ResearchPad - actins https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Functional and structural consequences of epithelial cell invasion by <i>Bordetella pertussis</i> adenylate cyclase toxin]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7693 Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whopping cough, produces an adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) that plays a key role in the host colonization by targeting innate immune cells which express CD11b/CD18, the cellular receptor of CyaA. CyaA is also able to invade non-phagocytic cells, via a unique entry pathway consisting in a direct translocation of its catalytic domain across the cytoplasmic membrane of the cells. Within the cells, CyaA is activated by calmodulin to produce high levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and alter cellular physiology. In this study, we explored the effects of CyaA toxin on the cellular and molecular structure remodeling of A549 alveolar epithelial cells. Using classical imaging techniques, biochemical and functional tests, as well as advanced cell mechanics method, we quantify the structural and functional consequences of the massive increase of intracellular cyclic AMP induced by the toxin: cell shape rounding associated to adhesion weakening process, actin structure remodeling for the cortical and dense components, increase in cytoskeleton stiffness, and inhibition of migration and repair. We also show that, at low concentrations (0.5 nM), CyaA could significantly impair the migration and wound healing capacities of the intoxicated alveolar epithelial cells. As such concentrations might be reached locally during B. pertussis infection, our results suggest that the CyaA, beyond its major role in disabling innate immune cells, might also contribute to the local alteration of the epithelial barrier of the respiratory tract, a hallmark of pertussis.

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<![CDATA[Aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa inhibits pedestal induction by enteropathogenic E. coli and promotes bacterial filamentation in vitro]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8c197bd5eed0c484b4d750

Diarrheic diseases account for the annual death of approximately 1.9 million children under the age of 5 years, and it is a major cause of work absenteeism in developed countries. As diarrheagenic bacteria, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) attach to cells in the small intestine, causing local disappearance of microvilli and inducing the formation of actin-rich pedestals that disrupt the intestinal barrier and help EPEC adhere to and infect intestinal cells. Antibiotics and other bioactive compounds can often be found by analyzing traditional medicines. Here a crude aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa, which typically grows in subtropical and tropical areas and is a popular medicinal tisane in many countries, was analyzed for antibacterial activity against EPEC. In standard microdilution assays, the extract showed a minimum inhibitory concentration of 6.5 mg/ml against EPEC growth. Time-kill kinetics assays demonstrated significant 24 h bactericidal activity at 25 mg/ml. The extract is able to impede pedestal induction. Not only did the extract inhibit preformed pedestals but it prevented pedestal induction as well. Remarkably, it also promoted the formation of EPEC filaments, as observed with other antibiotics. Our results in vitro support the potential of Hibiscus sabdariffa as an antimicrobial agent against EPEC.

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<![CDATA[The seven transmembrane domain protein MoRgs7 functions in surface perception and undergoes coronin MoCrn1-dependent endocytosis in complex with Gα subunit MoMagA to promote cAMP signaling and appressorium formation in Magnaporthe oryzae]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c7d95f6d5eed0c484735053

Regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins primarily function as GTPase-accelerating proteins (GAPs) to promote GTP hydrolysis of Gα subunits, thereby regulating G-protein mediated signal transduction. RGS proteins could also contain additional domains such as GoLoco to inhibit GDP dissociation. The rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae encodes eight RGS and RGS-like proteins (MoRgs1 to MoRgs8) that have shared and distinct functions in growth, appressorium formation and pathogenicity. Interestingly, MoRgs7 and MoRgs8 contain a C-terminal seven-transmembrane domain (7-TM) motif typical of G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) proteins, in addition to the conserved RGS domain. We found that MoRgs7, but not MoRgs8, couples with Gα MoMagA to undergo endocytic transport from the plasma membrane to the endosome upon sensing of surface hydrophobicity. We also found that MoRgs7 can interact with hydrophobic surfaces via a hydrophobic interaction, leading to the perception of environmental hydrophobiccues. Moreover, we found that MoRgs7-MoMagA endocytosis is regulated by actin patch-associated protein MoCrn1, linking it to cAMP signaling. Our studies provided evidence suggesting that MoRgs7 could also function in a GPCR-like manner to sense environmental signals and it, together with additional proteins of diverse functions, promotes cAMP signaling required for developmental processes underlying appressorium function and pathogenicity.

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<![CDATA[Advances in geometric techniques for analyzing blebbing in chemotaxing Dictyostelium cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6f1522d5eed0c48467ae3b

We present a technical platform that allows us to monitor and measure cortex and membrane dynamics during bleb-based chemotaxis. Using D. discoideum cells expressing LifeAct-GFP and crawling under agarose containing RITC-dextran, we were able to simultaneously visualize the actin cortex and the cell membrane throughout bleb formation. Using these images, we then applied edge detect to generate points on the cell boundary with coordinates in a coordinate plane. Then we fitted these points to a curve with known x and y coordinate functions. The result was to parameterize the cell outline. With the parameterization, we demonstrate how to compute data for geometric features such as cell area, bleb area and edge curvature. This allows us to collect vital data for the analysis of blebbing.

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<![CDATA[On the influence of cannabinoids on cell morphology and motility of glioblastoma cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c75a3d5eed0c4843cff4f

The mechanisms behind the anti-tumoral effects of cannabinoids by impacting the migratory activity of tumor cells are only partially understood. Previous studies demonstrated that cannabinoids altered the organization of the actin cytoskeleton in various cell types. As actin is one of the main contributors to cell motility and is postulated to be linked to tumor invasion, we tested the following hypothesizes: 1) Can cannabinoids alter cell motility in a cannabinoid receptor dependent manner? 2) Are these alterations associated with reorganizations in the actin cytoskeleton? 3) If so, what are the underlying molecular mechanisms? Three different glioblastoma cell lines were treated with specific cannabinoid receptor 1 and 2 agonists and antagonists. Afterwards, we measured changes in cell motility using live cell imaging and alterations of the actin structure in fixed cells. Additionally, the protein amount of phosphorylated p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), focal adhesion kinases (FAK) and phosphorylated FAK (pFAK) over time were measured. Cannabinoids induced changes in cell motility, morphology and actin organization in a receptor and cell line dependent manner. No significant changes were observed in the analyzed signaling molecules. Cannabinoids can principally induce changes in the actin cytoskeleton and motility of glioblastoma cell lines. Additionally, single cell motility of glioblastoma is independent of their morphology. Furthermore, the observed effects seem to be independent of p44/42 MAPK and pFAK pathways.

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<![CDATA[The tumor suppressor p53 can promote collective cellular migration]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5df35cd5eed0c4845811ac

Loss of function of the tumor suppressor p53 is known to increase the rate of migration of cells transiting the narrow pores of the traditional Boyden chamber assay. Here by contrast we investigate how p53 impacts the rate of cellular migration within a 2D confluent cell layer and a 3D collagen-embedded multicellular spheroid. We use two human carcinoma cell lines, the bladder carcinoma EJ and the colorectal carcinoma HCT116. In the confluent 2-D cell layer, for both EJ and HCT cells the migratory speeds and effective diffusion coefficients for the p53 null cells were significantly smaller than in p53-expressing cells. Compared to p53 expressers, p53-null cells exhibited more organized cortical actin rings together with reduced front-rear cell polarity. Furthermore, loss of p53 caused cells to exert smaller traction forces upon their substrates, and reduced formation of cryptic lamellipodia. In the 3D multicellular spheroid, loss of p53 consistently reduced collective cellular migration into surrounding collagen matrix. As regards the role of p53 in cellular migration, extrapolation from the Boyden chamber assay to other cellular microenvironments is seen to be fraught even in terms of the sign of the effect. Together, these paradoxical results show that the effects of p53 on cellular migration are context-dependent.

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<![CDATA[The type III intermediate filament vimentin regulates organelle distribution and modulates autophagy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b52e2d5eed0c4842bd1ca

The cytoskeletal protein vimentin plays a key role in positioning of organelles within the cytosol and has been linked to the regulation of numerous cellular processes including autophagy, however, how vimentin regulates autophagy remains relatively unexplored. Here we report that inhibition of vimentin using the steroidal lactone Withaferin A (WFA) causes vimentin to aggregate, and this is associated with the relocalisation of organelles including autophagosomes and lysosomes from the cytosol to a juxtanuclear location. Vimentin inhibition causes autophagosomes to accumulate, and we demonstrate this results from modulation of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTORC1) activity, and disruption of autophagosome-lysosome fusion. We suggest that vimentin plays a physiological role in autophagosome and lysosome positioning, thus identifying vimentin as a key factor in the regulation of mTORC1 and autophagy.

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<![CDATA[An efficient and cost-effective method for purification of small sized DNAs and RNAs from human urine]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c633929d5eed0c484ae611f

Urine holds great promise as a non-invasive sampling method for molecular diagnostics. The cell-free nucleic acids of urine however are small, labile, and difficult to purify. Here an efficient method for the purification of these nucleic acids is presented. An empirically derived protocol was devised by first identifying conditions that allowed recovery of a 100 base pair (bp) DNA, followed by optimization using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay. The resulting method efficiently purifies both small sized DNAs and RNAs from urine, which when combined with quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRTPCR), demonstrably improves detection sensitivity. Fractionation experiments reveal that nucleic acids in urine exist both in the cell-free and cellular fraction, roughly in equal proportion. Consistent with previous studies, amplicons > 180bp show a marked loss in PCR sensitivity for cell-free nucleic acids. Finally, the lysis buffer developed here also doubles as an effective preservative, protecting against nucleic acid degradation for at least two weeks under simulated field conditions. With this method, volumes of up to 25ml of whole urine can be purified in a high-throughput and cost-effective manner. Coupled with its ability to purify both DNA and RNA, the described method may have broad applicability for improving the diagnostic utility of urine, particularly for the detection of low abundant targets.

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<![CDATA[Quantitative analysis of F-actin alterations in adherent human mesenchymal stem cells: Influence of slow-freezing and vitrification-based cryopreservation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c64490fd5eed0c484c2f524

Cryopreservation is an essential tool to meet the increasing demand for stem cells in medical applications. To ensure maintenance of cell function upon thawing, the preservation of the actin cytoskeleton is crucial, but so far there is little quantitative data on the influence of cryopreservation on cytoskeletal structures. For this reason, our study aims to quantitatively describe cryopreservation induced alterations to F-actin in adherent human mesenchymal stem cells, as a basic model for biomedical applications. Here we have characterised the actin cytoskeleton on single-cell level by calculating the circular standard deviation of filament orientation, F-actin content, and average filament length. Cryo-induced alterations of these parameters in identical cells pre and post cryopreservation provide the basis of our investigation. Differences between the impact of slow-freezing and vitrification are qualitatively analyzed and highlighted. Our analysis is supported by live cryo imaging of the actin cytoskeleton via two photon microscopy. We found similar actin alterations in slow-frozen and vitrified cells including buckling of actin filaments, reduction of F-actin content and filament shortening. These alterations indicate limited functionality of the respective cells. However, there are substantial differences in the frequency and time dependence of F-actin disruptions among the applied cryopreservation strategies; immediately after thawing, cytoskeletal structures show least disruption after slow freezing at a rate of 1°C/min. As post-thaw recovery progresses, the ratio of cells with actin disruptions increases, particularly in slow frozen cells. After 120 min of recovery the proportion of cells with an intact actin cytoskeleton is higher in vitrified than in slow frozen cells. Freezing at 10°C/min is associated with a high ratio of impaired cells throughout the post-thawing culture.

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<![CDATA[Plasma membrane architecture protects Candida albicans from killing by copper]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c424382d5eed0c4845e0414

The ability to resist copper toxicity is important for microbial pathogens to survive attack by innate immune cells. A sur7Δ mutant of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans exhibits decreased virulence that correlates with increased sensitivity to copper, as well as defects in other stress responses and morphogenesis. Previous studies indicated that copper kills sur7Δ cells by a mechanism distinct from the known resistance pathways involving the Crp1 copper exporter or the Cup1 metallothionein. Since Sur7 resides in punctate plasma membrane domains known as MCC/eisosomes, we examined overexpression of SUR7 and found that it rescued the copper sensitivity of a mutant that fails to form MCC/eisosomes (pil1Δ lsp1Δ), indicating that these domains act to facilitate Sur7 function. Genetic screening identified new copper-sensitive mutants, the strongest of which were similar to sur7Δ in having altered plasma membranes due to defects in membrane trafficking, cortical actin, and morphogenesis (rvs161Δ, rvs167Δ, and arp2Δ arp3Δ). Consistent with the mutants having altered plasma membrane organization, they were all more readily permeabilized by copper, which is known to bind phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine and cause membrane damage. Although these phospholipids are normally localized to the intracellular leaflet of the plasma membrane, their exposure on the surface of the copper-sensitive mutants was indicated by increased susceptibility to membrane damaging agents that bind to these phospholipids. Increased copper sensitivity was also detected for a drs2Δ mutant, which lacks a phospholipid flippase that is involved in maintaining phospholipid asymmetry. Copper binds phosphatidylserine with very high affinity, and deleting CHO1 to prevent phosphatidylserine synthesis rescued the copper sensitivity of sur7Δ cells, confirming a major role for phosphatidylserine in copper sensitivity. These results highlight how proper plasma membrane architecture protects fungal pathogens from copper and attack by the immune system, thereby opening up new avenues for therapeutic intervention.

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<![CDATA[CPn0572, the C. pneumoniae ortholog of TarP, reorganizes the actin cytoskeleton via a newly identified F-actin binding domain and recruitment of vinculin]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c40f797d5eed0c48438643a

Chlamydia pneumoniae is one of the two major species of the Chlamydiaceae family that have a profound effect on human health. C. pneumoniae is linked to a number of severe acute and chronic diseases of the upper and lower respiratory tract including pneumonia, asthma, bronchitis and infection by the pathogen might play a role in lung cancer. Following adhesion, Chlamydiae secrete effector proteins into the host cytoplasm that modulate the actin cytoskeleton facilitating internalization and infection. Members of the conserved TarP protein family comprise such effector proteins that polymerize actin, and in the case of the C. trachomatis TarP protein, has been shown to play a critical role in pathogenesis. In a previous study, we demonstrated that, upon bacterial invasion, the C. pneumoniae TarP family member CPn0572 is secreted into the host cytoplasm and recruits and associates with actin via an actin-binding domain conserved in TarP proteins. We have now extended our analysis of CPn0572 and found that the CPn0572 actin binding and modulating capability is more complex. With the help of the fission yeast system, a second actin modulating domain was identified independent of the actin binding domain. Microscopic analysis of HEp-2 cells expressing different CPn0572 deletion variants mapped this domain to the C-terminal part of the protein as CPn0572536-755 binds F-actin in vitro and colocalizes with aberrantly thickened actin cables in vivo. Finally, microscopic and bioinformatic analysis revealed the existence of a vinculin binding sequence in CPn0572. Our findings contribute to the understanding of the function of the TarP family and underscore the existence of several actin binding domains and a vinculin binding site for host actin modulation.

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<![CDATA[Lrrk promotes tau neurotoxicity through dysregulation of actin and mitochondrial dynamics]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c254541d5eed0c48442c395

Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are the most common cause of familial Parkinson disease. Genetics and neuropathology link Parkinson disease with the microtubule-binding protein tau, but the mechanism of action of LRRK2 mutations and the molecular connection between tau and Parkinson disease are unclear. Here, we investigate the interaction of LRRK and tau in Drosophila and mouse models of tauopathy. We find that either increasing or decreasing the level of fly Lrrk enhances tau neurotoxicity, which is further exacerbated by expressing Lrrk with dominantly acting Parkinson disease—associated mutations. At the cellular level, altering Lrrk expression promotes tau neurotoxicity via excess stabilization of filamentous actin (F-actin) and subsequent mislocalization of the critical mitochondrial fission protein dynamin-1-like protein (Drp1). Biochemically, monomeric LRRK2 exhibits actin-severing activity, which is reduced as increasing concentrations of wild-type LRRK2, or expression of mutant forms of LRRK2 promote oligomerization of the protein. Overall, our findings provide a potential mechanistic basis for a dominant negative mechanism in LRRK2-mediated Parkinson disease, suggest a common molecular pathway with other familial forms of Parkinson disease linked to abnormalities of mitochondrial dynamics and quality control, and raise the possibility of new therapeutic approaches to Parkinson disease and related disorders.

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<![CDATA[Principles of intracellular bacterial pathogen spread from cell to cell]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1c0afcd5eed0c4844270be ]]> <![CDATA[Selection of appropriate reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis in Propylea japonica (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c06f054d5eed0c484c6d705

Reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a reliable technique commonly used in molecular biology to analyze RNA expression. The selection of suitable reference genes for data normalization is a precondition for credible measurements of gene expression levels using RT-qPCR. Propylea japonica is one of the most common pests of many crop systems throughout East Asia, and has often been used in the testing of non-target impacts during environmental risk assessments of genetically engineered plants. The present study assessed the suitability of nine frequently used reference genes for comparisons of P. japonica gene expression. Expression stability was compared across developmental stages, sex, a range of tissues, and following exposure to different temperatures. Data were analyzed using RefFinder, which integrated the results obtained using NormFinder, geNorm, BestKeeper, and the ΔCt method. This led to the identification of unique sets of reference genes for each experimental condition: ribosomal protein S18 (RPS18) and elongation factor 1 α (EF1A) for developmental stage comparisons, RPS18 and EF1A for sex comparisons, EF1A and ribosomal protein L4 for tissue comparisons, and RPS18 and EF1A for analyses of temperature-mediated effects. These reference genes will help to enhance the accuracy of RT-qPCR analyses of P. japonica gene expression. This work represents an initial move towards building a standardized system for RT-qPCR analysis of P. japonica, providing a basis for the ecological risk assessment of RNAi-based insect control products.

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<![CDATA[Prions activate a p38 MAPK synaptotoxic signaling pathway]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0e98bed5eed0c484eab06c

Synaptic degeneration is one of the earliest pathological correlates of prion disease, and it is a major determinant of the progression of clinical symptoms. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying prion synaptotoxicity are poorly understood. Previously, we described an experimental system in which treatment of cultured hippocampal neurons with purified PrPSc, the infectious form of the prion protein, induces rapid retraction of dendritic spines, an effect that is entirely dependent on expression of endogenous PrPC by the target neurons. Here, we use this system to dissect pharmacologically the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. We show that PrPSc initiates a stepwise synaptotoxic signaling cascade that includes activation of NMDA receptors, calcium influx, stimulation of p38 MAPK and several downstream kinases, and collapse of the actin cytoskeleton within dendritic spines. Synaptic degeneration is restricted to excitatory synapses, spares presynaptic structures, and results in decrements in functional synaptic transmission. Pharmacological inhibition of any one of the steps in the signaling cascade, as well as expression of a dominant-negative form of p38 MAPK, block PrPSc-induced spine degeneration. Moreover, p38 MAPK inhibitors actually reverse the degenerative process after it has already begun. We also show that, while PrPC mediates the synaptotoxic effects of both PrPSc and the Alzheimer’s Aβ peptide in this system, the two species activate distinct signaling pathways. Taken together, our results provide powerful insights into the biology of prion neurotoxicity, they identify new, druggable therapeutic targets, and they allow comparison of prion synaptotoxic pathways with those involved in other neurodegenerative diseases.

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<![CDATA[Inter-subunit interactions drive divergent dynamics in mammalian and Plasmodium actin filaments]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b6006f7463d7e39c55261ba

Cell motility is essential for protozoan and metazoan organisms and typically relies on the dynamic turnover of actin filaments. In metazoans, monomeric actin polymerises into usually long and stable filaments, while some protozoans form only short and highly dynamic actin filaments. These different dynamics are partly due to the different sets of actin regulatory proteins and partly due to the sequence of actin itself. Here we probe the interactions of actin subunits within divergent actin filaments using a comparative dynamic molecular model and explore their functions using Plasmodium, the protozoan causing malaria, and mouse melanoma derived B16-F1 cells as model systems. Parasite actin tagged to a fluorescent protein (FP) did not incorporate into mammalian actin filaments, and rabbit actin-FP did not incorporate into parasite actin filaments. However, exchanging the most divergent region of actin subdomain 3 allowed such reciprocal incorporation. The exchange of a single amino acid residue in subdomain 2 (N41H) of Plasmodium actin markedly improved incorporation into mammalian filaments. In the parasite, modification of most subunit–subunit interaction sites was lethal, whereas changes in actin subdomains 1 and 4 reduced efficient parasite motility and hence mosquito organ penetration. The strong penetration defects could be rescued by overexpression of the actin filament regulator coronin. Through these comparative approaches we identified an essential and common contributor, subdomain 3, which drives the differential dynamic behaviour of two highly divergent eukaryotic actins in motile cells.

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<![CDATA[The effect of cell geometry on polarization in budding yeast]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b28baab463d7e1564977086

The localization (or polarization) of proteins on the membrane during the mating of budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is an important model system for understanding simple pattern formation within cells. While there are many existing mathematical models of polarization, for both budding and mating, there are still many aspects of this process that are not well understood. In this paper we set out to elucidate the effect that the geometry of the cell can have on the dynamics of certain models of polarization. Specifically, we look at several spatial stochastic models of Cdc42 polarization that have been adapted from published models, on a variety of tip-shaped geometries, to replicate the shape change that occurs during the growth of the mating projection. We show here that there is a complex interplay between the dynamics of polarization and the shape of the cell. Our results show that while models of polarization can generate a stable polarization cap, its localization at the tip of mating projections is unstable, with the polarization cap drifting away from the tip of the projection in a geometry dependent manner. We also compare predictions from our computational results to experiments that observe cells with projections of varying lengths, and track the stability of the polarization cap. Lastly, we examine one model of actin polarization and show that it is unlikely, at least for the models studied here, that actin dynamics and vesicle traffic are able to overcome this effect of geometry.

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<![CDATA[Polarization-resolved microscopy reveals a muscle myosin motor-independent mechanism of molecular actin ordering during sarcomere maturation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5af0b562463d7e1d4f6521e7

Sarcomeres are stereotyped force-producing mini-machines of striated muscles. Each sarcomere contains a pseudocrystalline order of bipolar actin and myosin filaments, which are linked by titin filaments. During muscle development, these three filament types need to assemble into long periodic chains of sarcomeres called myofibrils. Initially, myofibrils contain immature sarcomeres, which gradually mature into their pseudocrystalline order. Despite the general importance, our understanding of myofibril assembly and sarcomere maturation in vivo is limited, in large part because determining the molecular order of protein components during muscle development remains challenging. Here, we applied polarization-resolved microscopy to determine the molecular order of actin during myofibrillogenesis in vivo. This method revealed that, concomitantly with mechanical tension buildup in the myotube, molecular actin order increases, preceding the formation of immature sarcomeres. Mechanistically, both muscle and nonmuscle myosin contribute to this actin order gain during early stages of myofibril assembly. Actin order continues to increase while myofibrils and sarcomeres mature. Muscle myosin motor activity is required for the regular and coordinated assembly of long myofibrils but not for the high actin order buildup during sarcomere maturation. This suggests that, in muscle, other actin-binding proteins are sufficient to locally bundle or cross-link actin into highly regular arrays.

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<![CDATA[Negative feedback loop of bone resorption by NFATc1-dependent induction of Cadm1]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db52ab0ee8fa60bdc8fc

Trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 4 and lysine 27 (H3K4me3 and H3K27me3) at gene promoter regions critically regulates gene expression. Key developmental genes tend to exhibit changes in histone modification patterns from the H3K4me3/H3K27me3 bivalent pattern to the H3K4me3 monovalent pattern. Using comprehensive chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) and mature osteoclasts, we found that cell surface adhesion molecule 1 (Cadm1) is a direct target of nuclear factor of activated T cells 1 (NFATc1) and exhibits a bivalent histone pattern in BMMs and a monovalent pattern in osteoclasts. Cadm1 expression was upregulated in BMMs by receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL), and blocked by a calcineurin/NFATc1 inhibitor, FK506. Cadm1-deficient mice exhibited significantly reduced bone mass compared with wild-type mice, which was due to the increased osteoclast differentiation, survival and bone-resorbing activity in Cadm1-deficient osteoclasts. These results suggest that Cadm1 is a direct target of NFATc1, which is induced by RANKL through epigenetic modification, and regulates osteoclastic bone resorption in a negative feedback manner.

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<![CDATA[Crystal structure and structure-based mutagenesis of actin-specific ADP-ribosylating toxin CPILE-a as novel enterotoxin]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db52ab0ee8fa60bdc74d

Unusual outbreaks of food poisoning in Japan were reported in which Clostridium perfringens was strongly suspected to be the cause based on epidemiological information and fingerprinting of isolates. The isolated strains lack the typical C. perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) but secrete a new enterotoxin consisting of two components: C. perfringens iota-like enterotoxin-a (CPILE-a), which acts as an enzymatic ADP-ribosyltransferase, and CPILE-b, a membrane binding component. Here we present the crystal structures of apo-CPILE-a, NAD+-CPILE-a and NADH-CPILE-a. Though CPILE-a structure has high similarity with known iota toxin-a (Ia) with NAD+, it possesses two extra-long protruding loops from G262-S269 and E402-K408 that are distinct from Ia. Based on the Ia–actin complex structure, we focused on actin-binding interface regions (I-V) including two protruding loops (PT) and examined how mutations in these regions affect the ADP-ribosylation activity of CPILE-a. Though some site-directed mutagenesis studies have already been conducted on the actin binding site of Ia, in the present study, mutagenesis studies were conducted against both α- and β/γ-actin in CPILE-a and Ia. Interestingly, CPILE-a ADP-ribosylates both α- and β/γ-actin, but its sensitivity towards β/γ-actin is 36% compared with α-actin. Our results contrast to that only C2-I ADP-ribosylates β/γ-actin. We also showed that PT-I and two convex-concave interactions in CPILE-a are important for actin binding. The current study is the first detailed analysis of site-directed mutagenesis in the actin binding region of Ia and CPILE-a against both α- and β/γ-actin.

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