ResearchPad - adenomas https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Pathological and genetic aspects of spontaneous mammary gland tumor in <i>Tupaia belangeri</i> (tree shrew)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15738 Mammary gland cancer is the most common cancer occurring in women globally. Incidences of this cancer in Japan are on the increase. Annually, more than 70,000 new cases are recorded in Japan and about 1.7 million in the world. Many cases are still difficult to cure completely, and animal models are required for the characterization of the biology, therapeutic strategy, and preventive measures for spontaneous mammary tumor. The mouse model used currently has some limitations owing to structural differences between mouse and human mammary glands. Tupaia belangeri (tree shrew), which belongs to the Tupaiidae family, shows relatively high genetic homology and structural similarity to human mammary glands. Here, we characterized the spontaneous mammary tumors in 61 female tree shrews of different ages. The incidence rate was 24.6% (15/61), and the rate of simultaneous or metachronous multiplex tumors was 60% (9/15). From the incidence pattern, some cases seemed to be of familial mammary gland tumor, as the offspring of female tree shrews No. 3 and 9 and male tree shrew No. 11 showed a high incidence rate, of 73.3% (11/15). Average incidence age for tumor development was 2 years and 3 months, and the earliest was 10 months. Histochemical analysis indicated that spontaneous mammary gland tumors in the tree shrew show the features of intraductal papillary adenomas (22 cases), except 2 tubulopapillary carcinoma cases (No. 75 and 131). All the cases were positive for the progesterone receptor, whereas 91.3% were positive for the estrogen receptor, and 4.3% were HER-2 positive. We have also confirmed the expression of nectin-4 in some mammary tumor cells. Additionally, we subjected tree shrews to cytodiagnosis or X-ray CT. Thus, the findings of this study highlight the potential of the tree shrew as a valuable new animal model for mammary gland tumor study.

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<![CDATA[A new simple brain segmentation method for extracerebral intracranial tumors]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb837d809-9647-425d-8dfd-2c3174a6dd80

Normal brain segmentation is available via FreeSurfer, Vbm, and Ibaspm software. However, these software packages cannot perform segmentation of the brain for patients with brain tumors. As we know, damage from extracerebral tumors to the brain occurs mainly by way of pushing and compressing while leaving the structure of the brain intact. Three-dimensional (3D) imaging, augmented reality (AR), and virtual reality (VR) technology have begun to be applied in clinical practice. The free medical open-source software 3D Slicer allows us to perform 3D simulations on a computer and requires little user interaction. Moreover, 3D Slicer can integrate with the third-party software mentioned above. The relationship between the tumor and surrounding brain tissue can be judged, but accurate brain segmentation cannot be performed using 3D Slicer. In this study, we combine 3D Slicer and FreeSurfer to provide a novel brain segmentation method for extracerebral tumors. This method can help surgeons identify the “real” relationship between the lesion and adjacent brain tissue before surgery and improve preoperative planning.

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<![CDATA[Volatile organic compounds in breath can serve as a non-invasive diagnostic biomarker for the detection of advanced adenomas and colorectal cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N84e24de6-35b7-4bd5-b9b6-561f1beaf291

Summary

Background

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer diagnosis in the Western world.

Aim

To evaluate exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as a non‐invasive biomarker for the detection of CRC and precursor lesions using an electronic nose.

Methods

In this multicentre study adult colonoscopy patients, without inflammatory bowel disease or (previous) malignancy, were invited for breath analysis. Two‐thirds of the breath tests were randomly assigned to develop training models which were used to predict the diagnosis of the remaining patients (external validation). In the end, all data were used to develop final‐disease models to further improve the discriminatory power of the algorithms.

Results

Five hundred and eleven breath samples were collected. Sixty‐four patients were excluded due to an inadequate breath test (n = 51), incomplete colonoscopy (n = 8) or colitis (n = 5). Classification was based on the most advanced lesion found; CRC (n = 70), advanced adenomas (AAs) (n = 117), non‐advanced adenoma (n = 117), hyperplastic polyp (n = 15), normal colonoscopy (n = 125). Training models for CRC and AAs had an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.76 and 0.71 and blind validation resulted in an AUC of 0.74 and 0.61 respectively. Final models for CRC and AAs yielded an AUC of 0.84 (sensitivity 95% and specificity 64%) and 0.73 (sensitivity and specificity 79% and 59%) respectively.

Conclusions

This study suggests that exhaled VOCs could potentially serve as a non‐invasive biomarker for the detection of CRC and AAs. Future studies including more patients could further improve the discriminatory potential of VOC analysis for the detection of (pre‐)malignant colorectal lesions. (https://clinicaltrials.gov Identifier NCT03488537)

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<![CDATA[The usefulness of wire-guided endoscopic snare papillectomy for tumors of the major duodenal papilla]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5217dfd5eed0c484794a8a

Objectives

Although endoscopic papillectomy is useful for treating papillary tumors, it is associated with a high rate of complications including pancreatitis; therefore, safer treatment options are needed. We examined the utility of wire-guided endoscopic papillectomy by comparing the pancreatic duct stenting and pancreatitis rates before and after wire-guided endoscopic papillectomy was introduced at our institution.

Methods

We retrospectively examined the data from 16 consecutive patients who underwent conventional endoscopic papillectomy between November 1995 and July 2005 and the data from 33 patients in whom wire-guided endoscopic papillectomy was first attempted at our institution between August 2005 and April 2017. We compared the pancreatic duct stenting and pancreatitis rates between the two groups.

Results

Of the 33 patients in whom wire-guided endoscopic papillectomy was first attempted, the procedure was completed in 21. Pancreatic duct stenting was possible in 30 of the 33 patients in whom wire-guided endoscopic papillectomy was attempted (91%), and this rate was significantly higher than that before the introduction of wire-guided endoscopic papillectomy (68.8%). The incidence of pancreatitis before the introduction of wire-guided endoscopic papillectomy was 12.5%, but after August 2005, the incidence was reduced by half to 6.1%, which includes those patients in whom wire-guided endoscopic papillectomy could not be completed.

Conclusions

Although wire-guided endoscopic papillectomy cannot be completed in some patients, we believe that this method shows some potential for reducing the total incidence of post-endoscopic papillectomy pancreatitis owing to more successful pancreatic duct stenting.

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<![CDATA[Clinical significance of cancer specific methylation of the CDO1 gene in small bowel cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c536ba8d5eed0c484a48f2d

Although small bowel cancer (SBC) is extremely rare, its prognosis is poor, and molecular mechanism of the SBC development remains unclear. The aim of our study is to elucidate whether DNA methylation of the promoter region of the cancer-specific methylation gene, cysteine dioxygenase 1 (CDO1), contributes to the carcinogenic process in SBC. The study group comprised patients with 53 patients with SBC, 107 colorectal cancer (CRC), and other rare tumors of the small intestine such as 4 malignant lymphomas, 2 leiomyosarcomas, and 9 gastrointestinal stromal tumors. We analyzed the extent of methylation in each tissue using quantitative TaqMan methylation-specific PCR for CDO1. Significantly higher CDO1 methylation was observed in cancer tissues compared with non-cancerous mucosa of the small intestine (ROC = 0.96). Among the various clinicopathological factors, positive correlation of CDO1 methylation with tumor diameter was observed (R = 0.31, p = 0.03), and the CDO1 methylation level was a possible prognostic factor for relapse-free survival (p = 0.09). Compared with CRC, SBC had a significantly poorer prognosis (p = 0.007) and displayed a significantly higher CDO1 methylation level (p < 0.0001). Intriguingly, especially in pStage I/II, there were robust prognostic difference between SBC and CRC (p = 0.08 / p < 0.0001), which may reflect CDO1 methylation status (p = 0.02 / p = 0.001). Among small bowel tumors, CDO1 methylation in SBC was higher in order of malignant lymphoma, cancer, and leiomyosarcoma/GIST (p = 0.002) by ANOVA. The CDO1 gene shows extremely cancer-specific hypermethylation, and it can be a prognostic marker in SBC.

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<![CDATA[Family history–based colorectal cancer screening in Australia: A modelling study of the costs, benefits, and harms of different participation scenarios]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b8b29df40307c405292ca51

Background

The Australian National Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (NBCSP) was introduced in 2006. When fully implemented, the programme will invite people aged 50 to 74 to complete an immunochemical faecal occult blood test (iFOBT) every 2 years.

Methods and findings

To investigate colorectal cancer (CRC) screening occurring outside of the NBCSP, we classified participants (n = 2,480) in the Australasian Colorectal Cancer Family Registry (ACCFR) into 3 risk categories (average, moderately increased, and potentially high) based on CRC family history and assessed their screening practices according to national guidelines. We developed a microsimulation to compare hypothetical screening scenarios (70% and 100% uptake) to current participation levels (baseline) and evaluated clinical outcomes and cost for each risk category. The 2 main limitations of this study are as follows: first, the fact that our cost-effectiveness analysis was performed from a third-party payer perspective, which does not include indirect costs and results in overestimated cost-effectiveness ratios, and second, that our natural history model of CRC does not include polyp sojourn time, which determines the rate of cancerous transformation.

Screening uptake was low across all family history risk categories (64%–56% reported no screening). For participants at average risk, 18% reported overscreening, while 37% of those in the highest risk categories screened according to guidelines. Higher screening levels would substantially reduce CRC mortality across all risk categories (95 to 305 fewer deaths per 100,000 persons in the 70% scenario versus baseline). For those at average risk, a fully implemented NBCSP represented the most cost-effective approach to prevent CRC deaths (AUS$13,000–16,000 per quality-adjusted life year [QALY]). For those at moderately increased risk, higher adherence to recommended screening was also highly cost-effective (AUS$19,000–24,000 per QALY).

Conclusion

Investing in public health strategies to increase adherence to appropriate CRC screening will save lives and deliver high value for money.

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<![CDATA[Characterization of the fecal and mucosa-associated microbiota in dogs with colorectal epithelial tumors]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b28b376463d7e126303d29f

Colorectal epithelial tumors occur spontaneously in dogs, and the pathogenesis seems to parallel that of humans. The development of human colorectal tumorigenesis has been linked to alterations in the composition of the intestinal microbiota. This study characterized the fecal- and mucosa-associated microbiota in dogs with colorectal epithelial tumors (n = 10). The fecal microbiota was characterized by 16S rDNA analysis and compared with that of control dogs (n = 13). We also determined the mucosa-associated microbiota composition in colonic tumor tissue (n = 8) and in adjacent non-tumor tissue (n = 5) by 16S rDNA- and rRNA profiling. The fecal microbial community structure in dogs with tumors was different from that of control samples and was distinguished by oligotypes affiliated with Enterobacteriaceae, Bacteroides, Helicobacter, Porphyromonas, Peptostreptococcus and Streptococcus, and lower abundance of Ruminococcaceae, Slackia, Clostridium XI and Faecalibacterium. The overall community structure and populations of mucosal bacteria were not different based on either the 16S rDNA or the 16S rRNA profile in tumor tissue vs. adjacent non-tumor tissue. However, the proportion of live, potentially active bacteria appeared to be higher in non-tumor tissue compared with tumor tissue and included Slackia, Roseburia, unclass. Ruminococcaeceae, unclass. Lachnospiraceae and Oscillibacter. Colorectal tumors are rarely diagnosed in dogs, but despite this limitation, we were able to show that dogs with colorectal tumors have distinct fecal microbiota profiles. These initial results support the need for future case-control studies that are adequately powered, as well as age-matched and breed-matched, in order to evaluate the influence of bacteria on colorectal cancer etiopathogenesis and to determine whether the bacteria may have potential as biomarkers in clinical settings.

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<![CDATA[The association between cholecystectomy and colorectal neoplasm in inflammatory bowel diseases: A population-based cohort study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5cab0ee8fa60be0079

Background & aims

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and cholecystectomy are associated with the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Our aim was to determine the association between cholecystectomy and the CRC risk in IBD.

Methods

We first obtained the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHRID), which contains information on approximately 24.7 million insured individuals. A cohort study was conducted using the data from the NHIRD, and included cohort patients with IBD who had experienced a cholecystectomy between the years 1998 and 2010. The non-cholecystectomy cohort comprised the remaining IBD patients who had not undergone a cholecystectomy. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to determine the effects cholecystectomy have on the risks of developing CRC, as shown by Hazard Ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

Results

The incidence rate of CRC among IBD patients who had undergone a cholecystectomy (n = 525) was 1.75 per 1,000 person-years, compared to 1.41 per 1,000 person-years among IBD patients who had not had a cholecystectomy (n = 525). The adjusted HRs for CRC was found to be 0.76 (95% CI 0.25–2.32) for IBD patients having received a cholecystectomy, after adjusting for age, gender, and comorbidities. By type of IBD, neither ulcerative colitis nor Crohn’s diseases are associated with CRC after a cholecystectomy adjusted HR (2.78 [95% CI 0.54–14.3]) and (0.13 [95% CI 0.01–1.49]).

Conclusion

In Taiwan, cholecystectomies are not associated with a risk of CRC in patients with IBD.

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<![CDATA[Modeling and Control of Colorectal Cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daedab0ee8fa60bbfeee

Colorectal Cancer (CRC) is becoming a major threat to people’s life in China. Screening methods adopted by many other countries as effective counter-cancer methods have not been explicitly explored for people there. Thus, we present a Markov model with detailed precancerous adenoma states and then evaluate various screening strategies in this paper. Different from current researches, our model considers the population’s heterogeneous risk of developing adenomas and observation-based screening strategies. Furthermore, we also give a new cost-effectiveness metric. After calibrating, the model is simulated using the Monte Carlo method. Numerical results show that there are threshold values of compliance rates below which strategy with every ten-year colonoscopy becomes the most cost-effective method; otherwise, an observation-based screening strategy is the most cost-effective. We also find that strategy with single colonoscopy for adenoma-free individuals and every three-year colonoscopy for those with adenoma is recommended when the observation-based strategy is not considered. Our findings give an explicit and complete instruction in CRC screening protocol in average-risk Chinese.

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<![CDATA[Carbenoxolone Disodium Treatment for Canine Pituitary-Dependent Hyperadrenocorticism]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da07ab0ee8fa60b762b0

Pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) is mainly caused by pituitary corticotroph tumors in dogs. A characteristic feature of corticotroph tumors is their resistance to negative feedback by glucocorticoids. In some animal species, including dogs, the aberrant expression of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11HSD), a cortisol metabolic enzyme, is observed in corticotroph tumors. We previously reported that carbenoxolone (CBX), an inhibitor of 11HSD, suppressed ACTH secretion from the pituitary gland, and decreased cortisol concentrations in healthy dogs. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of CBX on dogs with PDH. Six dogs with PDH were treated with 60 to 80 mg/kg/day of CBX for 6 weeks, followed by trilostane, which is a commonly used agent for canine PDH. CBX treatment led to a gradual decrease in both basal and in corticotropic releasing hormone (CRH)-stimulated plasma ACTH concentrations and CRH-stimulated serum cortisol concentrations, without side effects. However, basal and stimulated ACTH and cortisol concentrations remained higher than those of healthy dogs, and clinical symptoms such as polydipsia and polyuria were not ameliorated. After a 2-week wash-out interval, trilostane was administered for 2 weeks. Although basal plasma ACTH concentrations were higher after trilostane treatment than CBX treatment, polydipsia and polyuria resolved in all six dogs. The reason for the lack of improvement in polydipsia and polyuria with CBX treatment is unclear. Other mechanisms, in addition to a partial decrease in ACTH secretion, are likely to be involved. In conclusion, this is the first study to report the in vivo effects of CBX in dogs with PDH. The findings suggest that CBX inhibits ACTH secretion from canine pituitary tumors, resulting in lower cortisol concentrations.

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<![CDATA[Metabolically-healthy obesity is associated with higher prevalence of colorectal adenoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5fab0ee8fa60be115f

Background

The risk of colorectal adenoma (CRA), an important precursor of colorectal cancer, is largely unknown among obese individuals without obesity-related metabolic abnormalities, a condition described as metabolically-healthy obese (MHO). The aim of this study was to examine the association among metabolic status, the different categories of body mass index (BMI), and CRA in a large cohort of adults.

Methods

We analyzed the association among metabolic status, BMI categories and CRA in asymptomatic adults who underwent a first-time colonoscopy as part of the comprehensive health check-up program at the Health Promotion Center of Samsung Medical Center, from January 2005 to December 2012. Being metabolically healthy was defined as lacking any metabolic syndrome components and having a homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance <2.5.

Results

The prevalence of “any,” “multiple,” and “high-risk” CRA was 25.6%, 8.3%, and 4.4% among 9,182 metabolically-healthy participants, and 35.9%, 12.5%, and 7.0% among 17,407 metabolically-unhealthy participants, respectively. Increased BMI showed a significant dose-dependent relationship with the prevalence of “any,” “multiple,” and “high-risk” CRA, in both metabolically-healthy and unhealthy participants. In multivariable-adjusted models that accounted for potential confounders including age, sex, smoking, alcohol, first-degree family history of colorectal cancer, and aspirin use, the odds ratio (OR) for any CRA comparing MHO with metabolically-healthy normal-weight (MHNW) participants was 1.25 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09–1.43). Further adjustment for metabolic components associated with obesity did not significantly change the association. Similarly, the ORs for multiple CRAs and high risk CRA were higher in MHO participants than MHNW participants [ORs (95% CI), 1.63 (1.31–2.04) and 1.53 (1.14–2.04), respectively].

Conclusions

The MHO phenotype was closely associated with higher prevalence of CRA, including high-risk adenoma. This finding supports the conclusion that MHO increases the risk of colorectal cancer.

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<![CDATA[Overinterpretation is common in pathological diagnosis of appendix cancer during patient referral for oncologic care]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5dab0ee8fa60be0446

Context

Low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm (LAMN) and appendiceal adenocarcinoma are known to cause the majority of pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP, i.e. mucinous ascites); however, recognition and proper classification of these neoplasms can be difficult despite established diagnostic criteria.

Objective

To determine the pathological diagnostic concordance for appendix neoplasia and related lesions during patient referral to an academic medical center specialized in treating patients with PMP.

Design

The anatomic pathology laboratory information system was searched to identify cases over a two-year period containing appendix specimens with mucinous neoplasia evaluated by an outside pathology group and by in-house slide review at a single large academic medical center during patient referral.

Results

161 cases containing appendix specimens were identified over this period. Forty-six of 161 cases (28.6%) contained appendiceal primary neoplasia or lesions. Of these, the originating pathologist diagnosed 23 cases (50%) as adenocarcinoma and 23 cases (50%) as LAMN; however, the reference pathologist diagnosed 29 cases (63.0%) as LAMN, 13 cases (28.3%) as adenocarcinoma, and 4 cases (8.7%) as ruptured simple mucocele. Importantly, for cases in which the originating pathologist rendered a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma, the reference pathologist rendered a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma (56.5%, 13 of 23), LAMN (39.1%, 9 of 23), or simple mucocele (4.3%, 1 of 23). The overall diagnostic concordance rate for these major classifications was 71.7% (33 of 46) with an unweighted observed kappa value of 0.48 (95% CI, 0.27–0.69), consistent with moderate interobserver agreement. All of the observed discordance (28.3%) for major classifications could be attributed to over-interpretation. In addition, the majority of LAMN cases (65.5%) had potential diagnostic deficiencies including over-interpretation as adenocarcinoma and lacking or discordant risk stratification (i.e. documentation of extra-appendiceal neoplastic epithelium).

Conclusions

Appendiceal mucinous lesions remain a difficult area for appropriate pathological classification with substantial discordance due to over-interpretation in this study. The findings highlight the critical need for recognition and application of diagnostic criteria regarding these tumors. Recently published consensus guidelines and a checklist provided herein may help facilitate improvement of diagnostic concordance and thereby reduce over-interpretation and potential overtreatment. Further studies are needed to determine the extent of this phenomenon and its potential clinical impact.

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<![CDATA[Alcohol Consumption-Related Metabolites in Relation to Colorectal Cancer and Adenoma: Two Case-Control Studies Using Serum Biomarkers]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da3bab0ee8fa60b87e57

Alcohol is a known carcinogen that may be associated with colorectal cancer. However, most epidemiologic studies assess alcoholic beverage consumption using self-reported data, leading to potential exposure misclassification. Biomarkers of alcohol consumption may provide an alternative, complementary approach that reduces misclassification and incorporates individual differences in alcohol metabolism. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between previously identified alcohol consumption-related metabolites and colorectal cancer and adenoma using serum metabolomics data from two studies. Data on colorectal cancer were obtained from a nested case-control study of 502 US adults (252 cases, 250 controls) within the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Data on colorectal adenoma were obtained from a case-control study of 197 US adults (120 cases, 77 controls) from the Navy Colon Adenoma Study. Unconditional multivariable logistic regression models were fit to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for eight alcohol consumption-related metabolites identified in a previous analysis: ethyl glucuronide; 4-androstene-3beta,17beta-diol disulfate 1; 5-alpha-androstan-3beta,17beta-diol disulfate; 16-hydroxypalmitate; bilirubin (E,Z or Z,E); cyclo (-leu-pro); dihomo-linoleate (20:2n6); and palmitoleate (16:1n7). We found no clear association between these alcohol consumption-related metabolites and either endpoint. However, we did observe an inverse association between cyclo (-leu-pro) and colorectal adenoma that was only observed in the highest metabolite quantile (OR 4th vs. 1st Quantile = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.12–0.78; P-trend = 0.047), but no association for colorectal cancer. In conclusion, there were no adverse associations between alcohol consumption-related metabolites and colorectal cancer or adenoma.

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<![CDATA[Identification of Aging-Associated Gene Expression Signatures That Precede Intestinal Tumorigenesis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da41ab0ee8fa60b89f9a

Aging-associated alterations of cellular functions have been implicated in various disorders including cancers. Due to difficulties in identifying aging cells in living tissues, most studies have focused on aging-associated changes in whole tissues or certain cell pools. Thus, it remains unclear what kinds of alterations accumulate in each cell during aging. While analyzing several mouse lines expressing fluorescent proteins (FPs), we found that expression of FPs is gradually silenced in the intestinal epithelium during aging in units of single crypt composed of clonal stem cell progeny. The cells with low FP expression retained the wild-type Apc allele and the tissues composed of them did not exhibit any histological abnormality. Notably, the silencing of FPs was also observed in intestinal adenomas and the surrounding normal mucosae of Apc-mutant mice, and mediated by DNA methylation of the upstream promoter. Our genome-wide analysis then showed that the silencing of FPs reflects specific gene expression alterations during aging, and that these alterations occur in not only mouse adenomas but also human sporadic and hereditary (familial adenomatous polyposis) adenomas. Importantly, pharmacological inhibition of DNA methylation, which suppresses adenoma development in Apc-mutant mice, reverted the aging-associated silencing of FPs and gene expression alterations. These results identify aging-associated gene expression signatures that are heterogeneously induced by DNA methylation and precede intestinal tumorigenesis triggered by Apc inactivation, and suggest that pharmacological inhibition of the signature genes could be a novel strategy for the prevention and treatment of intestinal tumors.

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<![CDATA[Polyp detection rate in transverse and sigmoid colon significantly increases with longer withdrawal time during screening colonoscopy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdbf45

Background

The guidelines for colonoscopy present withdrawal time (WT) and adenoma detection rate (ADR) as the quality indicator. The purpose of this retrospective study is to analyze the predicting factors with polyp detection rate (PDR) as a surrogate for ADR by using comprehensive health checkup data, and assess the correlation between PDR per each colonic segment and WT, and factors influencing WT.

Methods

One thousand and thirty six consecutive health checkup cases from April 2015 to March 2016 were enrolled in this study, and 880 subjects who undertook colonoscopy without polyp removal or biopsy were divided into the two groups (polyp not detected group vs polyp detected group). The two groups were compared by subjects and clinical characteristics with univariate analysis followed by multivariate analysis. Colonoscopies with longer WT (≥ 6 min) and those with shorter WT (< 6 min) were compared by PDR per each colonic segment, and also by subjects and clinical characteristics.

Results

A total of 1009 subjects included two incomplete colonoscopies (CIR, 99.9%) and overall PDR was 35.8%. A multiple logistic regression model demonstrated that age, gender, and WT were significantly related factors for polyp detection (odds ratio, 1.036; 1.771; 1.217). PDR showed a linear increase as WT increased from 3 min to 9 min (r = 0.989, p = 0.000) and PDR with long WT group was higher than that with short WT group per each colonic segment, significantly in transverse (2.3 times, p = 0.004) and sigmoid colon (2.1 times, p = 0.001). Not only bowel preparation quality but also insertion difficulty evaluated by endoscopist were significant factors relating with WT (odds ratio, 3.811; 1.679).

Conclusion

This study suggests that endoscopists should be recommended to take more time up to 9 min of WT to observe transverse and sigmoid colon, especially when they feel no difficulty during scope insertion.

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<![CDATA[Analysis of BCLI, N363S and ER22/23EK Polymorphisms of the Glucocorticoid Receptor Gene in Adrenal Incidentalomas]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db3fab0ee8fa60bd6132

Context

Patients with adrenal incidentalomas (AI) may experience detrimental consequences due to a minimal cortisol excess sustained by adrenal adenoma. SNPs of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) modulate individual sensitivity to glucocorticoids and may interfere with the clinical presentation.

Objective

To compare the frequency of N363S, ER22/23EK and BclI SNPs in patients with AI with the general population and to evaluate whether these SNPs are linked to consequences of cortisol excess.

Setting

Multicentric, retrospective analysis of patients referred from 2010 to 2014 to 4 centers (Orbassano, Milano, Messina [Italy] and Zagreb [Croatia]).

Patients

411 patients with AI; 153 males and 258 females and 186 from blood donors.

Main outcomes measures

All patients and controls were genotyped for BclI, N363S and ER22/23EK and SNPs frequency was associated with clinical and hormonal features.

Results

SNP frequency was: SNP frequency was: N363S 5.4% (MAF 0.027), BclI 54.7% (MAF 0.328), ER22/23EK 4.4% (MAF 0.022), without any significant difference between patients and controls. N363S was more frequent in hypertensive patients (p = 0.03) and was associated with hypertension (p = 0.015) in patients with suppressed cortisol after the 1-mg DST.

Conclusions

Our results demonstrate that SNPs of the glucocorticoid receptor gene do not play a pathogenetic role for AI. The impact of any single SNP on the phenotypic expression of minimal cortisol excess is limited and their analysis does not provide additional data that may be exploited for patient management.

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<![CDATA[Clinical implications of pre-existing adenoma in endoscopically resected early gastric cancers]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5cab0ee8fa60be0052

Background

Although gastric adenoma is widely accepted as a precursor of gastric cancer, pre-existing adenoma is not always detected in gastric cancer patients.

Objective

To investigate the clinical characteristics of early gastric cancer (EGC) arising from adenoma, compared with those of EGC without pre-existing adenoma.

Methods

Patients who underwent endoscopic resection for EGC at a single tertiary hospital were divided into two groups based on the presence (ex-adenoma group) or absence (de novo group) of pre-existing adenoma on pathologic specimens. Clinicopathologic characteristics, endoscopic features and long-term outcomes were analyzed.

Results

Of 1,509 patients, 236 (15.6%) were included in the ex-adenoma group. Mean age (P = 0.003) and Helicobacter pylori infection rate (P = 0.040) were significantly higher in the ex-adenoma than in the de novo group. Mean endoscopic size was significantly larger, elevated lesions were more prevalent (both P < 0.001), and carcinomas were more differentiated in the ex-adenoma group than in the de novo group (P = 0.037). The degree of atrophy (P = 0.025) or intestinal metaplasia (P < 0.001) was more advanced in the ex-adenoma group. Synchronous gastric neoplasia was significantly more prevalent in the ex-adenoma group (P < 0.001), whereas metachronous cancer recurrence rate was not significantly different between the two groups.

Conclusions

EGCs with pre-existing adenoma show a greater association with H. pylori–related chronic inflammation than those without, which could explain the differences in the characteristics between groups. Potential differences in carcinogenic mechanisms between the groups were explored.

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<![CDATA[Harms, benefits and costs of fecal immunochemical testing versus guaiac fecal occult blood testing for colorectal cancer screening]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db52ab0ee8fa60bdc7f9

Background

The ColonCancerCheck screening program for colorectal cancer (CRC) in Ontario, Canada, is considering switching from biennial guaiac fecal occult blood test (gFOBT) screening between age 50–74 years to the more sensitive, but also less specific fecal immunochemical test (FIT). The aim of this study is to estimate whether the additional benefits of FIT screening compared to gFOBT outweigh the additional costs and harms.

Methods

We used microsimulation modeling to estimate quality adjusted life years (QALYs) gained and costs of gFOBT and FIT, compared to no screening, in a cohort of screening participants. We compared strategies with various age ranges, screening intervals, and cut-off levels for FIT. Cost-efficient strategies were determined for various levels of available colonoscopy capacity.

Results

Compared to no screening, biennial gFOBT screening between age 50–74 years provided 20 QALYs at a cost of CAN$200,900 per 1,000 participants, and required 17 colonoscopies per 1,000 participants per year. FIT screening was more effective and less costly. For the same level of colonoscopy requirement, biennial FIT (with a high cut-off level of 200 ng Hb/ml) between age 50–74 years provided 11 extra QALYs gained while saving CAN$333,300 per 1000 participants, compared to gFOBT. Without restrictions in colonoscopy capacity, FIT (with a low cut-off level of 50 ng Hb/ml) every year between age 45–80 years was the most cost-effective strategy providing 27 extra QALYs gained per 1000 participants, while saving CAN$448,300.

Interpretation

Compared to gFOBT screening, switching to FIT at a high cut-off level could increase the health benefits of a CRC screening program without considerably increasing colonoscopy demand.

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<![CDATA[Lumican and versican protein expression are associated with colorectal adenoma-to-carcinoma progression]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5aab0ee8fa60bdf62d

Background

One prominent event associated with colorectal adenoma-to-carcinoma progression is genomic instability. Approximately 85% of colorectal cancer cases exhibit chromosomal instability characterized by accumulation of chromosome copy number aberrations (CNAs). Adenomas with gain of chromosome 8q, 13q, and/or 20q are at high risk of progression to cancer. Tumor progression is also associated with expansion of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and the activation of non-malignant cells within the tumor stroma. The glycoproteins versican and lumican are overexpressed at the mRNA level in colon carcinomas compared to adenomas, and are associated with the formation of tumor stroma.

Purpose

The aim of this study was to characterize versican and lumican protein expression in tumor progression and investigate their association with CNAs commonly associated with adenoma-to-carcinoma progression.

Methods

Tissue microarrays were constructed with colon adenomas and carcinomas that were characterized for MSI-status and DNA copy number gains of chromosomes 8q, 13q and 20q. Sections were immunohistochemically stained for lumican and versican. Protein expression levels were evaluated using digitized slides, and scores were finally dichotomized into a positive or negative score per sample.

Results

Lumican and versican expression were both observed in neoplastic cells and in the tumor stroma of colon adenomas and carcinomas. Lumican expression was more frequently present in epithelial cells of carcinomas than adenomas (49% versus 18%; P = 0.0001) and in high-risk adenomas and carcinomas combined compared to low-risk adenomas (43% versus 16%; P = 0.005). Versican staining in the tumor stroma was more often present in high-risk adenomas combined with carcinomas compared to low-risk adenomas (57% versus 36%; P = 0.03) and was associated with the presence of gain of 13q (71% versus 44%; P = 0.04).

Conclusion

Epithelial lumican and stromal versican protein expression are increased during colorectal adenoma-to-carcinoma progression.

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<![CDATA[Mononostril versus Binostril Endoscopic Transsphenoidal Approach for Pituitary Adenomas: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daa4ab0ee8fa60ba7073

Background

Over the past several decades, the endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach (EETA) has gradually become a preferred option of pituitary adenomas surgery because of its minimal invasiveness and high efficiency. However, some EETA operations were performed through one nostril (mononostril), while other EETA operations were performed through both nostrils (binostril). Therefore, we conducted this study to compare the pros and cons of these two methods in an attempted to confirm which method is more effective.

Methods

We executed a systematic literature search of PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and the Web of Science and Medline (1992–2015). The language is limited to English and all studies should meet the inclusion criteria. Comparisons were made for postoperative outcomes, complications, and other relevant parameters between the mononostril and the binostril group. Statistical analyses of categorical variables were undertaken by the use of Stata 12.0 and SPASS 19.0.

Results

Thirty studies, involving 4805 patients, were included. The two groups had similar results in GTR rate (included GTR rate of macroadenomas), hormonal remission rate, improvement in visual function, postoperative CSF leak, permanent diabetes insipidus, meningitis, and sinusitis. The binostril group had less temporary diabetes insipidus (2.9% vs. 5.3%, p = 0.022), less anterior pituitary insufficiency (2.3% vs. 6.4%, p = 0.000) and few hospitalization days (3.2 days vs. 4.4 days, p<0.05) than the mononostril group. However, the mononostril group had less rate of epistaxis (0.4% vs. 1.5%, p = 0.008) than the binostril group. For invasive macroadenomas, the binostril group seem to demonstrate a tendency towards better outcomes though there was no subgroup analysis between the two groups.

Conclusion

The binostril approach had less temporary diabetes insipidus, anterior pituitary insufficiency, and a shorter length of hospital stay, although they demonstrated a higher rate of epistaxis than the mononstril group. Additionally, the binostril group seemed to suggest a tendency towards better outcomes for invasive macroadenomas.

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