ResearchPad - academicsubjects-soc02600 https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Creating an Age-Friendly Public Health System]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8823 The public health system in America—at all levels—has relatively few specialized initiatives that prioritize the health and well-being of older adults. And when public health does address the needs of older adults, it is often as an afterthought. In consultation with leaders in public health, health care, and aging, an innovative Framework for an Age-Friendly Public Health System (Framework) was developed outlining roles that public health could fulfill, in collaboration with aging services, to address the challenges and opportunities of an aging society.Research Design and MethodsWith leadership from Trust for America’s Health and The John A. Hartford Foundation, the Florida Departments of Health and Elder Affairs are piloting the implementation of this Framework within Florida’s county health departments and at the state level. The county health departments are expanding data collection efforts to identify older adult needs, creating new alliances with aging sector partners, coordinating with other agencies and community organizations to implement evidence-based programs and policies that address priority needs, and aligning efforts with the age-friendly communities and age-friendly health systems movements.Results, and Discussion and ImplicationsThe county health departments in Florida participating in the pilot are leveraging the Framework to expand public health practice, programs, and policies that address health services and health behaviors, social, and economic factors and environmental conditions that allow older adults to age in place and live healthier and more productive lives. The model being piloted in Florida can be tailored to meet the unique needs of each community and their older adult population. ]]> <![CDATA[More Than Just a Room: A Scoping Review of the Impact of Homesharing for Older Adults]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd2fd91c9-6e95-4c5e-80ae-c07b44b73b85 “Aging in place” is commonly defined as the ability to remain living safely and independently for as long as possible either in the home or community of one’s choosing. Yet, the literature indicates that older adults prefer to remain specifically in their own homes. Homesharing, an innovative exchange-based housing approach, is a means by which older adults can obtain additional income, companionship, and assistance by renting out a room to a home seeker, potentially increasing capacity to remain living independently in their homes. But what is known about their experiences of homesharing?Research Design and MethodsA scoping review was conducted to map and consolidate the literature related to the experience of homeshare participation for adults aged 55 and older published from 1989 to 2018. Fifteen databases were searched, including 3 medical, 5 social science, and 7 gray literature databases. Following abstract and full-text review, 6 sources were retained for study inclusion. Thematic content analysis was used to identify major themes.ResultsWithin included studies, 4 major themes were identified: (i) benefits of homeshare participation for older adults; (ii) challenges of participating in homeshare for older adults; (iii) intergenerational engagement as social exchange; and (iv) the key role of agency facilitation.Discussion and ImplicationsFindings were used to derive practice, policy, and research implications. By focusing on older adults and the ways homesharing impacts their lives, we can better determine the viability of homeshare as a means for improving and prolonging experiences of living at home. ]]> <![CDATA[Wisdom Once Gained Is Not Easily Lost: Implicit Theories About Wisdom and Age-Related Cognitive Declines]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ndac50045-6209-407c-befb-c05832136779 Most people agree that cognitive capabilities are an integral component of wisdom and its development. However, a question that has received less attention is whether people view maintaining cognitive capabilities as a necessary prerequisite for maintaining wisdom.Research Design and MethodsThis study used a mixed-methods approach to evaluate people’s views about the relationship between age-related cognitive declines, Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and wisdom. Our final sample of 1,519 adults ranged in age from 18 to 86.ResultsThe majority of participants stated that wisdom could be present even in people with significant age-related cognitive declines or with AD. In the qualitative responses, common justifications for this were (a) that even people with severe AD can still exhibit wise behaviors during lucid moments, (b) that wisdom is an immutable characteristic that is impossible to lose, and (c) that wisdom maintenance and cognitive capability maintenance are separate constructs.Discussion and ImplicationsAlthough prior research has examined implicit theories about the role of cognition in the development of wisdom, this is the first study to examine implicit theories about whether cognitive declines lead to wisdom declines. The results suggest that most people hold essentialist beliefs about wisdom, viewing it as a fixed and unchangeable trait rather than as a malleable skill. ]]> <![CDATA[A Practical Methodology for Improving the Aging-Friendliness of Communities: Case Studies from Three U.S. Communities]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2c0a9a40-fec1-49a4-87f4-47aa94e10077

Abstract

Background and Objectives

In this paper, we present a series of three case studies to illustrate an innovative and practical approach to improving the aging-friendliness of communities. These three communities used the AdvantAge Initiative to “listen” to the voices of older adults in their communities and to identify and prioritize aging-related issues. This approach was developed by the Center for Home Care Policy and Research at the Visiting Nurse Service of New York (VNSNY), the largest not-for-profit home health care organization in the United States, and has been implemented in over 60 communities throughout the United States. The methodology involves tools such as conceptual frameworks, survey questionnaires, focus groups, and technical assistance to help stakeholders interpret data and find solutions to identified issues.

Research Design and Methods

We interviewed VNSNY program staff and community partners involved in three AdvantAge Initiative projects that commenced at varying time points: Memphis and Shelby County, Tennessee (2012); New York City’s Chinatown neighborhood (2006); and the state of Indiana (2008). We also collected and reviewed secondary materials associated with these projects (e.g., meeting notes from community planning meetings, annual reports from grant recipients, press coverage).

Results

In this case study, we begin by providing an overview of the AdvantAge Initiative framework and the AdvantAge Initiative key indicators. We then present a more in-depth look at the three communities and how they approached and implemented the AdvantAge Initiative.

Discussion and Implications

These case studies demonstrate that this methodology may be implemented in diverse communities and geographic locations. By looking at the longer-term outcomes and by comparing the strategies employed by each community, we see that communities, regardless of size, can bring stakeholders together to promote health and implement meaningful changes that make the community a better place to live for older adults and their families.

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<![CDATA[Lighten Up! Postural Instructions Affect Static and Dynamic Balance in Healthy Older Adults]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Na61b37af-28d4-4ec6-9f6c-0b89cc5e471e

Abstract

Background and Objectives

Increased fall risk in older adults is associated with declining balance. Previous work showed that brief postural instructions can affect balance control in older adults with Parkinson’s disease. Here, we assessed the effects of brief instructions on static and dynamic balance in healthy older adults.

Research Design and Methods

Nineteen participants practiced three sets of instructions, then attempted to implement each instructional set during: (1) quiet standing on foam for 30 s with eyes open; (2) a 3-s foot lift. “Light” instructions relied on principles of reducing excess tension while encouraging length. “Effortful” instructions relied on popular concepts of effortful posture correction. “Relax” instructions encouraged minimization of effort. We measured kinematics and muscle activity.

Results

During quiet stance, Effortful instructions increased mediolateral jerk and path length. In the foot lift task, Light instructions led to the longest foot-in-air duration and the smallest anteroposterior variability of the center of mass, Relax instructions led to the farthest forward head position, and Effortful instructions led to the highest activity in torso muscles.

Discussion and Implications

Thinking of upright posture as effortless may reduce excessive co-contractions and improve static and dynamic balance, while thinking of upright posture as inherently effortful may make balance worse. This may partly account for the benefits of embodied mindfulness practices such as tai chi and Alexander technique for balance in older adults. Pending larger-scale replication, this discovery may enable physiotherapists and teachers of dance, exercise, and martial arts to improve balance and reduce fall risk in their older students and clients simply by modifying how they talk about posture.

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<![CDATA[Generativity in Creative Storytelling: Evidence From a Dementia Care Community]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N44b980f2-a923-4fe0-b5c8-d6c991bfe94f

Abstract

Background and Objectives

Creative group storytelling as utilized in TimeSlips is a social activity that focuses on communication, improvisation, and creativity among its participants with dementia. A collective narrative is a channel through which participants express themselves, and it thus signifies clues about their identities, values, and experiences. No study to date, however, has examined the contents of the stories. Using the generativity model as a theoretical underpinning for analysis, this paper examines the emergent themes of such collective stories.

Research Design and Methods

This study used the data collected in a memory care community where a research team recruited and engaged 21 out of approximately 80 residents with dementia in 6 weekly creative storytelling sessions; 4 small groups of 4 to 6 participants created a total of 24 collective stories. Three researchers analyzed these stories by open-coding emergent themes. Once coded manually, the narratives were managed and analyzed in NVivo.

Results

Consistent with the concept of generativity, a thematic analysis of collective narratives revealed various aspects of participants’ generative concerns. Three themes related to generativity: (1) caring and promoting the well-being of others, (2) family values, and (3) positivity.

Discussion and Implications

The narratives show that participants living with dementia continue to express their generative values and concerns. The findings reveal generative identities held by persons living with dementia, which help destigmatize dementia. The findings also shed light on why creative group storytelling may affect multiple positive outcomes for its participants.

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