and were nondiagnostic. Thyroid studies were obtained which showed low free T4 with normal TSH. Whole exome sequencing was obtained at the age of 2.5 years, which revealed a mutation in SLC16A2 (p.R371C).

Patient 3 presented as sibling of patient 2 with known AHD syndrome. Testing for SLC16A2 was performed at the age of 5 months and returned positive for same mutation as sibling (p.R371C).

Conclusion: Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome is a rare neurological disease secondary to a mutation in the T3 transporter protein to nervous tissue. A high index of suspicion as well as thyroid studies should be obtained in patients presenting with central hypotonia and global developmental delay with normal newborn screens, particularly in states that use TSH as a screening test. This is especially important as treatments are becoming available that may help prevent neurological devastation seen in these patients.

References:

1. Dumitrescu AM, Fu J, Dempsey MA, Refetoff S. MCT8-Specific Thyroid Hormone Cell-Membrane Transporter Deficiency. In: Adam MP, Ardinger HH, Pagon RA, et al., eds. GeneReviews®. Seattle (WA): University of Washington, Seattle; 1993

2. Groeneweg S, Peeters RP, Moran C, et al. Effectiveness and safety of the tri-iodothyronine analogue Triac in children and adults with MCT8 deficiency: an international, single-arm, open-label, phase 2 trial. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2019;7(9):695-706.

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<![CDATA[MON-LB113 Insulin Resistance in Type 1 Diabetes Managed With Metformin (INTIMET): Rationale and Study Design of a Randomised Placebo-Controlled Trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8817 Background: Insulin resistance is an under-recognised cardiovascular risk factor in type 1 diabetes (T1D). Individuals with T1D exhibit insulin resistance relative to those without diabetes. In T1D, tissue-specific insulin resistance (muscle, hepatic, adipose) is likely to partly drive increased cardiovascular risk. Adjunctive metformin improves muscle insulin sensitivity in T1D adolescents, but factors that predict responsiveness remain unknown.Objective: To report the rationale and design of the INTIMET study, a double-blind randomised, placebo-controlled trial of metformin in T1D.Methods: Forty adults aged 20-50 years with T1D, and 20 age- gender- and BMI- matched non-diabetic controls will be studied. T1D inclusion criteria are diagnosis > 10 years, HbA1c 9.5% and fasting C-peptide < 0.3nmol/L. Liver and muscle insulin sensitivity will be determined by the 2-stage hyperinsulinemic (20 and 60 mUm2)-euglycemic (5.5 mmol/L) clamp method with deuterated glucose. Subjects with T1D will be randomised to metformin extended-release 1500mg/d or matched placebo for 26 weeks. The primary endpoint is the change in hepatic insulin sensitivity, measured by suppression of endogenous glucose production (EGP) with the low-dose insulin clamp. Secondary endpoints include change in muscle and adipose tissue insulin sensitivity, arterial stiffness, HbA1c, glucose variability, frequency of hypoglycemia, insulin dose, anthropometry, body composition, lipid profile, liver fat and stiffness. Conclusion: The INTIMET study will quantify muscle, liver and adipose insulin-resistance in T1D, determine whether metformin is effective in improving insulin resistance in T1D and identify factors that predict metformin-responsiveness.

The trial is registered (Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry, ACTRN12619001440112) and is actively recruiting in Sydney, Australia.

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<![CDATA[SUN-001 Identification of Dehydroepiandrosterone-s (DHEA-s) Elevation Due to Performance Enhancing Supplements]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8816 Background: Recreational athletes and individuals in certain occupations may utilize supplements with the goal of enhancing their physical performance and strength. These individuals may be reluctant to provide their supplement use history due to the stigma associated with performance enhancing drugs. We report a case of supplement use causing elevated dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) levels in a young woman presenting with alopecia. Clinical Case: A 29-year-old Caucasian woman presented for evaluation of progressive alopecia spanning 7 years. She was initially managed by dermatology with topical ketoconazole and clobetasol creams followed by intra-lesional triamcinolone injections. Despite treatment, she had minimal improvement. She reported menarche at age 15 with normal regular monthly menstrual cycles and normal breast development. She has no significant medical history. Physical exam was unremarkable other than localized alopecia and athletic build. She denied any medication use. Routine laboratory screening showed a DHEA-S of 624 ug/dL (ref. 35-430) with repeat DHEA-S at 602.2 ug/dL. Complete blood count, metabolic panel, thyroid function test, total/free testosterone, estradiol, 17-hydroxprogesterone, urinary 17-ketosteroids, prolactin, and iron panel were all within normal limits. Anabolic abuse screen was negative. Adrenal imaging was normal. After discussion on elevated DHEA-S results, patient revealed that she was taking a supplement that contained enobosarm (Ostarine). She was instructed to discontinue the supplement and repeat her labs but she was lost to follow up. Discussion: Developed in 1997, enobosarm is a selective androgen receptor modulator (SARMs) that is increasingly used as a performance-enhancing drug. SARMs have tissue specific androgenic receptor effect and patients on SARMs can present with a completely normal hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal axis without biochemical evidence of hyperandrogenism; which was the case in our patient. Conventional anabolic drug abuse screens do not detect SARMs. There have been multiple studies that have evaluated different performance enhancing supplements and nearly 25% of tested products contained compounds that were not correctly labeled. It is therefore uncertain what may have raised this patient’s DHEA-S levels, but the authors theorize the supplement may have contained exogenous DHEA rather than a direct effect of enobosarm. Unfortunately, there is paucity of data or literature on the effect of SARMs on androgen hormone synthesis and DHEA-S levels. A PubMed search for SARMs and DHEA-S levels led to zero returns. It is important for clinicians to recognize and identify the possibility of SARM or supplement use in order to guide diagnostic and management decisions. Further investigation is needed to understand the impact of SARMs on laboratory data and its long term effects.

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<![CDATA[SAT-685 Euglycemic Diabetic Ketoacidosis in T1d: The Era of SGLT-2 Inhibitors and Keto-Diet]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8814 Introduction Euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a challenging diagnosis since near normal blood sugar levels can be misleading. In the present case, we describe a patient with Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) on SGLT2 who underwent a strict low carb diet. Case Report A 70-year-old female with past medical history of unspecified diabetes mellitus and primary hypothyroidism presented to emergency room complaining of nausea and dizziness of four days with decreased oral intake. She was alert and oriented, normal weight (52 kg, BMI 20 kg/m2) with stable vital signs, except for mild tachypnea (22/min). Initial labs showed serum glucose 136 mg/dL, bicarbonate 10 mmol/L (normal 20-31), anion gap of 27, venous blood gas pH 7.1, B-hydroxybutyrate 8.8 mmol/L (normal 0.02-0.27), glucosuria > 500 mg/dL, and moderate ketonuria. Screening for ethyl alcohol and ethylene glycol was negative. Lactic acid, cardiac enzymes, renal and liver function tests were normal. She was diagnosed with diabetes mellitus at age 37, on insulin since then. No alcohol use. Her new primary care physician found an A1C of 9.0% for which metformin 1000mg oral twice a day and empagliflozin 12.5 mg oral daily were added and aspart insulin was discontinued. Daily glargine remained at 20 units daily. She was advised to lose weight for which she started a keto-diet 4 weeks prior to this presentation. She had lost 15 pounds since then accompanied by polyuria and polydipsia. Upon admission, she received IV insulin and IV fluids. An endocrinology consultation was requested for euglycemic DKA secondary to SGLT2 complicated by starvation ketosis. Antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase were positive at 250 IU/mL (normal < 5). She was discharged on glargine, aspart insulins and oral medications were discontinued. Conclusion This case shows the importance of identifying the specific type of diabetes for appropriate individualization of therapy. Following a keto-diet in unrecognized T1D can trigger ketoacidosis in the setting of SGLT2 inhibitors leading to euglycemic diabetes ketoacidosis.

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<![CDATA[MON-365 Novel Use of Abaloparatide to Augment Spinal Fusion in Patient Undergoing Cervicothoracic Revision Surgery]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8813 Objective To present a case of using Abaloparatide (PTHrP 1–34 analogue) to promote spinal fusion in a patient with history of cervical instability s/p multiple cervical operations with non-union. Case Presentation 66 year-old female with a history of multiple sclerosis, obesity and hypothyroidism underwent neurosurgical evaluation of neck pain. She was found to have cervical spinal stenosis causing neck pain, radiculopathy, motor deficits and ataxia. Initially underwent anterior cervical discectomy and fusion which temporarily alleviated symptoms before suffering nonunion. Subsequently underwent two additional surgeries which also eventually failed. She presented to our facility for revision corpectomy and spinal fusion. Given her history of nonunion, endocrinology was consulted for evaluation of metabolic bone disease. No known personal or family history of metabolic bones disease. No history of chronic steroid use. Initial endocrine evaluation excluded common pathologies. A decision was made to pursue anabolic osteoporosis therapy to attempt to augment the spinal fusion process. Patient started on Abaloparatide 80mcg daily 2 weeks post procedure with planned 12-week therapy course. Cervical CT at 3 and 6 months showed post-surgical cervicothoracic fusion with no signs of non-union. Discussion Abaloparatide is a 34 amino acid synthetic analogue of parathyroid hormone related peptide (PTHrP) which works by selectively activating PTH1 receptor found on osteoblasts. Currently anabolic therapies are only FDA approved for treatment of osteoporosis but there is reported off label use in cases of spinal fusions, arthroplasty and fracture healing. Studies have shown that presence of PTH and PTHrP are necessary for fracture healing. Animal studies have also shown that intermittent PTH promotes spinal fusion. This case represents a novel use for Abaloparatide to augment spinal fusion in a human clinical model. Conclusion Further studies are warranted to better understand mechanism of action, drug timing and duration for optimal treatment of anabolic therapies in bone fractures and healing. The use of anabolic therapies like Abaloparatide can be considered in patients undergoing spinal fusion surgery at high risk for non-union or undergoing revision for failed fusion.ReferencesO’Loughlin PF, Cunningham ME, Bukata SV et al. Parathyroid Hormone Augments spinal fusion, fusion mass, and fusion mass quality in a rabbit spinal fusion model. Spine 2009 January; 34: 121–130

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<![CDATA[MON-721 Crude Protein of Pyropia Yezoensis Protects Against Tumor Necrosis Factor-á-Induced Myotube Atrophy by Regulating the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase and Nuclear Factor-Kappab Signaling Pathways in C2C12 Myotubes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8812 Proinflammatory cytokines induce ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent proteolysis by activating intracellular factors in skeletal muscle, leading to muscle atrophy. Therefore, we investigated the protective effect of Pyropia yezoensis crude protein (PYCP) on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced muscle atrophy in vitro. Mouse skeletal muscle C2C12 myotubes were treated for 48 h with TNF-α (20 ng/mL) in the presence or absence of PYCP (25, 50, and 100 μg/mL). PYCP at concentrations up to 100 μg/mL did not affect cell viability. Exposure to TNF-α for 48 h significantly decreased the diameter of myotubes, which was increased by treatment with 25, 50, and 100 μg/mL PYCP. PYCP inhibited TNF-α-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species accumulation in C2C12 myotubes. In addition, PYCP significantly reduced the levels of phosphorylated p38 and JNK. Moreover, by inhibiting the degradation of inhibitor of kappaB-α, PYCP significantly suppressed the TNF-α-induced increased transcriptional activity and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB). Furthermore, PYCP inhibited E3-ubiquitin ligases in TNF-α-treated C2C12 myotubes. In conclusion, PYCP ameliorated TNF-α-induced muscle atrophy by inhibiting the mitogen-activated protein kinase-mediated NF-κB pathway, indicating that it has therapeutic potential for related disorders.

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<![CDATA[SAT-183 Right Adrenal Mass: An Unusual Presentation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8810 Background: Adrenal masses may be incidentally found on imaging done for other reasons. The prevalence is 4.4% and up to 10% in older patients. Malignancy is an uncommon cause in patients without a known diagnosis of cancer. The frequency of primary adrenal carcinoma in patients with adrenal incidentalomas is approximately 2.0 to 5.0%; another 0.7 to 2.5% have non-adrenal metastases to the adrenal gland.

Clinical Case: 54-year-old man with Hepatitis C, prior alcohol abuse, and cirrhosis was found to have an increase in the alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level from normal to 244 ng/ml (nl<15.1) over a 6-month period. Liver MRI was consistent with a cirrhotic liver without focal enhancing lesions and showed a new indeterminate 7.6 cm right retroperitoneal lesion arising from the adrenal gland compared to a prior CT of the abdomen a year early. Further imaging confirmed a 9.6 x 9 x 7.6 cm heterogeneously enhancing right adrenal lesion with a necrotic center, concerning for a primary malignancy; up to 11.1cm a month later. Patient referred to Endocrine for further evaluation. There were no symptoms suggestive of Cushing’s, pheochromocytoma or primary hyperaldosteronism. On exam there were no hypertension, dorsal fat pad, supraclavicular fullness, skin thinning or purplish striae. Biochemical workup was consistent with a non-functioning adrenal mass. DHEA-S was 11 (38-313 mcg/dl). CT-guided core needle biopsy of right adrenal gland was consistent with metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma. CT pelvis with contrast re-demonstrated the right adrenal mass now measuring 11.4 x 10 x 10 cm with new enlarged retrocaval lymph node and no focal arterially enhancing lesions. During embolization of adrenal lesion/ hepatic angiogram, multiple liver lesions not previously identified were reported with the largest of 2.9cm size and enhancing lesions in the sacrum and bilateral iliac bones; decrease in size of the necrotic right adrenal mass measuring 8.2 x 9.1 x 9.1 cm 1-month post-embolization. Patient following with Oncology.

Conclusion:Unilateral isolated adrenal metastasis from occult hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is extremely rare. Adrenal gland is the second most common site of hematogenous spread from HCC after the lung and has been found in up to 8.4% of cases at autopsy. In our case, the adrenal metastasis was the first clinical presentation of HCC with no evident hepatic lesion until 9 months of adrenal finding; few cases have been reported. Fine needle aspiration/needle biopsy of suspected malignancy is useful to detect primary tumor in case of metastatic disease that is silent at this stage. Adrenal metastasis in HCC are seldom treated by surgery as by the time of diagnosis the tumor is usually far advanced and/or patients are poor surgical candidates. This case highlights the importance of suspecting underlying HCC in isolated adrenal mass in a patient with high risk factors.

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<![CDATA[MON-393 Evaluation of Bone Mass in Transgender Women After Gender Affirming Surgery - a Pilot Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8809 Estrogen deficiency is classically associated with bone loss in both men and women. In transgender women, after being submitted to gender-affirming surgery (GAS), the main goal of hormone therapy (HT) is to maintain the female phenotype and prevent the consequences of the orchiectomy-related hypogonadal state. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of GAS on bone mass in transgender women. A total of 142 trans women attending the outpatient Gender Identity Program were sequentially enrolled. Patients aged < 20 and > 60 years (n=15), with gluteal silicone prosthesis (n=26) and without FSH dosage after surgery (n=9) were excluded. Anthropometric evaluation, laboratory tests and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were performed in all patients during the follow-up. In women undergoing CAS (CAS-Y), DXA was performed at least 12 months after surgery and with estrogen therapy. In the other women (CAS-N), tests were performed after at least 3 months of standardized treatment (estradiol plus spironolactone or cyproterone acetate). Patients with testosterone values still above the reference for women were not excluded as long as they were on regular HT. Ninety two trans women were included. Among them, 30 had performed CAS, and had DXA assessment performed 37 months (21-78) after surgery. The mean age and BMI were 37 years (33 - 46) and 24.9 kg/m² (23.1 - 27.5) in patients CAS - Y and 30 years (24 - 36) and 24.3 kg/m² (21.5 - 28.5) in patients CAS - N. Trans women CAS-Y were significantly older (p=0.000). No difference was observed regarding estradiol levels between the groups [105.7pmol/L (48.4-207.8) and 147.5 pmol/L (71.9-284.5), p=0.622]. Free androgen index (FAI) was significantly higher [0.45 (0.17 - 1.63) and 4.47 (0.70 - 36.4), p=0.002] and FSH significantly lower [60.4mIU/ml (37.9 - 75.6) and 2.6mIU/ml (0.6 - 4.4), p=0.000] in trans women CAS - N. BMD (g/cm²) and Z-score of lumbar spine, femoral neck and total femur did not differ significantly between the groups. Considering all participants, the lumbar spine BMD was negatively correlated with FSH levels (r=-0.343, p=0.005), which remained significant even after adjustments for FAI. When only CAS - Y trans women were considered, a negative correlation was found between FSH levels and lumbar spine (r=-0.598, p=0.001) and hip (r=-0.404, p=0.033) BMD. In a multiple regression model adjusted for age and surgery, women with FSH > 35 mIU/ml presented a prevalence rate ratio of 11.79 for low bone mass (p=0.040, IC 95% 1.19 - 124.39). The results of this pilot study in trans women show no difference in bone mass according to GAS status. However, long-term elevated FSH levels observed in some post GAS - trans women, even on HT, presented a negative association with bone mass. Further studies with greater sample sizes are needed to confirm the impact of GAS on bone mass and fracture risk.

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<![CDATA[MON-385 Insulin Resistance and Osteoporosis in People Living with HIV]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8808 The life expectancy of people living with HIV (PLHIV) increased considerably after the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ARV). Nowadays, it is almost the same as the general population. However, this increase in survival exposes PLVH to age-related morbidities, including chronic metabolic and bone diseases. PLHIV has a low bone mineral density (BMD) and a high prevalence of osteoporosis. Moreover, the frequency of diabetes mellitus (DM) seems to be twice the frequency of the general population. Insulin resistance and DM might be associated with bone diseases in PLHIV. Our study aim was to evaluate the association between insulin resistance and osteoporosis in PLHIV. We carried out a cross-sectional study at the municipality of Santa Maria, South Brazil. PLHIV age 50 yrs or over on treatment with ARV were included. All subjects registered to receive ARV in the university hospital during the period 2016 to 2018 were invited to participate. Those who accepted responded to a standardized questionnaire, performed a bone density scan and a lateral spinal X-ray, underwent peripheral blood collection, and had their weight and height measured. Insulin resistance was considered present when HOMA-IR> 2.7 (Gelonese, 2009). The TyG index was also calculated (VASQUES, 2011). Of the 101 PLHIV who agreed to participate, 84 underwent both insulin and BMD measurements. The prevalence of osteoporosis was 19%. Vertebral fractures were twice as frequent in individuals with osteoporosis (73.3% vs. 36.5%, p = 0.018). Participants with osteoporosis had lower BMI and triglyceride values than those without it. The frequency of insulin resistance calculated by HOMA-IR was 68.2%, and it was associated with glucocorticoid use, smoking, and BMI. HOMA-IR [4.8(6.6) vs. 8.68(9.6), p =0.013], and TyG [5.0(0.3) vs. 5.2 (0.4), p=0.029] mean values were lower in the group with osteoporosis; however, this association disappeared after correction for BMI in the logistic regression model. In conclusion, in our study, PLHIV with osteoporosis have lower insulin resistance than PLHIV without it. Nevertheless, this finding appears to be relating to a lower BMI. Further studies are needed to assess the effect of insulin resistance on fracture risk in PLVH.

GELONEZE, B. et al. HOMA1-IR and HOMA2-IR indexes in identifying insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome: Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study (BRAMS). Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. 2009 Mar;53(2):281-7

VASQUES, A. C. et al. Análise Crítica do Uso dos Índices do Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) na Avaliação da Resistência à Insulina e Capacidade Funcional das Células-C Pancreáticas. Arq. Bras. Endocrinol. Metab., 2008;52/1:32-39.

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<![CDATA[SAT-286 TSH Synthesis and Secretion Are Unperturbed in Male IRS4 Knockout Mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8806 It was recently reported that mutations in the insulin receptor substrate 4 (IRS4) gene cause a novel form of X-linked congenital central hypothyroidism (OMIM 300904). To date, four different mutations, three frameshift and one nonsense, have been reported, with two affected male patients showing decreased basal, pulsatile, and total thyroid-stimulation hormone (TSH) secretion (PMID 30061370).

Members of the IRS family canonically act as scaffold proteins between tyrosine kinase receptors and their downstream effectors. IRS4/Irs4 expression is enriched in the pituitary; however, its role in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis has not been studied in detail.

We generated novel whole-body Irs4-knockout mouse lines using CRISPR-Cas9. A specific guide RNA was used to target the Cas9 enzyme to the 5’ end of the single exon Irs4 gene. A two-nucleotide deletion was introduced into Irs4, resulting in a frameshift and premature stop codon. We hypothesized that like IRS4 deficient patients, these mice would exhibit central hypothyroidism. Given that Irs4 is X-linked, we focused our initial characterization on males.

Under normal laboratory conditions, Irs4 knockout mice do not exhibit differences in pituitary expression of Tshb, which encodes one of the subunits of the TSH heterodimer. Expression of the gene encoding the thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) receptor, Trhr1, is also unperturbed in these knockout mice. Additionally, there are no differences in their serum thyroid hormones, T3 (triiodothyronine) and T4 (thyroxine). When Irs4 knockout males were placed on a low-iodine diet supplemented with propylthiouracil (PTU) for 3 weeks and rendered hypothyroid, their serum TSH increased similarly to wild-type males. Overall, Irs4 knockout males do not exhibit central hypothyroidism or phenocopy IRS4 deficient patients. Compensation by another IRS protein may explain euthyroidism in these mice.

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<![CDATA[MON-001 Peripartum Sertraline (Zoloft®) Increases Pup Mortality Immediately Postpartum]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8805 Peripartum and postpartum depression can be detrimental to both the mother and the developing child. Use of antidepressants, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), is common during the peripartal period and SSRIs have been the leading prescribed antidepressant to treat maternal depression. One of the most commonly prescribed SSRIs is sertraline (Zoloft®) because of the limited fetal teratogenic effects observed, unlike maternal paroxetine (Paxil®) usage which can manifest in fetal cardiovascular defects. Fluoxetine (Prozac®), like sertraline, has previously been shown to have limited teratogenic effects, however, we have shown treatment with fluoxetine for the entire period of pregnancy and lactation in mice compromises pup bones at weaning resulting in decreased long bone length and head circumference. Furthermore, maternal fluoxetine usage results in a sustained reduction in maternal bone mineral density post weaning, which may lead to long-term osteopenia, putting the mother at risk for bone-related disorders later in life. We hypothesized sertraline, like fluoxetine, will compromise maternal bone postpartum and fetal bone development at weaning. Treatment with sertraline in C57BL/6 dams throughout pregnancy and lactation reduced litter size (5.4 pups/dam) and increased pup mortality during the first 24 hours postpartum (20% dead pups/litter) compared to controls (6.8 pups/dam, 5% dead pups/litter, respectively; P < 0.018). Maternal calcium transporters (Orai1 and Serca2) were downregulated in the mammary gland in sertraline-treated dams on day 21 of lactation (P < 0.0032). Together, our data suggests in utero pharmacological exposure to sertraline may induce a failure to thrive in the pups and alters calcium metabolism in the dam. SSRI exposure during pregnancy and lactation may adversely affect the developing neonate(s) as well as have lasting impacts on the mother.

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<![CDATA[MON-160 The Burdens of Adrenal Insufficiency: A Survey Study from Two Tertiary Care Centers in the United States]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8804 Background: Adrenal insufficiency (AI) is a chronic disorder necessitating life-long replacement. Patients’ quality of life and health outcomes depend on knowledge and comfort level with self-management.

Objective: To determine patients’ knowledge in regards to diagnosis and management, estimate burden of disease and to identify predictors of adverse outcomes in patients with AI

Methods: Survey study of patients with AI evaluated at two tertiary medical centers between 2015 and 2019. Collected variables included data on circumstances of AI diagnosis, symptoms, management, burden of disease, and overall well-being.

Results: Among 785 patients (mean age at diagnosis 44.2 ± 18.0, 64% women, and 92% Caucasian), 310 (40%) had primary AI (PAI), 255 (33%) had secondary AI (SAI) not related to glucocorticoid use, and 211 (27%) had steroid-induced AI (SIAI). Patients were diagnosed with AI after presenting with symptoms for a median of 1 year (0-6), 28% with symptoms lasting >2 years, 44% visiting emergency room (ER) at least once prior to diagnosis. A third of patients reported a discordant diagnosis from their medical record.

Baseline glucocorticoid replacement therapy included hydrocortisone (HC) in 447 (59%), median of 20 mg (IQR 15 - 25mg), prednisone in 190 (25%), median of 5 mg (IQR 4 - 7.5mg), other regimens in 38 (5%), and no steroids in the remainder (85, 11%); 197 (26%) patients reported daily equivalent HC dose of >25 mg. Overall, 549 (73%) of patients reported use of stress dose steroids at least once per year, higher in patients taking HC >25 mg/day (3.2 vs 2.7 times per year if HC<25mg/day, p=0.01). Improper use of stress steroids was reported in 193, 25% patients. Patients taking HC>25 mg /day reported a higher number of adrenal crises (1.6 vs 1.3 in patients on HC<25 mg/day, p=0.04). Among 314 (41%) patients who reported ER visits due to adrenal crisis, only a third received prompt glucocorticoids.

One third of patients described their general health as fair or poor. Predictors of negative perceptions of overall health included SIAI (OR 6.2 and 2.5, vs PAI and SAI respectively), poor understanding of diagnosis (OR 2.6), daily HC>25 mg (OR 2.1), and presence of at least one adrenal crisis (OR 2.3) (p<0.001 for all).

Conclusion: Patients with AI experience delay in diagnosis, and a third do not fully understand their diagnosis. In addition to patient education, interventions to improve general health and outcomes may include selecting a physiological glucocorticoid replacement therapy, prevention of adrenal crisis, and improving ER care.

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<![CDATA[SAT-278 Vaginal Cabergoline: A Simple Solution to a Challenging Problem]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8802 Introduction: Prolactinomas is a common endocrine disorder that can be associated with significant morbidity. Generally, prolactinomas are more responsive to pharmacologic treatment than any other types of pituitary adenoma. Dopamine agonists (DA), including cabergoline and bromocriptine, are the first line of treatment in all sizes of prolactinomas and they decrease both the secretion and size of these adenomas. However, treatment remains challenging for patients who are intolerance to those medications. Case: We report a 32-year-old Hispanic woman who presented with secondary amenorrhea, she was found to have hyperprolactinemia of 1496 mcg/L. MRI of the brain showed a pituitary adenoma measuring 2.7 cm with sella turcica invasion and mass effect on the optic chiasma. She failed the lowest doses of oral cabergoline and bromocriptine and underwent TSS and gamma knife radiosurgery. Given her persistent symptoms (marked depression, insomnia, fatigue, short-term memory loss, and lack of concentration along with constipation) and elevation of prolactin, she was started on low dose vaginal cabergoline leading to a marked improvement of her symptoms and a steady decrease in serum prolactin. Discussion: Despite the availability of DA as a first-line treatment of Prolactinoma, treatment remains challenging, given the commonly reported side effects for all DA. Cabergoline is oftentimes the treatment of choice due to efficacy and favorable side-effect profile. However, intolerance to those medications can lead to discontinuation of therapy and increase morbidity. Other strategies, including transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) or radiation therapy, have been considered for the minority of patients whose adenomas are resistant to DA or who cannot tolerate these drugs. Interestingly, tolerance to DA can be improved by administering the drug intravaginally, which can have similar efficacy to the oral route and a more favorable side-effect profile. However, only a few studies assessed the effectiveness and tolerance of vaginal DAs in hyperprolactinemic patients intolerant to oral medications, little evidence supports the use of intravaginal DA to improve drug tolerance, and further studies are necessary to determine the safety and efficacy of vaginal cabergoline.

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<![CDATA[SUN-903 Insulinoma - a Tricker Diagnosis When Some Pieces Are Missing]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8801 Insulinoma is a rare pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour that secretes insulin, causing hypoglycemia. Because of the nonspecific symptoms, the diagnosis could constitute a challenge. Early detection is important to prevent serious consequences.

A 31-year old woman was admitted for prolonged fasting test. She had no relevant past medical or surgical history till eight months before, when she had an episode of generalized tonic-clonic seizure with loss of consciousness. At this time, she was taken to emergency, with identification of a hypoglycaemia of 33 mg/dL. Unfortunately this was undervalued and she was discharged with an appointment on a neurologist. After evaluation, she did an EEG, which was normal, and blood tests that identified a fasting glycemia of 50 mg/dL. By recommendation of her general practitioner, she began to monitor her glycemia during the day, identifying multiple glycemia <50mg/dL – in fasting and post-prandial period. After the first generalized seizure, she had multiple seizures, always associated with hypoglycaemia. During the night she had to wake up every two hours to eat, in order to prevent hypoglycaemia. Moreover, in the last 6 months, she augmented 12 Kg. She also described two episodes of behavioural changes with confusion and speech alteration.

She wasn’t under any medication that could be associated with hypoglycemias. Previous records showed she had a fasting glycemia of 50 mg/dL two years ago. When she was admitted to our department, besides she had eat one hour before, she had glycemia <55 mg/dL. Blood tests showed glucose level=22 mg/dL, insulin=39 μU/mL (normal range 2.6-24.9 μU/mL), C-Pep=0.90 ng/mL (normal range 1.1-4-4 ng/mL). Plasma B-hydroxybutyrate was negative. After Glucagon EV, glucose level increase to 53 mg/dL (>25 mg/dL). We also evaluated cortisol and growth hormone that were normal. Abdominal computed tomography scan with contrast demonstrated a well-defined hypervascular lesion involving pancreas tail. Abdominal MRI was also performed showing a hypervascular lesion involving pancreas tail with 11x21mm. Laparoscopic surgery to enucleate the lesion was made. Pathological evaluation revealed a well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumour (positive staining for synaptophysin, cromogranin and insulin) measuring 0.3 cm. The diagnosis of pancreatic insulinoma was confirmed. After surgery, the glucose level increased to the normal range. The patient is currently in 6 months follow-up with a good evolution.

The diagnosis of insulinoma requires high suspicion. In this case, the patient didn’t have the typical insidious neurogenic symptoms. There is a need to value neuroglycopenic symptoms associated with hypoglycemia, otherwise serious consequences can occur.

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<![CDATA[SAT-567 Hypertriglyceridem...From Mild to Fatal!... Is Time for Awareness]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8800 Hypertriglyceridemia… From mild to fatal! … Is Time for Awareness.

Hypertriglyceridemia can be primary or acquired. High triglycerides are related to complications such as pancreatitis and there is a positive correlation between hypertriglyceridemia and atherosclerotic burden. In this case series we aim to discuss pancreatitis as a hypertriglyceridemia complication and to acknowledge the importance of prevention and management. Is there something we can do to raise awareness and avoid complications as in the cases?

All cases present with chief complaint of epigastric cramp-like abdominal pain, radiating to the back, nausea/vomiting and with highly lipemic blood samples.

38y/o F admitted after been found with lipase 268 U/L (n<60 U/L), amylase 131 U/L (n<100 U/L) and findings of pancreatitis on CT scan. Patient with one-year history of T2DM refers this is the 4th episode of pancreatitis and reports that last time she was told about having triglycerides in 4,000 mg/dL for which she went to her physician that prescribe her Fenofibrate. Patient triglycerides were 7,931 mg/dL (n<199 mg/dL) and found with poorly controlled diabetes with HgbA1c 8.4%. She was properly managed, and triglycerides decrease to 1,309 mg/dL.

31y/o F with elevated lipase (237 U/L, n<60 U/L) and findings of pancreatitis on CT scan was admitted and found with 7,755 mg/dL triglycerides. She refers to have endometriosis for which she uses OCPs for >5years. She develops intractable abdominal pain along with abdominal distension and progress to Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) requiring mechanical ventilation. She had a prolonged ICU stay and after management triglycerides decrease to 95mg/dL, symptoms resolve, and patient was discharge.

48y/o F with pancreatitis, lipase levels 1,452 U/L, amylase 744 U/L and positive imaging findings. Patient with uncontrolled diabetes (HgbA1c 11.0%) and breast mass s/p lumpectomy for which she used tamoxifen for the last 2 years. Triglycerides 7,444mg/dL on Gemfibrozil started due to previous levels found >4,000 mg/dL on outpatient evaluation. She deteriorates clinically and develops renal failure, abdominal compartment syndrome, respiratory distress and hypotension requiring mechanical ventilation and vasopressors. On repeated abdominal CT pancreas changes were suggestive of fulminant pancreatitis. Patient did not respond to treatment and passed away 48 hours after admission.

Hypertriglyceridemia complications can be mild or fatal as in these cases. They were evaluated by a primary care physician before complications occur and had secondary causes that predispose them to hypertriglyceridemia, but they were not addressed, reason for which these scenarios raise concern of how much we know? How much we are doing to prevent these outcomes?... Awareness of hypertriglyceridemia management and adverse effects is necessary to avoid complications and fatal outcomes. Is time!

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