ResearchPad - adenocarcinomas https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Retrospective observational cohort study on innovation in oncology and progress in survival: How far have we gotten in the two decades of treating patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer as a single population?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13816 We assessed the impact of new antineoplastic agents on the overall survival (OS) of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (aNSCLC) patients followed up until 2012. Multivariate regression models were run for OS (outcome) and four proxies for innovation (exposure): Index (InnovInd, for SEER-Research data 1973–2012) and three levels of aggregation of Mean Medication Vintage, i.e. Overall (MMVOverall), using data aggregated at the State Level (MMVState), and using patient-level data (MMVPatient) using data from the US captured in SEER-Medicare 1991–2012. We derived Hazard ratios (HR) from Royston-Parmar models and odds ratios (OR) from a logistic regression on 1-year OS. Including 164,704 patients (median age 72 years, 56.8% stage IV, 61.8% with no comorbidities, 37.8% with adenocarcinoma, 22.9% with squamous-cell, 6.1% were censored). One-year OS improved from 0.22 in 1973 to 0.39 in 2012, in correlation with InnovInd (r = 0.97). Ten new NSCLC drugs were approved and 28 more used off-label. Regression-models results indicate that therapeutic innovation only marginally reduced the risk of dying (HROverall = 0.98 [0.98–0.98], HRMMV-Patient = 0.98 [0.97–0.98], and HRMMV-State = 0.98 [0.98–0.98], and slightly improved 1-year survival (ORMMV-Overall = 1.05 95%CI [1.04–1.05]). These results were validated with data from the Swedish National Health Data registers. Until 2013, aNSCLC patients were treated undifferentiated and the introduction of innovative therapies had statistically significant, albeit modest, effects on survival. Most treatments used off-guidelines highlight the high unmet need; however new advancements in treatment may further improve survival.

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<![CDATA[Ectopic Otoconin 90 expression in triple negative breast cancer cell lines is associated with metastasis functions]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6f1491d5eed0c48467a304

Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive tumor with propensity to metastasize and poor treatment options. Improving treatment options would be impactful; thus, finding a tumor-specific cell surface protein with metastasis promoting functions that could be knocked out was the goal of this study. The Otoconin 90 gene (OC90), frequently amplified in tumors on chromosome 8q24.22, was identified as a potential therapeutic candidate. Normally OC90 is expressed in the cochlea with no known function in other normal tissues. In silico analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) multi-tumor RNAseq cohorts revealed that OC90 is expressed in many tumor types at high prevalence and genomic amplification is associated with the elevated mRNA expression. In vitro assays in TNBC cell lines revealed OC90 expression with control over cell viability, apoptosis and invasion. RNA-seq analysis of OC90-siRNA knockdown and OC90-overexpression in BT20, BT549, HCC38 cell lines identified co-expressed transcripts, HMGA2, POLE2 and TRIB3. Altered expression of HMGA2, POLE2 and TRIB3 was predictive of survival among members of the Metabric breast cancer cohort. Thus, OC90 represents a potential therapeutic target whose knockdown could improve the treatment of TNBC.

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<![CDATA[Early-stage serrated adenocarcinomas are divided into several molecularly distinct subtypes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c76fdead5eed0c484e5b080

Serrated adenocarcinoma (SAC) is considered the end stage of the serrated neoplasia pathway. Although SAC prognosis is not widely recognized, the serrated pathway-associated subtype consistently exhibits unfavorable prognosis in genetic studies. Herein, we classified molecularly distinct subtypes of serrated adenocarcinomas and clarified their associated clinicopathological characteristics and genetic changes. We examined 38 early-stage colorectal SACs. Of these, 24 were classified into three molecularly distinct groups by colon cancer subtyping (CCS). The clinicopathological characteristics, Ki 67 labeling index (LI), and SAC epithelial serration were assessed. The DNA from carcinomas and normal tissue/adenoma was extracted by laser microdissection and sequenced by next-generation sequencing, and mutation numbers and patterns of a 15-oncogene panel were determined. The CCS groups included CCS1 (CDX2+, HTR2B-, FRMD6-, ZEB1-, and microsatellite instable-low [MSI-L]/microsatellite stable [MSS]; 14 cases), CCS2 (microsatellite instable-high [MSI-H], 5 cases), and CCS3 (CDX2-, HTR2B+, FRMD6+, ZEB1+, and MSI-L/MSS; 5 cases). Invasive cancer was significantly more frequent in CCS3 than in CCS1 (5/5 versus 3/14, respectively). Ki67 LI and epithelial serration were higher in CCS3 than in CCS1 (83.0 ± 5.8 versus 65.4 ± 4.0 and 5/5 versus 3/14, respectively; p = 0.031 and 0.0048). CCS2 showed the highest mutation number, whereas KRAS and BRAF mutation numbers were higher in CCS3 than in CCS1. Early-stage SACs were classified into three molecularly distinct subtypes with different clinicopathological and genetic characteristics.

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<![CDATA[Differentiation of hypovascular pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors from pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma using contrast-enhanced computed tomography]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5df32fd5eed0c484580e48

Hypovascular pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (hypo-PNETs) are often misdiagnosed as pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). However, the treatment options and prognosis of PNETs and PDAC are substantially different. This retrospective study differentiated hypo-PNETs from PDAC using contrast-enhanced CT (CE-CT). Clinical data and CE-CT findings, including tumor location, size, boundary, pancreatic duct dilatation, local invasion or metastases, tumor contrast enhancement, and tumor-to-pancreas enhancement ratio, were compared between 39 PDACs and 18 hypo-PNETs. At CT imaging, hypo-PNETs showed a higher frequency of a well-defined margin and lower frequencies of pancreatic duct dilatation and local invasion or metastasis when compared with PDAC (p < 0.05 for all). The mean attenuation of hypo-PNETs at the arterial and portal venous phase was significantly higher than that of PDAC (p < 0.001, p = 0.003, respectively). Similar results were observed in tumor-to-pancreas enhancement ratio. Tumor attenuation and tumor-to-pancreas enhancement ratio at the arterial phase showed the largest area under the curve (AUC) of 0.888 and 0.812 with 83.3–88.9% of sensitivity and 61.6–77.0% of specificity. Pancreatic duct dilatation, local invasion or metastasis, and tumor attenuation at the portal venous phase also showed acceptable AUC (0.703–0.748). Thus CE-CT features, especially the enhancement degree at the arterial phases, may be useful for differentiating hypo-PNETs from PDAC using CE-CT.

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<![CDATA[The Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) is a useful biomarker in predicting metastatic colon cancer using the ADC-value of the primary tumor]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c633946d5eed0c484ae63d7

Purpose

To investigate the role of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) as a potential imaging biomarker to predict metastasis (lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis) in colon cancer based on the ADC-value of the primary tumor.

Methods

Thirty patients (21M, 9F) were included retrospectively. All patients received a 1.5T MRI of the colon including T2 and DWI sequences. ADC maps were calculated for each patient. An expert reader manually delineated all colon tumors to measure mean ADC and histogram metrics (mean, min, max, median, standard deviation (SD), skewness, kurtosis, 5th-95th percentiles) were calculated. Advanced colon cancer was defined as lymph node mestastasis (N+) or distant metastasis (M+). The student Mann Whitney U-test was used to assess the differences between the ADC means of early and advanced colon cancer. To compare the accuracy of lymph node metastasis (N+) prediction based on morpholigical criteria versus ADC-value of the primary tumor, two blinded readers, determined the lymph node metastasis (N0 vs N+) based on morphological criteria. The sensitivity and specificity in predicting lymph node metastasis was calculated for both readers and for the ADC-value of the primary tumor, with histopathology results as the gold standard.

Results

There was a significant difference between the mean ADC-value of advanced versus early tumors (p = 0.002). The optimal cut off value was 1179 * 10−3 mm2/s with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.83 and a sensitivity and specificity of 81% and 86% respectively to predict advanced tumors. Histogram analyses did not add any significant additional value.

The sensitivity and specificity for the prediction of lymph node metastasis based on morphological criteria were 40% and 63% for reader 1 and 30% and 88% for reader 2 respectively. The primary tumor ADC-value using 1.179 * 10−3 mm2/s as threshold had a 100% sensitivity and specificity in predicting lymph node metastasis.

Conclusion

The ADC-value of the primary tumor has the potential to predict advanced colon cancer, defined as lymph node metastasis or distant metastasis, with lower ADC values significantly associated with advanced tumors. Furthermore the ADC-value of the primary tumor increases the prediction accuracy of lymph node metastasis compared with morphological criteria.

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<![CDATA[Correlation between maximal tumor diameter of fresh pathology specimens and computed tomography images in lung adenocarcinoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c79aff5d5eed0c4841e3b32

The authors compared maximal tumor diameters between fresh lung tissue and axial and multiplanar reformatted chest computed-tomography (CT) images in lung adenocarcinoma and investigated the factors affecting tumor-size discrepancies. This study included 135 surgically resected lung adenocarcinomas. An experienced pulmonary pathologist aimed to cut the largest tumor section and measured pathological tumor size (PTS) in fresh specimens. Radiological maximal tumor sizes (RTS) were retrospectively measured on axial (RTSax) and multiplanar reformatted (RTSre) chest CT images. Mean PTS, RTSax, and RTSre were 19.13 mm, 18.63 mm, and 20.80 mm, respectively. RTSre was significantly larger than PTS (mean difference, 1.68 mm; p<0.001). RTSax was also greater than PTS for 6−10-mm and 11−20-mm tumors. PTS and RTS were strongly positively correlated (RTSax, r2 = 0.719, p<0.001; RTSre, r2 = 0.833, p<0.001). The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.915 between PTS and RTSax and 0.954 between PTS and RTSre. Postoperative down-staging occurred in 11.0% and 27.4% of tumors on performing radiological staging using RTSax and RTSre, respectively. Postoperative up-staging occurred in 12.3% and 1.4% of tumors on performing radiological staging using RTSax and RTSre, respectively. Multiple linear regression revealed that pleural dimpling (p = 0.024) was an independent factor affecting differences between PTS and RTSax. Specimen type (p = 0.012) and tumor location (p = 0.020) were independent factors affecting differences between PTS and RTSre. In conclusion, RTSre was significantly larger than PTS and caused postoperative down-staging in 27.4% of the tumors. Reliability analysis revealed that RTSre was more strongly correlated with PTS than RTSax. Specimen type and anatomical tumor location influenced the measured size differences between PTS and RTSre.

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<![CDATA[BAP1 expression is prognostic in breast and uveal melanoma but not colon cancer and is highly positively correlated with RBM15B and USP19]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c61e8c4d5eed0c48496f124

BAP1 is a tumor suppressor gene important to the development and prognosis of many cancers, especially uveal melanoma (UM). Its role in more common cancers such as breast and colon cancer is largely unknown. We collected the transcriptome profiling data sets from the TCGA uveal melanoma (TCGA-UVM), breast cancer (TCGA-BRCA), and colon cancer (TCGA-COAD) projects to analyze the expression of BAP1. We found that patients with UM and breast cancer, but not colon cancer, who died had a lower level of BAP1 gene expression compared to surviving patients. Importantly, in breast cancer patients, the lowest BAP1 expression levels corresponded to the dead young patients (age at diagnosis < 46). Since the number of cases in TCGA-BRCA was much higher than TCGA-UVM, we obtained highly correlated genes with BAP1 in invasive breast carcinomas. Then, we tested if these genes are also highly correlated with BAP1 in UM and colon cancer. We found that BAP1 is highly positively correlated with RBM15B and USP19 expression in invasive breast carcinoma, UM, and colon adenocarcinoma. All three genes are located in close proximity on the 3p21 tumor suppressor region that is commonly altered in many cancers.

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<![CDATA[Surgical approach and the impact of epidural analgesia on survival after esophagectomy for cancer: A population-based retrospective cohort study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c50c449d5eed0c4845e8444

Background

Esophagectomy for esophageal cancer carries high morbidity and mortality, particularly in older patients. Transthoracic esophagectomy allows formal lymphadenectomy, but leads to greater perioperative morbidity and pain than transhiatal esophagectomy. Epidural analgesia may attenuate the stress response and be less immunosuppressive than opioids, potentially affecting long-term outcomes. These potential benefits may be more pronounced for transthoracic esophagectomy due to its greater physiologic impact. We evaluated the impact of epidural analgesia on survival and recurrence after transthoracic versus transhiatal esophagectomy.

Methods

A retrospective cohort study was performed using the linked Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database. Patients aged ≥66 years with locoregional esophageal cancer diagnosed 1994–2009 who underwent esophagectomy were identified, with follow-up through December 31, 2013. Epidural receipt and surgical approach were identified from Medicare claims. Survival analyses adjusting for hospital esophagectomy volume, surgical approach, and epidural use were performed. A subgroup analysis restricted to esophageal adenocarcinoma patients was performed.

Results

Among 1,921 patients, 38% underwent transhiatal esophagectomy (n = 730) and 62% underwent transthoracic esophagectomy (n = 1,191). 61% (n = 1,169) received epidurals and 39% (n = 752) did not. Epidural analgesia was associated with transthoracic approach and higher volume hospitals. Patients with epidural analgesia had better 90-day survival. Five-year survival was higher with transhiatal esophagectomy (37.2%) than transthoracic esophagectomy (31.0%, p = 0.006). Among transthoracic esophagectomy patients, epidural analgesia was associated with improved 5-year survival (33.5% epidural versus 26.5% non-epidural, p = 0.012; hazard ratio 0.81, 95% confidence interval [0.70, 0.93]). Among the subgroup of esophageal adenocarcinoma patients undergoing transthoracic esophagectomy, epidural analgesia remained associated with improved 5-year survival (hazard ratio 0.81, 95% confidence interval [0.67, 0.96]); this survival benefit persisted in sensitivity analyses adjusting for propensity to receive an epidural.

Conclusion

Among patients undergoing transthoracic esophagectomy, including a subgroup restricted to esophageal adenocarcinoma, epidural analgesia was associated with improved survival even after adjusting for other factors.

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<![CDATA[Deletion of the p16INK4a tumor suppressor and expression of the androgen receptor induce sarcomatoid carcinomas with signet ring cells in the mouse prostate]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c536a9fd5eed0c484a476f6

The tumor suppressor p16Ink4a, encoded by the INK4a gene, is an inhibitor of cyclin D-dependent kinases 4 and 6, CDK4 and CDK6. This inhibition prevents the phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (pRb), resulting in cellular senescence through inhibition of E2F-mediated transcription of S phase genes required for cell proliferation. The p16Ink4a plays an important role in tumor suppression, whereby its deletion, mutation, or epigenetic silencing is a frequently observed genetic alteration in prostate cancer. To assess its roles and related molecular mechanisms in prostate cancer initiation and progression, we generated a mouse model with conditional deletion of p16Ink4a in prostatic luminal epithelium. The mice underwent oncogenic transformation and developed prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) from eight months of age, but failed to develop prostatic tumors. Given the prevalence of aberrant androgen signaling pathways in prostate cancer initiation and progression, we then generated R26hARL/wt:p16L/L: PB-Cre4 compound mice, in which conditional expression of the human AR transgene and deletion of p16Ink4a co-occur in prostatic luminal epithelial cells. While R26hARL/wt:PB-Cre4 mice showed no visible pathological changes, R26hARL/wt:p16L/L: PB-Cre4 compound mice displayed an early onset of high-grade PIN (HGPIN), prostatic carcinoma, and metastatic lesions. Strikingly, we observed tumors resembling human sarcomatoid carcinoma with intermixed focal regions of signet ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) in the prostates of the compound mice. Further characterization of these tumors showed they were of luminal epithelial cell origin, and featured characteristics of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) with enhanced proliferative and invasive capabilities. Our results not only implicate a biological role for AR expression and p16Ink4a deletion in the pathogenesis of prostatic SRCC, but also provide a new and unique genetically engineered mouse (GEM) model for investigating the molecular mechanisms for SRCC development.

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<![CDATA[Palliative cerebrospinal fluid shunting for leptomeningeal metastasis-related hydrocephalus in patients with lung adenocarcinoma: A single-center retrospective study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c40f791d5eed0c4843863d7

Purpose

Management of leptomeningeal metastasis-related hydrocephalus (LM-H) is particularly challenging regarding the control of severe headache, nausea, and vomiting due to intracranial hypertension. To investigate the improvements of performance status and outcome with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt surgery for LM-H in patients with lung adenocarcinoma.

Methods

Data on patients with leptomeningeal metastasis-related hydrocephalus from lung adenocarcinoma diagnosed by MR imaging and/or cytological examination were retrospectively analyzed. Between August 2008 and July 2017, the authors reviewed 31 patients requiring CSF shunt, who underwent ventriculo-peritoneal or lumbo-peritoneal shunt.

Results

The patients consisted of 11 men and 20 women with a median age of 59 years. Twenty-six patients received EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). CSF shunt surgery yielded rapid improvement in the performance status of 90.3% of patients. Median overall survival from the diagnosis of LM in patients with ECOG performance status less than 2 was 7.7 months, and this was significantly longer than those in patients with PS 3 or 4 (4.4 or 1.5 months; p<0.001). Multivariate analysis by Cox regression revealed survival differences according to PS at diagnosis of LM [PS 1–3 vs. PS4, hazard ratio (HR) 0.201, p = 0.034], controlled extracranial disease (HR 0.248, p = 0.005), and post-shunt EGFR-TKI for LM treatment (HR 0.193, p = 0.008). Postoperative symptomatic peritoneal carcinomatosis was observed in one patient (3.2%).

Conclusion

CSF shunting may be a safe and effective strategy in patients with LM-H from lung adenocarcinoma. A prospective study is needed to establish the effectiveness and safety of palliative CSF shunt for LM-H.

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<![CDATA[Serum levels of miR-29, miR-122, miR-155 and miR-192 are elevated in patients with cholangiocarcinoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c605a57d5eed0c4847cced3

Objectives

Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) represents the second most common primary hepatic malignancy. Despite tremendous research activities, the prognosis for the majority of patients is still poor. Only in case of early diagnosis, liver resection might potentially lead to long-term survival. However, it is still unclear which patients benefit most from extensive liver surgery, highlighting the need for new diagnostic and prognostic stratification strategies.

Methods

Serum concentrations of a 4 miRNA panel (miR-122, miR-192, miR-29b and miR-155) were analyzed using semi-quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR in serum samples from 94 patients with cholangiocarcinoma undergoing tumour resection and 40 healthy controls. Results were correlated with clinical data.

Results

Serum concentrations of miR-122, miR-192, miR-29b and miR-155 were significantly elevated in patients with CCA compared to healthy controls or patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis without malignant transformation. Although preoperative levels of these miRNAs were unsuitable as a prognostic marker of survival, a strong postoperative decline of miR-122 serum levels was significantly associated with a favorable patients’ prognosis.

Conclusions

Analysis of circulating miRNAs represents a promising tool for the diagnosis of even early stage CCA. A postoperative decline in miRNA serum concentrations might be indicative for a favorable patients’ outcome and helpful to identify patients with a good prognosis after extended liver surgery.

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<![CDATA[Metabolomics and 16S rRNA sequencing of human colorectal cancers and adjacent mucosa]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c269780d5eed0c48470fb79

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is ranked the third most common cancer in human worldwide. However, the exact mechanisms of CRC are not well established. Furthermore, there may be differences between mechanisms of CRC in the Asian and in the Western populations. In the present study, we utilized a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) metabolomic approach supported by the 16S rRNA next-generation sequencing to investigate the functional and taxonomical differences between paired tumor and unaffected (normal) surgical biopsy tissues from 17 Malaysian patients. Metabolomic differences associated with steroid biosynthesis, terpenoid biosynthesis and bile metabolism could be attributed to microbiome differences between normal and tumor sites. The relative abundances of Anaerotruncus, Intestinimonas and Oscillibacter displayed significant relationships with both steroid biosynthesis and terpenoid and triterpenoid biosynthesis pathways. Metabolites involved in serotonergic synapse/ tryptophan metabolism (Serotonin and 5-Hydroxy-3-indoleacetic acid [5-HIAA]) were only detected in normal tissue samples. On the other hand, S-Adenosyl-L-homocysteine (SAH), a metabolite involves in methionine metabolism and methylation, was frequently increased in tumor relative to normal tissues. In conclusion, this study suggests that local microbiome dysbiosis may contribute to functional changes at the cancer sites. Results from the current study also contributed to the list of metabolites that are found to differ between normal and tumor sites in CRC and supported our quest for understanding the mechanisms of carcinogenesis.

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<![CDATA[Human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hENT1) expression as a predictive biomarker for gemcitabine chemotherapy in biliary tract cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c215134d5eed0c4843f9262

Gemcitabine is a principal chemotherapeutic agent for biliary tract cancer (BTC). Expression of human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hENT1) is regarded as a potential predictive biomarker for a gemcitabine response in some cancers. This study was conducted to investigate the association between hENT1 expression and the effects of gemcitabine on BTC cell lines and on patients with advanced BTC receiving gemcitabine-based chemotherapy. A total of four BTC cell lines, HuCCT1, SNU-478, SNU-1079, and SNU-1196, were tested. mRNA and protein expression levels of hENT1 were measured by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. Cell viability after gemcitabine treatment was measured in a chemosensitivity assay. For clinical assessment, 40 patients with unresectable or recurrent BTC who were treated with gemcitabine (1000 mg/m2) and cisplatin (25 mg/m2) between June 2012 and May 2014 were enrolled. Among the four cell lines, SNU1196 showed the highest mRNA and protein levels of hENT1. Expression of hENT1 showed a linear correlation with the log value of the half-maximal inhibitory concentration of gemcitabine. During incubation with gemcitabine, pretreatment with hENT1-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) resulted in higher cell viability than that in samples pretreated with control siRNA. In a clinical evaluation, the median progression-free survival was 24 and 11 weeks among patients with strong and weak intratumoral hENT1 immunohistochemical staining (P = 0.05), and the median overall survival was 52 and 26 weeks (P = 0.15), respectively. In conclusion, this study showed that increased hENT1 expression is associated with a stronger toxic effect of gemcitabine on BTC cell lines. The clinical outcomes in this study suggest that increased intratumoral hENT1 immunohistochemical staining is a possible biomarker predicting better therapeutic effects of gemcitabine on patients with advanced BTC. Further studies are needed to determine the precise role of hENT1 in BTC.

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<![CDATA[Prevalence of elevated microsatellite alterations at selected tetranucleotide repeats in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c141e95d5eed0c484d274a5

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) prognosis remains poor even after complete resection owing to no valuable biomarkers for recurrence and chemosensitivity. Tumors not expressing MSH3 show elevated microsatellite alterations at selected tetranucleotide repeats (EMAST). EMAST reportedly occurs in several tumors. In colorectal cancer (CRC), EMAST was reportedly correlated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) sensitivity. However, EMAST prevalence in PDAC and its significance as a prognostic biomarker are unknown. This study aimed to investigate EMAST prevalence in PDAC and the associations between EMAST and pathological factors, EMAST and prognosis, and EMAST and MSH3 expression via immunohistochemistry (IHC). We assessed 40 PDAC patients undergoing surgery. Genomic DNA was extracted from tumors and normal tissues. EMAST and microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) were analyzed using five polymorphic tetranucleotide markers and five mononucleotide markers, respectively. Tumor sections were stained for MSH3, and staining intensity was evaluated via the Histoscore (H-score). Eighteen of 40 (45%) PDAC patients were EMAST-positive; however, none were MSI-H-positive. Clinicopathological characteristics including overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were not significantly different between EMAST-positive and EMAST-negative patients (P = 0.45, 0.98 respectively). IHC was performed to evaluate MSH3 protein expression levels for the PDAC tissue specimens. H-scores of EMAST-positive patients ranged from 0 to 300 (median, 40) and those of EMAST-negative patients ranged from 0 to 300 (median, 170). MSH3 protein was not significantly downregulated in EMAST-positive patients (P = 0.07). This study is a preliminary study and the number of cases investigated was small, and thus, study of a larger cohort will reveal the clinical implication of EMAST.

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<![CDATA[GradientScanSurv—An exhaustive association test method for gene expression data with censored survival outcome]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c117b67d5eed0c4846990f6

Accurate assessment of the association between continuous variables such as gene expression and survival is a critical aspect of precision medicine. In this report, we provide a review of some of the available survival analysis and validation tools by referencing published studies that have utilized these tools. We have identified pitfalls associated with the assumptions inherent in those applications that have the potential to impact scientific research through their potential bias. In order to overcome these pitfalls, we have developed a novel method that enables the logrank test method to handle continuous variables that comprehensively evaluates survival association with derived aggregate statistics. This is accomplished by exhaustively considering all the cutpoints across the full expression gradient. Direct side-by-side comparisons, global ROC analysis, and evaluation of the ability to capture relevant biological themes based on current understanding of RAS biology all demonstrated that the new method shows better consistency between multiple datasets of the same disease, better reproducibility and robustness, and better detection power to uncover biological relevance within the selected datasets over the available survival analysis methods on univariate gene expression and penalized linear model-based methods.

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<![CDATA[Identification of miRNAs Potentially Involved in Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome: A Computational Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da7cab0ee8fa60b98b37

The pathogenesis of Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome (BOS), the main clinical phenotype of chronic lung allograft dysfunction, is poorly understood. Recent studies suggest that epigenetic regulation of microRNAs might play a role in its development. In this paper we present the application of a complex computational pipeline to perform enrichment analysis of miRNAs in pathways applied to the study of BOS. The analysis considered the full set of miRNAs annotated in miRBase (version 21), and applied a sequence of filtering approaches and statistical analyses to reduce this set and to score the candidate miRNAs according to their potential involvement in BOS development. Dysregulation of two of the selected candidate miRNAs–miR-34a and miR-21 –was clearly shown in in-situ hybridization (ISH) on five explanted human BOS lungs and on a rat model of acute and chronic lung rejection, thus definitely identifying miR-34a and miR-21 as pathogenic factors in BOS and confirming the effectiveness of the computational pipeline.

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<![CDATA[Generation and Characterisation of Novel Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Xenograft Models and Corresponding Primary Cell Lines]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dab3ab0ee8fa60bac2c3

Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is one of the most lethal cancer types, currently lacking efficient treatment. The heterogeneous nature of these tumours are poorly represented by the classical pancreatic cell lines, which have been through strong clonal selection in vitro, and are often derived from metastases. Here, we describe the establishment of novel pancreatic adenocarcinoma models, xenografts and corresponding in vitro cell lines, from primary pancreatic tumours. The morphology, differentiation grade and gene expression pattern of the xenografts resemble the original tumours well. The cell lines were analysed for colony forming capacity, tumourigenicity and expression of known cancer cell surface markers and cancer stem-like characteristics. These primary cell models will be valuable tools for biological and preclinical studies for this devastating disease.

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<![CDATA[Loss of BAP1 Expression Is Very Rare in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da29ab0ee8fa60b81e3f

Background

Pancreatic cancer is both common and highly lethal and therefore new biomarkers or potential targets for treatment are needed. Loss of BRCA associated protein-1 (BAP1) expression has been found in up to a quarter of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas. Given the close anatomical relationship between intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, we therefore sought to investigate the frequency of loss of BAP1 expression in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

Methods

The records of the department of Anatomical Pathology Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, Australia, were searched for cases of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma diagnosed between 1992 and 2014 with material available in archived formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue blocks. Immunohistochemistry for BAP1 was performed on tissue microarray sections and if staining was equivocal or negative it was confirmed on whole sections. Negative staining for BAP1 was defined as loss of expression in all neoplastic nuclei, with preserved expression in non-neoplastic cells which acted as an internal positive control.

Results

Loss of BAP1 expression was found in only 1 of 306 (0.33%) pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas. This case was confirmed to demonstrate diffuse loss of expression throughout all neoplastic cells in multiple blocks, consistent with BAP1 loss being an early clonal event. All other cases demonstrated positive expression of BAP1.

Conclusion

We conclude that, in contrast to intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, loss of expression of BAP1 occurs very rarely in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Therefore BAP1 inactivation is unlikely to be a frequent driver abnormality in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

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<![CDATA[Improved Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Diagnosis in Jaundiced and Non-Jaundiced Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Patients through the Combination of Routine Clinical Markers Associated to Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Pathophysiology]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dad8ab0ee8fa60bb8b64

Background

There is still no reliable biomarker for the diagnosis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Carbohydrate antigen 19–9 (CA 19–9) is a tumor marker only recommended for pancreatic adenocarcinoma follow-up. One of the clinical problems lies in distinguishing between this cancer and other benign pancreatic diseases such as chronic pancreatitis. In this study we will assess the value of panels of serum molecules related to pancreatic cancer physiopathology to determine whether alone or in combination could help to discriminate between these two pathologies.

Methods

CA 19–9, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), C-reactive protein, albumin, insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and IGF binding protein-3 were measured using routine clinical analyzers in a cohort of 47 pancreatic adenocarcinoma, 20 chronic pancreatitis and 15 healthy controls.

Results

The combination of CA 19–9, IGF-1 and albumin resulted in a combined area under the curve (AUC) of 0.959 with 93.6% sensitivity and 95% specificity, much higher than CA 19–9 alone. An algorithm was defined to classify the patients as chronic pancreatitis or pancreatic cancer with the above specificity and sensitivity. In an independent validation group of 20 pancreatic adenocarcinoma and 13 chronic pancreatitis patients, the combination of the four molecules classified correctly all pancreatic adenocarcinoma and 12 out of 13 chronic pancreatitis patients.

Conclusions

Although this panel of markers should be validated in larger cohorts, the high sensitivity and specificity values and the convenience to measure these parameters in clinical laboratories shows great promise for improving pancreatic adenocarcinoma diagnosis.

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<![CDATA[Low lamin A expression in lung adenocarcinoma cells from pleural effusions is a pejorative factor associated with high number of metastatic sites and poor Performance status]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5aafc016463d7e7cbd913598

The type V intermediate filament lamins are the principal components of the nuclear matrix, including the nuclear lamina. Lamins are divided into A-type and B-type, which are encoded by three genes, LMNA, LMNB1, and LMNB2. The alternative splicing of LMNA produces two major A-type lamins, lamin A and lamin C. Previous studies have suggested that lamins are involved in cancer development and progression. A-type lamins have been proposed as biomarkers for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and/or follow-up. The aim of the present study was to investigate lamins in cancer cells from metastatic pleural effusions using immunofluorescence, western blotting, and flow cytometry. In a sub-group of lung adenocarcinomas, we found reduced expression of lamin A but not of lamin C. The reduction in lamin A expression was correlated with the loss of epithelial membrane antigen (EMA)/MUC-1, an epithelial marker that is involved in the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Finally, the lamin A expression was inversely correlated with the number of metastatic sites and the WHO Performance status, and association of pleural, bone and lung metastatic localizations was more frequent when lamin A expression was reduced. In conclusion, low lamin A but not lamin C expression in pleural metastatic cells could represent a major actor in the development of metastasis, associated with EMT and could account for a pejorative factor correlated with a poor Performance status.

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