ResearchPad - academicsubjects-med00860 https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Factors related to the increasing number of seriously injured cyclists and pedestrians in a Swedish urban region 2003–17]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_16174 The number of seriously injured unprotected road users has increased during implementation of a road safety policy Vision Zero. The aim of the study is to identify factors associated with the increase in serious injuries among cyclists and pedestrians (even single pedestrian accidents) that occurred in an urban road space in a Swedish region 2003–17. The urban road space includes roads, pavements and tracks for walking and cycling.MethodsData were retrieved from STRADA (Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition) and NVDB (National Road Database). Descriptive statistics and logistic regression with odds ratios for sex, age and part of road space were assessed.ResultsThe number of seriously injured cyclists and pedestrians more than doubled from 2003 to 2017, with the greatest increase for pedestrians. Older age increased the probability of serious injury since 2012 for the group ≥ 80 years and since 2015 for the group 65–79 years. No significant effect of sex. Most injuries occur in areas not transformed by Vision Zero.ConclusionsAn increasing number of elderly persons in the generation born in the 1940s and increased life expectancy are important factors. There is a need to increase road safety measures that also promote active mobility. ]]> <![CDATA[The Effect of a Priest-Led Intervention on the Choice and Preference of Soda Beverages: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial in Catholic Parishes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12638 A pragmatic single low-intensity short-duration one-off sermon given by a priest during a church mass service has an immediate effect in reducing the choice of soda beverages over water

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<![CDATA[T cell subset counts in peripheral blood can be used as discriminatory biomarkers for diagnosis and severity prediction of COVID-19]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12358 This study evaluated the significance of lymphocyte subsets detection in peripheral blood in the diagnosis and prognosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Our results revealed that CD3+T, CD4+T, CD8+T cells and NK cells were significantly decreased in COVID-19 patients. COVID-19 patients had a relatively slight decrease in CD4+T cells but a severe decrease of CD8+T cells. The significantly elevated CD4/CD8 ratio was observed in COVID-19 patients. T cell subset counts were related to the severity and prognosis of COVID-19. The counts of CD8+T and CD4+T cells can be used as diagnostic markers of COVID-19 and predictors of disease severity.

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<![CDATA[Balancing Expediency and Scientific Rigor in Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Vaccine Development]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12356 <![CDATA[Clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 in Japan: a single-center case series]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12319 We report a case series of 6 patients with confirmed COVID-19 in Wakayama prefecture, Japan. All 6 of the patients tested positive in pharyngeal swab PCR tests, and 2 of the 6 were still positive at 3 weeks after onset. All of the patients exhibited bilateral ground glass opacities (GGO) on computed tomography (CT). This paper also reports narrative information on the spectrum of symptoms collected directly from the patients. It would be difficult to triage patients with COVID-19 based on the typical symptoms of fever and/or cough, although PCR and CT are definitive in diagnosis.

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<![CDATA[A Peptide-based Magnetic Chemiluminescence Enzyme Immunoassay for Serological Diagnosis of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12297 SARS-CoV-2, a novel ß-coronavirus, cause severe pneumonia and has spread throughout the globe rapidly. The disease associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection is named COVID-19. To date, real-time RT-PCR is the only test able to confirm this infection. However, the accuracy of RT-PCR depends on several factors; variations in these factors might significantly lower the sensitivity of detection. Here, we developed a peptide-based luminescent immunoassay that detected immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM. The assay cut-off value was determined by evaluating the sera from healthy and infected patients for pathogens other than SARS-CoV-2. To evaluate assay performance, we detected IgG and IgM in the sera from confirmed patients. The positive rate of IgG and IgM was 71.4% and 57.2%, respectively. Therefore, combining our immunoassay with real-time RT-PCR might enhance the diagnostic accuracy of COVID-19.

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<![CDATA[ <i>Rousettus aegyptiacus</i> Bats Do Not Support Productive Nipah Virus Replication]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc8ea3b91-0905-49ce-90d8-2dcb232023df Nipah virus (NiV) is a bat-borne zoonotic pathogen that can cause severe respiratory distress and encephalitis upon spillover into humans. NiV is capable of infecting a broad range of hosts including humans, pigs, ferrets, dogs, cats, hamsters, and at least 2 genera of bats. Little is known about the biology of NiV in the bat reservoir. In this study, we evaluate the potential for the Egyptian fruit bat (EFB), Rousettus aegyptiacus, to serve as a model organism for studying NiV in bats. Our data suggest that NiV does not efficiently replicate in EFBs in vivo. Furthermore, we show no seroconversion against NiV glycoprotein and a lack of viral replication in primary and immortalized EFB-derived cell lines. Our data show that despite using a conserved target for viral entry, NiV replication is limited in some bat species. We conclude that EFBs are not an appropriate organism to model NiV infection or transmission in bats.

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<![CDATA[Safety and Immunogenicity of the Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccine RSV/ΔNS2/Δ1313/I1314L in RSV-Seronegative Children]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N995bb3e9-b66b-4e90-a450-bd56d19e3756 A live attenuated respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccine containing a deletion of the interferon antagonist NS2 gene and mutations in the polymerase gene was well tolerated and infectious, inducing primary neutralizing antibody responses and potent memory antibody responses in RSV-seronegative children.

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<![CDATA[Impact of Unexplored Data Sources on the Historical Distribution of Three Vector Tick Species in Illinois]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N5d27568f-9ead-4a54-986e-50e68628dc4f We updated the Illinois historical (1905–December 2017) distribution and status (not reported, reported or established) maps for Amblyomma americanum (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae), Dermacentor variabilis (Say) (Acari: Ixodidae), and Ixodes scapularis (Say) (Acari: Ixodidae) by compiling publicly available, previously unexplored or newly identified published and unpublished data (untapped data). Primary data sources offered specific tick-level information, followed by secondary and tertiary data sources. For A. americanum, D. variabilis, and I. scapularis, primary data contributed to 90% (4,045/4,482), 80% (2,124/2,640), and 32% (3,490/10,898) tick records vs 10%, 20%, and 68%, respectively from secondary data; primary data updated status in 95% (62/65), 94% (51/54) and in 90% (9/10) of the updated counties for each of these tick species; by 1985 there were tick records in 6%, 68%, and 0% of the counties, compared to 20%, 72%, and 58% by 2004, and 77%, 96%, and 75% of the counties by 2017, respectively for A. americanum, D. variabilis, and I. scapularis. We document the loss of tick records due to unidentified, not cataloged tick collections, unidentified ticks in tick collections, unpublished data or manuscripts without specific county location, and tick-level information, to determine distribution and status. In light of the increase in tick-borne illnesses, updates in historical distributions and status maps help researchers and health officials to identify risk areas for a tick encounter and suggest targeted areas for public outreach and surveillance efforts for ticks and tick-borne diseases. There is a need for a systematic, national vector surveillance program to support research and public health responses to tick expansions and tick-borne diseases.

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<![CDATA[The Influence of Larval Stage and Density on Oviposition Site-Selection Behavior of the Afrotropical Malaria Mosquito <i>Anopheles coluzzii</i> (Diptera: Culicidae)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N1d8c8484-e4ae-4eb3-91c0-ffd7300593de In the selection of oviposition sites female mosquitoes use various cues to assess site quality to optimize survival of progeny. The presence of conspecific larvae influences this process. Interactive effects of oviposition site selection were studied in the malaria mosquito Anopheles coluzzii Coetzee & Wilkerson in dual- and no-choice assays, by exposing single gravid mosquitoes to oviposition cups containing 1) larvae of different developmental stages, 2) larvae-conditioned water (LCW), and 3) cups where visual cues of conspecific larvae were absent. Early-stage conspecific larvae had a positive effect on the oviposition response. By contrast, late stages of conspecific larvae had a negative effect. Oviposition choice was dependent on larval density. Moreover, in oviposition cups where larvae were hidden from view, late-stage larvae had a significant negative effect on oviposition suggesting the involvement of olfactory cues. LCW had no effect on oviposition response, indicating involvement of chemicals produced by larvae in vivo. It is concluded that the presence of larvae in a breeding site affects the oviposition response depending on the development stage of the larvae. These responses appear to be mediated by olfactory cues emitted by the larval habitat containing live larvae, resulting in the enhanced reproductive fitness of the females.

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<![CDATA[Interferon-Induced Transmembrane Protein 3 Genetic Variant rs12252-C Associated With Disease Severity in Coronavirus Disease 2019]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nbca07851-1b8c-4468-915b-517516aaf38c We report evidence of an age-dependent allelic association between interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (rs12252 allele) and severity of coronavirus disease 2019, highlighting the need for further studies and the potential for a personalized, genotype-based approach to identifying high-risk individuals.

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<![CDATA[Epidemiological characteristics and incubation period of 7,015 confirmed cases with Coronavirus Disease 2019 outside Hubei Province in China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc281d2eb-2a32-45cc-8696-ca054c224221 Disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 broke out in Wuhan in December 2019. We utilized confirmed cases outside Hubei Province to analyze epidemiologic characteristics and evaluate the effect of traffic restrictions implemented in Hubei beginning on January 23, 2020.MethodInformation on 7,015 confirmed cases from January 19 to February 8, 2020, in all provinces outside Hubei was collected from the national and local health commissions in China. Incubation period and interval times were calculated using dates of the following events: contact with an infected person, onset, first visit and diagnosis. We evaluated changes in incubation period and interval times.ResultsThe average age of all cases was 44.24 years old. The median incubation period was 5 days and extended from 2 days on January 23 to 15 days on February 8. The proportion of imported cases decreased from 85.71% to 33.19% after January 23. In addition, the lengths of the intervals between onset and diagnosis, onset and first visit, and first visit and diagnosis decreased over time.ConclusionRapidly transmitting COVID-19 has a short incubation period. The onset mainly occurs among young to middle-aged adults. Traffic restrictions played an important role in the decreased number of imported cases outside Hubei. ]]> <![CDATA[Effect of Convalescent Plasma Therapy on Viral Shedding and Survival in COVID-19 Patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Neb7f61ce-8919-4259-9b31-552702a9f2a8 Currently, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been reported in almost all countries globally, and no effective therapy has been documented for COVID-19 and the role of convalescent plasma therapy is unknown. In current study, 6 COVID-19 subjects with respiratory failure received convalescent plasma at a median of 21.5 days after first detection of viral shedding, all tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by 3 days after infusion, and 5 died eventually. In conclusion, convalescent plasma treatment can discontinue SARS-CoV-2 shedding but cannot reduce mortality in critically end-stage COVID-19 patients, and treatment should be initiated earlier.

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<![CDATA[Longitudinal Change of SARS-Cov2 Antibodies in Patients with COVID-19]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N11990fee-6690-44af-9377-c3817d36d4d6 A novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has recently emerged and caused the rapid spread of COVID-19 worldwide.MethodsWe did a retrospective study and included COVID-19 patients admitted to Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University between February 1 and February 29, 2020. Antibody assay was conducted to detect COVID-19 envelope protein E and nucleocapsid protein N antigen.Results112 patients were recruited with symptoms of fever, cough, fatigue, myalgia, and diarrhoea. All patients underwent antibody tests. Fifty-eight (51.79%) were positive for both IgM and IgG, 7 (6.25%) were negative for both antibodies, 1 (0.89%) was positive for only IgM, and 46 (41.07%) were positive for only IgG. IgM antibody appeared within a week post disease onset, and lasted for one month and gradually decreased, while IgG antibody was produced 10 days after infection, and lasted for a longer time. However, no significant difference in level of IgM and IgG antibody between positive and negative patients of nucleic acid test after treatment was found.ConclusionsOur results indicate that serological tests could be powerful approach for the early diagnosis of COVID-19. ]]> <![CDATA[COVID-19: Is Everything Appropriate to Create an Effective Vaccine?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N99509c5d-2489-470f-b285-4e6a7b31ba30 <![CDATA[Explanatory Model for Asthma Disparities in Latino Children: Results from the Latino Childhood Asthma Project]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N7299011c-fea2-427d-a5dd-000802c50fc4

Abstract

Background

Little research has been conducted that integrates, in one explanatory model, the multitude of factors potentially leading to disparities among Latino children.

Purpose

A longitudinal, observational study tested an explanatory model for disparities in asthma control between Mexican and Puerto Rican children with persistent asthma requiring daily controller medication use.

Methods

Mexican and Puerto Rican children aged 5–12 years (n = 267) and their caregivers (n = 267) were enrolled and completed interviews and child spirometry at baseline and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months postenrollment. A 12 month retrospective children’s medical record review was completed. Participants were recruited from two school-based health clinics and the Breathmobile in Phoenix, AZ, and two inner-city hospital asthma clinics in the Bronx, NY.

Results

Statistically significant differences in the social/contextual predictors of asthma illness representations (IRs) were noted between Mexican and Puerto Rican caregivers. The structural equation model results revealed differences in asthma control over time by ethnicity. This model accounted for 40%-48% of the variance in asthma control test scores over 12 months. Caregivers’ IRs aligned with the professional model of asthma management were associated with better children’s asthma control across 1 year. These results also supported the theoretical notion that IRs change over time impacting caregivers’ treatment decisions and children’s asthma control.

Conclusions

These findings extend a previous cross-sectional model test using a more comprehensive model and longitudinal data and highlight the importance of considering within-group differences for diagnosis and treatment of children coming from the vastly heterogeneous Latino umbrella group.

Trial Registration

Trial number NCT 01099800

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<![CDATA[A Cross-Reactive Humanized Monoclonal Antibody Targeting Fusion Glycoprotein Function Protects Ferrets Against Lethal Nipah Virus and Hendra Virus Infection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N22228361-4048-4e08-bef5-61e56b524ea7

Abstract

Background

Nipah virus (NiV) and Hendra virus (HeV) are zoonotic paramyxoviruses that cause severe disease in both animals and humans. There are no approved vaccines or treatments for use in humans; however, therapeutic treatment of both NiV and HeV infection in ferrets and non-human primates with a cross-reactive, neutralizing human monoclonal antibody (mAb), m102.4, targeting the G glycoprotein has been demonstrated. In a previous study, we isolated, characterized, and humanized a cross-reactive, neutralizing anti-F mAb (h5B3.1). The mAb h5B3.1 blocks the required F conformational change needed to facilitate membrane fusion and virus infection, and the epitope recognized by h5B3.1 has been structurally defined; however, the efficacy of h5B3.1 in vivo is unknown.

Methods

The post-infection antiviral activity of h5B3.1 was evaluated in vivo by administration in ferrets after NiV and HeV virus challenge.

Results

All subjects that received h5B3.1 from 1 to several days after infection with a high-dose, oral-nasal virus challenge were protected from disease, whereas all controls died.

Conclusions

This is the first successful post-exposure antibody therapy for NiV and HeV using a humanized cross-reactive mAb targeting the F glycoprotein, and the findings suggest that a combination therapy targeting both F and G should be evaluated as a therapy for NiV/HeV infection.

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<![CDATA[Griffithsin Inhibits Nipah Virus Entry and Fusion and Can Protect Syrian Golden Hamsters From Lethal Nipah Virus Challenge]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf630db17-2b01-4bd6-a68c-8813be54f55f

Abstract

Nipah virus (NiV) is a highly pathogenic zoonotic paramyxovirus that causes fatal encephalitis and respiratory disease in humans. There is currently no approved therapeutic for human use against NiV infection. Griffithsin (GRFT) is high-mannose oligosaccharide binding lectin that has shown in vivo broad-spectrum activity against viruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, human immunodeficiency virus 1, hepatitis C virus, and Japanese encephalitis virus. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro antiviral activities of GRFT and its synthetic trimeric tandemer (3mG) against NiV and other viruses from 4 virus families. The 3mG had comparatively greater potency than GRFT against NiV due to its enhanced ability to block NiV glycoprotein-induced syncytia formation. Our initial in vivo prophylactic evaluation of an oxidation-resistant GRFT (Q-GRFT) showed significant protection against lethal NiV challenge in Syrian golden hamsters. Our results warrant further development of Q-GRFT and 3mG as potential NiV therapeutics.

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<![CDATA[Human Neonatal Rotavirus Vaccine (RV3-BB) Produces Vaccine Take Irrespective of Histo-Blood Group Antigen Status]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N07144daf-4d6b-45e8-a435-5cc3816de8d9

Abstract

Background

VP4 [P] genotype binding specificities of rotaviruses and differential expression of histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) between populations may contribute to reduced efficacy against severe rotavirus disease. P[6]-based rotavirus vaccines could broaden protection in such settings, particularly in Africa, where the Lewis-negative phenotype and P[6] rotavirus strains are common.

Methods

The association between HBGA status and G3P[6] rotavirus vaccine (RV3-BB) take was investigated in a phase 2A study of RV3-BB vaccine involving 46 individuals in Dunedin, New Zealand, during 2012–2014. FUT2 and FUT3 genotypes were determined from DNA extracted from stool specimens, and frequencies of positive cumulative vaccine take, defined as an RV3-BB serum immune response (either immunoglobulin A or serum neutralizing antibody) and/or stool excretion of the vaccine strain, stratified by HBGA status were determined.

Results

RV3-BB produced positive cumulative vaccine take in 29 of 32 individuals (91%) who expressed a functional FUT2 enzyme (the secretor group), 13 of 13 (100%) who were FUT2 null (the nonsecretor group), and 1 of 1 with reduced FUT2 activity (i.e., a weak secretor); in 37 of 40 individuals (93%) who expressed a functional FUT3 enzyme (the Lewis-positive group) and 3 of 3 who were FUT3 null (the Lewis-negative group); and in 25 of 28 Lewis-positive secretors (89%), 12 of 12 Lewis-positive nonsecretors (100%), 2 of 2 Lewis-negative secretors, and 1 of 1 Lewis-negative weak secretor.

Conclusions

RV3-BB produced positive cumulative vaccine take irrespective of HBGA status. RV3-BB has the potential to provide an improved level of protection in settings where P[6] rotavirus disease is endemic, irrespective of the HBGA profile of the population.

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<![CDATA[Levels of Human Immunodeficiency Virus DNA Are Determined Before ART Initiation and Linked to CD8 T-Cell Activation and Memory Expansion]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N3e529d64-77b2-4805-8b00-ed5d04634847

Abstract

Initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in early compared with chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with a smaller HIV reservoir. This longitudinal analysis of 60 individuals who began ART during primary HIV infection (PHI) investigates which pre- and posttherapy factors best predict HIV DNA levels (a correlate of reservoir size) after treatment initiation during PHI. The best predictor of HIV DNA at 1 year was pre-ART HIV DNA, which was in turn significantly associated with CD8 memory T-cell differentiation (effector memory, naive, and T-betEomes subsets), CD8 T-cell activation (CD38 expression) and T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin-domain containing-3 (Tim-3) expression on memory T cells. No associations were found for any immunological variables after 1 year of ART. Levels of HIV DNA are determined around the time of ART initiation in individuals treated during PHI. CD8 T-cell activation and memory expansion are linked to HIV DNA levels, suggesting the importance of the initial host-viral interplay in eventual reservoir size.

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