ResearchPad - adipokines https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[A grape seed extract maternal dietary supplementation improves egg quality and reduces ovarian steroidogenesis without affecting fertility parameters in reproductive hens]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14599 In broiler hens, the genetic selection increased susceptibility to metabolic disorders and reproductive dysfunctions. In human ovarian cells, grape seed extracts (GSE) improved steroid production. Here, we investigated the effects of a GSE dietary supplementation on egg production and quality, fertility parameters, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and steroid content in yolk egg associated to plasma adipokines in broiler hens. For this, we designed two in vivo experiments, the first one included three groups of hens: A (control), B and C (supplemented with GSE at 0.5% and 1% of the total diet composition, respectively, since week 4), and the second one used two groups of hens: A (control) and D (supplemented with GSE at 1% of the total diet composition since hatching). We assessed the egg production from 23th to 40th weeks and quality at 33th week. After artificial inseminations, the fertility parameters were calculated. In egg yolk, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) level and steroid production were evaluated by Ros-Glo H202 and ELISA assay, respectively. Expression of steroidogenic enzymes and adipokines and their receptors was determined by RT-qPCR in ovarian cells and plasma adipokines (RARRES2, ADIPOQ and NAMPT) were evaluated by specific ELISA assays. The fertility parameters and egg production were unaffected by GSE supplementation whatever the experiment (exp.). However, the rate of double-yolk eggs decreased for all GSE supplemented groups (exp. 1 P <0.01, exp.2, P<0.02). In exp.1, C group eggs were bigger and larger (P<0.0001) and the shell elasticity was higher for both B and C (P<0.0003) as compared to control. In the egg yolk, GSE supplementation in both exp. reduced ROS content and steroidogenesis consistent with a decrease in P450 aromatase and StAR mRNA expression and basal in vitro progesterone secretion in granulosa cells (P<0.001). Interestingly, in both exp. RARRES2 plasma levels were positively correlated while ADIPOQ and NAMPT plasma levels were negatively correlated, with steroids and ROS in yolk (P<0.0001). Taken together, maternal dietary GSE supplementation did not affect egg production and fertility parameters whereas it reduced ROS content and steroidogenesis in yolk egg. Furthermore, it ameliorated egg quality by decreasing the number of double-yolk eggs and by improving the size of normal eggs and the elasticity of the shell. Taken together, our data suggest the possibility of using dietary maternal GSE to improve egg quality.

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<![CDATA[The serum level of a novel lipogenic protein Spot 14 was reduced in metabolic syndrome]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6f14f9d5eed0c48467abe8

Spot 14 (S14) protein is primarily expressed in adipogenic tissues. Compared to wild type, S14 knockout mice had better resistance to diet-induced obesity and glucose tolerance. However, the association between serum S14 level and metabolic variables in humans has never been investigated. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the associations between serum S14 concentrations with components of metabolic syndrome (MetS). A total of 327 subjects were recruited in this cross-sectional study and categorized by presence of MetS. The mean serum levels of S14 were significantly lower in subjects with MetS than those without (87.1±26.3 μg/L vs. 107.3±40.2 μg/L, p<0.001). In addition, the subjects with central obesity, low high density lipoprotein-C (HDL-C) or hypertriglyceridemia also had significantly lower S14 levels in comparison to those without. Adjusted with age and sex, diagnosis of MetS (β = -0.227, p<0.001), central obesity (β = -0.176, p = 0.001), low HDL-C (β = -0.149, p = 0.005), and high triglyceride (TG) (β = -0.198, p<0.001) were negatively associated with log transformation of serum S14 levels (logS14). With 25% logS14 increased, the risk of MetS (OR 0.65, 95% CI, 0.51–0.82, p<0.001), central obesity (OR 0.72, 95% CI, 0.58–0.89, p = 0.002), low HDL-C (OR 0.76, 95% CI, 0.61–0.95, p = 0.015) or high TG (OR 0.65, 95% CI, 0.51–0.83, p = 0.001) was reduced with a dose response trend. Our analysis revealed that patients with MetS had lower serum S14 levels than those without. Negative associations existed between MetS, central obesity, high TG, low HDL-C and logS14.

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<![CDATA[Fat cells gobbling up norepinephrine?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c65dcd9d5eed0c484dec37d

The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) controls key aspects of adipose tissue (AT) function through the release of norepinephrine (NE) and beta adrenergic signaling. Sympathetic tone is determined by NE release but also by the rate of extracellular NE clearance that historically has been believed to occur solely through solute carrier family 6 member 2 (SLC6A2) expressed on sympathetic neurons. Song and colleagues show that adipocytes can also clear NE through organic cation transporter 3 (Oct3). This contributes to our understanding of how adrenergic signaling is controlled in AT and also emphasizes the need to develop better methods to assess adrenergic signaling in vivo.

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<![CDATA[Body composition and adipokines changes after initial treatment with darunavir-ritonavir plus either raltegravir or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-emtricitabine: A substudy of the NEAT001/ANRS143 randomised trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c58d657d5eed0c484031c10

Background

Comparison of changes in body composition, adipokines and inflammatory markers after initial therapy with a nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (N(t)RTI)- sparing or containing regimen are scarce.

Design

Randomised Clinical Trial.

Methods

This is the body composition substudy of NEAT 001/ANRS 143, a randomised trial comparing darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r) plus either raltegravir (RAL) or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) in 805 ART naïve HIV-infected adults. The primary endpoint was percentage change in limb fat at week 96. Secondary endpoints were associations among these changes and metabolic markers (IL-6, insulin, leptin, adiponectin, FGF-23).

Results

126 subjects (61 DRV/r + RAL and 65 DRV/r + TDF/FTC) were included. The rate of change in BMI between groups for RAL versus TDF/FTC at week 96 was 1.5% per 48-week period (p = 0.015). The rate of change in limb fat mass, trunk fat mass, total body fat and total lean mass was for RAL versus TDF/FTC at week 96 was 2.5% (p = 0.38), 7.3% ((p = 0.021), 4.9% (p = 0.061) and 1.3% (p = 0.12) respectively. Baseline insulin and leptin levels were correlated with baseline limb fat and trunk fat mass [r = 0.31 (p = 0.0043)/r = 0.28 (p = 0.0011) for limb fat, and r = 0.63 (p<0.0001)/r = 0.50(p<0.0001) for trunk fat]. After adjustment, a 10% faster increase in leptin between baseline and week 48 was associated with a more rapid increase in limb fat at week 48 (0.5% per 48 weeks, p<0.001), total body fat mass (0.6% per 48 weeks, p<0.001), and trunk fat mass (0.3% per 48 weeks, p = 0.0026).

Conclusions

After week 96 a N(t)RTI sparing regimen of DRV/r + RAL produced a numerically greater percentage increase in body composition variables with only change in trunk fat mass and BMI being significant.

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<![CDATA[Dyslipidemia, subclinical inflammation, hepatic cholestasis and endothelial dysfunction in schoolchildren with excess fat: A study from the United Arab Emirates]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3fa58bd5eed0c484ca59b8

Background

The impact of obesity on cardiovascular health of young children is still to be fully illustrated. This study measured biomarkers for glycemic control, lipid metabolism, systemic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and hepatic cholestasis in schoolchildren. Its main purpose was to determine whether metabolic derangements could be detected in young children with excess fat.

Method

This cross-sectional study involved 967 children in the second, sixth, and tenth grades (median age, 7.3, 11.3, and 15.4 years, respectively). Using the International Obesity Task Force interpretation (IOTF) of body-mass-index (BMI), children were stratified as thin (<5th centiles), normal (5th to <85th centiles), overweight (85th to <95th centiles), obese (95th to <98th centiles), or extremely-obese (≥98th centiles). Waist circumference was also measured. Several metabolic determinations were then used as surrogate biomarkers for cardiovascular risks.

Results

Prevalence of BMI≥85th centile among the second graders was 13.1%, sixth graders 42.2%, and tenth graders 33.8%. BMI≥85th centile was associated with a tendency for higher hemoglobin A1c (p≥0.160) and higher blood glucose (p≥0.197). For the second graders, BMI≥85th centile was associated with higher high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, p<0.001), higher tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-alpha, p<0.001), higher interleukin-6 (IL-6, p<0.001), higher soluble intercellular cytoadhesive molecule-1 (sICAM-1), higher triglycerides (p≤0.024), and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL, p<0.001). Additionally, for the sixth and tenth graders, BMI≥85th centile was associated with higher gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT, p<0.001). In the sixth graders, BMI≥85th centile was insignificantly changed with sICAM-1 or the soluble vascular cytoadhesive molecule-1 (sVCAM-1).

Conclusions

The studied children with excess fat had increased risks for developing systemic inflammation, dyslipidemia, endothelial dysfunction, cholestasis, and diabetes. These results suggest that metabolic biomarkers should be included in the routine assessment of children with an overweight problem.

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<![CDATA[Lower circulating levels of CTRP12 and CTRP13 in polycystic ovarian syndrome: Irrespective of obesity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1ab85fd5eed0c484027c9a

Altered production of adipokines is suggested to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). C1q/TNF-related proteins (CTRPs) play diverse roles in regulation of metabolism in physiologic and pathologic conditions. In the present study, we assessed serum concentrations of adiponectin, CTRP12, and CTRP13 in individuals with PCOS and those without PCOS. We also evaluated the possible association of these adipokines with metabolic and hormonal variables. A total of 171 premenopausal women (86 with PCOS and 85 without PCOS) enrolled in this study. Serum levels of adiponectin, CTRP12, and CTRP13 were measured. The results showed significantly lower serum concentrations of adiponectin, CTRP12, and CTRP13 in PCOS women compared to non-PCOS women. This difference remained significant after controlling for age, body mass index (BMI), and Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR). However, we did not observe any significant differences in serum levels of adiponectin, CTRP12, and CTRP13 between the overweight/obese and normal weight subgroups in PCOS and non-PCOS women. Multiple linear regression analysis showed associations of CTRP12 with adiponectin and BMI with CTRP13 in both the PCOS and non-PCOS groups. CTRP12 was significantly associated with BMI and adiponectin in the non-PCOS group, and fasting blood glucose (FBG) and CTRP13 in the PCOS group. Our results indicated that decreased adiponectin, CTRP12, and CTRP13 levels, regardless of obesity, could independently predict PCOS. This finding suggested a novel link between adipokines and PCOS.

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<![CDATA[High plasma resistin associates with severe acute kidney injury in Puumala hantavirus infection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c117be6d5eed0c48469ad64

Background

Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) infected patients typically suffer from acute kidney injury (AKI). Adipokines have inflammation modulating functions in acute diseases including AKI. We examined plasma levels of three adipokines (resistin, leptin, and adiponectin) in acute PUUV infection and their associations with disease severity.

Methods

This study included 79 patients hospitalized due to acute PUUV infection. Plasma resistin, leptin, adiponectin, as well as IL-6 and CRP, were measured at the acute phase, recovery phase and one year after hospitalization.

Results

Plasma resistin levels were significantly higher in the acute phase compared to the recovery phase and one year after (median resistin 28 pg/mL (11–107) vs. 17 pg/mL (7–36) vs. 14 pg/mL (7–31), p<0.001). Maximum resistin concentration correlated with maximum plasma creatinine levels (r = 0.63; p<0.001). The higher the amount of albuminuria in the urine dipstick test (0–1+, 2+ or 3+) at admission, the higher the median of maximum resistin (24.7 pg/mL, 25.4 pg/mL and 39.6 pg/mL, respectively, p = 0.002). High resistin was also an independent risk factor for severe AKI (creatinine ≥353.6μmol/L) (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.02–1.14). Neither plasma leptin nor adiponectin level had any correlation with creatinine concentration or the amount of albuminuria.

Conclusions

Plasma resistin independently associates with the severity of AKI in acute PUUV infection. The association of resistin with the amount of albuminuria suggests that the level of plasma resistin is not only influenced by renal clearance but could have some role in the pathogenesis of AKI during PUUV infection.

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<![CDATA[Association of serum concentrations of irisin and the adipokines adiponectin and leptin with epicardial fat in cardiovascular surgery patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b6da1bc463d7e4dccc5faf2

Epicardial fat located adjacent to the heart and coronary arteries is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Irisin is a myokine produced by skeletal muscle after physical exercise, and originally described as a molecule able to promote the browning of white adipose tissue and energy expenditure. In order to decrease cardiovascular risk, it has been proposed as a promising therapeutic target in obesity and type 2 diabetes. We investigated the relationships between serum concentrations of irisin and the adipokines adiponectin and leptin and body fat including epicardial fat in patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery. We obtained serum samples from 93 patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery (age 69.6 (SD 12.8) years, BMI 24.1 ± 4.8 kg/m2). Computed tomography (CT) and echocardiographic data were obtained from the routine preoperative examination. Subcutaneous fat area (SFA, cm2) and visceral fat area (VFA, cm2) near the umbilicus were automatically measured using the standard fat attenuation range. Epicardial fat area (EFA, cm2) was measured at the position where the heart became a long axis image with respect to the apex of the heart in the coronal section image. Total body fat mass, body fat percentage, and skeletal muscle volume (SMV) were estimated using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Serum irisin concentration was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and compared with adiponectin and leptin concentrations. The data were also compared with the clinical biochemical data. EFA was strongly correlated with BMI (P = 0.0001), non-HDL-C (P = 0.029), TG (P = 0.004), body fat mass (P = 0.0001), and body fat percentage (P = 0.0001). Serum leptin concentration showed a significant positive correlation with BMI (P = 0.0001) and TG (P = 0.001). Adiponectin, but not irisin, showed a significant negative correlation with BMI (P = 0.006) and TG (P = 0.001). Serum leptin level had a significant positive correlation with EFA, VFA, and SFA. In contrast, the serum adiponectin level was significantly negatively correlated with EFA, VFA, and SFA. The serum irisin level was also negatively correlated with EFA (r = -0.249, P = 0.015), and SFA (r = -0.223, P = 0.039), and tended to correlate with VFA (r = -0.198, P = 0.067). The serum level of adiponectin was negatively correlated with that of leptin (r = -0.296, P = 0.012), but there were no significant correlations between irisin and either adiponectin or leptin. Multivariate linear regression demonstrated that EFA showed a positive association with serum leptin level (β = 0.438, P = 0.0001) and a negative correlation with serum irisin level (β = -0.204, P = 0.038) and serum adiponectin level (β = -0.260, P = 0.015) after adjusting for age, sex, and BMI. The present study provided the first evidence of associations of the serum irisin and adipokines (adiponectin and leptin) concentrations with epicardial fat in cardiovascular surgery patients. Irisin may play a role in preventing excess adiposity including epicardial fat, and consequently cardiovascular risk in patients.

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<![CDATA[Effects of the inspiratory muscle training and aerobic training on respiratory and functional parameters, inflammatory biomarkers, redox status and quality of life in hemodialysis patients: A randomized clinical trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b69466a463d7e3867f4ad0c

Objective

Evaluate and compare the isolated and combined effects of Inspiratory Muscle Training (IMT) and Aerobic Training (AT) on respiratory and functional parameters, inflamatory biomarkers, redox status and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in hemodialysis patients.

Methods

A randomised controlled trial with factorial allocation and intention-to-treat analysis was performed in hemodialysis patients. Volunteers were randomly assigned to performe 8-weeks of IMT at 50% of maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), low intensity AT or combined training (CT). Before the interventions, all the volunteers went 8-weeks through a control period (without training). Measures are taken at baseline, 8-week (after control period) and 16-week (after the interventions). Primary outcomes were functional capacity (incremental shuttle walk test), MIP and lower limbs strength (Sit-to-Stand test of 30 seconds). Plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (sTNFR1) and 2 (sTNFR2), adiponectin, resistin and leptin, redox status parameters and HRQoL (KDQOL-SF questionnaire) were the scondary outcomes. Data analyses were performed by two-way repeated measurements ANOVA.

Results

37 hemodialysis patients aged 48.2 years old (IC95% 43.2–54.7) were randomized. Increase of MIP, functional capacity, lower limbs strength and resistin levels, and reduction of sTNFR2 levels in 16-week, compared to baseline and 8-week, were observed in all the groups (p<0.001). IMT improved functional capacity, MIP and lower limbs strength in 96.7m (IC95% 5.6–189.9), 34.5cmH2O (IC95% 22.4–46.7) and 2.2repetitions (IC95% 1.1–3.2) respectively. Increase in resistin leves and reduction in sTNFR2 leves after IMT was 0.8ng/dL (IC95% 0.5–1.1) and 0.8ng/dL (IC95% 0.3–1.3), respectively, without between-group differences. Compared to baseline and 8-week, adiponectin levels (p<0.001) and fatigue domain of the HRQoL (p<0.05) increased in 16-week only in CT.

Conclusion

IMT, AT and CT improved functional parameters and modulated inflammatory biomarkers, in addition, IMT provoked a similar response to low intensity AT in hemodialysis patients.

Trial registration

Registro Brasileiro de Ensaios clínicos RBR-4hv9rs.

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<![CDATA[Identification of Putative Receptors for the Novel Adipokine CTRP3 Using Ligand-Receptor Capture Technology]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da9fab0ee8fa60ba53e2

C1q TNF Related Protein 3 (CTRP3) is a member of a family of secreted proteins that exert a multitude of biological effects. Our initial work identified CTRP3’s promise as an effective treatment for Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Specifically, we demonstrated that mice fed a high fat diet failed to develop NAFLD when treated with CTRP3. The purpose of this current project is to identify putative receptors which mediate the hepatic actions of CTRP3.

Methods

We used Ligand-receptor glycocapture technology with TriCEPS™-based ligand-receptor capture (LRC-TriCEPS; Dualsystems Biotech AG). The LRC-TriCEPS experiment with CTRP3-FLAG protein as ligand and insulin as a control ligand was performed on the H4IIE rat hepatoma cell line.

Results

Initial analysis demonstrated efficient coupling of TriCEPS to CTRP3. Further, flow cytometry analysis (FACS) demonstrated successful oxidation and crosslinking of CTRP3-TriCEPS and Insulin-TriCEPS complexes to cell surface glycans. Demonstrating the utility of TriCEPS under these conditions, the insulin receptor was identified in the control dataset. In the CTRP3 treated cells a total enrichment of 261 peptides was observed. From these experiments 5 putative receptors for CTRP3 were identified with two reaching statistically significance: Lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP-1) and Lysosome membrane protein 2 (LIMP II). Follow-up Co-immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed the association between LAMP1 and CTRP3 and further testing using a polyclonal antibody to block potential binding sites of LAMP1 prevented CTRP3 binding to the cells.

Conclusion

The LRC-TriCEPS methodology was successful in identifying potential novel receptors for CTRP3.

Relevance

The identification of the receptors for CTRP3 are important prerequisites for the development of small molecule drug candidates, of which none currently exist, for the treatment NAFLD.

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<![CDATA[Neuroendocrine Inflammatory Responses in Overweight/Obese Infants]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9ddab0ee8fa60b68699

Childhood obesity is related to a cascade of neuroendocrine inflammatory changes. However, there remains a gap in the current literature regarding the possible occurrence of these changes in overweight/obese infants. The objective of this study was to evaluate adipokines, cortisol, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and redox status in overweight/obese infants versus normal-weight peers. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 50 infants (25 in the overweight/obese group and 25 in the normal-weight group) between 6 and 24 months. Plasma levels of leptin, adiponectin, resistin, soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptors, chemokines, BDNF, serum cortisol and redox status were measured. Unpaired Student's t-test was used to analyze the results and a probability of p<0.05 was acceptable for rejection of the null hypothesis. The Pearson correlation was used to verify the association between the biomarkers analyzed in each group. Plasma levels of leptin (p = 0.0001), adiponectin (p = 0.0007) and BDNF (p = 0.003), and serum cortisol (p = 0.048) were significantly higher in overweight/obese infants than normal-weight infants. In contrast, the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) (p = 0.004), and catalase (p = 0.045) and superoxide dismutase activity (p = 0.02) were lower in overweight/obese infants than normal-weight peers. All the results together indicate neuroendocrine inflammatory response changes in overweight/obese infants between 6 and 24 months. Although there is already an environment that predisposes for a subsequent pro-inflammatory response, neuroendocrine secretion changes that permit the control of the inflammatory process in this age interval can be observed.

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<![CDATA[Adiponectin Upregulates MiR-133a in Cardiac Hypertrophy through AMPK Activation and Reduced ERK1/2 Phosphorylation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db0dab0ee8fa60bcaf42

Adiponectin and miR-133a are key regulators in cardiac hypertrophy. However, whether APN has a potential effect on miR-133a remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether APN could regulate miR-133a expression in Angiotensin II (Ang II) induced cardiac hypertrophy in vivo and in vitro. Lentiviral-mediated adiponectin treatment attenuated cardiac hypertrophy induced by Ang II infusion in male wistar rats as determined by reduced cell surface area and mRNA levels of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANF) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), also the reduced left ventricular end-diastolic posterior wall thickness (LVPWd) and end-diastolic interventricular septal thickness (IVSd). Meanwhile, APN elevated miR-133a level which was downregulated by Ang II. To further investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms, we treated neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) with recombinant rat APN before Ang II stimulation. Pretreating cells with recombinant APN promoted AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and inhibited ERK activation. By using the inhibitor of AMPK or a lentiviral vector expressing AMPK short hairpin RNA (shRNA) cancelled the positive effect of APN on miR-133a. The ERK inhibitor PD98059 reversed the downregulation of miR-133a induced by Ang II. These results indicated that the AMPK activation and ERK inhibition were responsible for the positive effect of APN on miR-133a. Furthermore, adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) mRNA expression was inhibited by Ang II stimulation. The positive effects of APN on AMPK activation and miR-133a, and the inhibitory effect on ERK phosphorylation were inhibited in NRVMs transfected with lentiviral AdipoR1shRNA. In addition, APN depressed the elevated expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a direct target of miR-133a, through the AMPK pathway. Taken together, our data indicated that APN reversed miR-133a levels through AMPK activation, reduced ERK1/2 phosphorylation in cardiomyocytes stimulated with Ang II, revealing a previously undemonstrated and important link between APN and miR-133a.

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<![CDATA[Gender-Specific Mechanisms Underlying the Amelioration of High-Fat Diet-Induced Glucose Intolerance in B-Cell-Activating Factor Deficient Mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db06ab0ee8fa60bc8877

It has recently been found that B cell activating factor (BAFF) plays an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis. We also have previously reported that BAFF deficiency reverses high-fat (HF) diet-induced glucose intolerance by potentiating adipose tissue function. In the present study, we found that BAFF deficient (BAFF-/-) mice exhibit gender-specific differences in protection against diet-induced glucose intolerance, and aimed to characterize the gender-dependent molecular alterations in energy metabolism. Under HF feeding conditions, serum BAFF level of female wild-type (WT) mice was considerably higher than that of male mice. Despite increased body weight gain, both male and female BAFF-/- mice showed significantly improved glucose tolerance compared to their WT counterparts. Expressions of genes involved in glucose transport, thermogenesis and lipid oxidation were up-regulated in brown adipose tissues of both male and female BAFF-/- mice. Interestingly, the expression of thermogenic genes in subcutaneous adipose tissue was significantly enhanced in female BAFF-/- compared to WT mice, but the difference was not observed between male BAFF-/- and WT mice. The enhanced thermogenic program was confirmed by higher protein levels of UCP1 and irisin in female BAFF-/- than in WT mice. Additionally, adiponectin production in white adipose tissues and AMPK phosphorylation in subcutaneous adipose tissue were also significantly elevated in female BAFF-/- compared to WT mice, but not in male BAFF-/- mice. Our findings define a comprehensive scenario for the enhancing effect of BAFF depletion on glucose tolerance wherein the underlying mechanism is, at least in part, gender-specific, and suggest that gender difference should be considered as an important factor in the use of BAFF blockade as a therapeutic approach for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes.

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<![CDATA[The Dietary Isoflavone Daidzein Reduces Expression of Pro-Inflammatory Genes through PPARα/γ and JNK Pathways in Adipocyte and Macrophage Co-Cultures]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da11ab0ee8fa60b79848

Obesity-induced inflammation caused by adipocyte-macrophage interactions plays a critical role in developing insulin resistance, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) regulate inflammatory gene expression in these cells. Recently, the soy isoflavone daidzein was reported to act as a PPAR activator. We examined whether daidzein affected adipocyte-macrophage crosstalk via the regulation of PPARs. Co-cultures of 3T3-L1 adipocytes and RAW264 macrophages, or palmitate-stimulated RAW264 macrophages were treated with daidzein in the presence or absence of specific inhibitors for PPARs: GW6471 (a PPARα antagonist), and GW9662 (a PPARγ antagonist). Inflammatory gene expression was then determined. Daidzein significantly decreased chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (Ccl2, known in humans as monocyte chemo-attractant protein 1 (MCP1)) and interleukin 6 (Il6) mRNA levels induced by co-culture. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, daidzein inversed the attenuation of adiponectin gene expression by co-culture, and these effects were inhibited by the PPAR-γ specific inhibitor. Daidzein also decreased Ccl2 and Il6 mRNA levels in RAW264 macrophages stimulated with palmitate or conditioned medium (CM) from hypertrophied 3T3-L1 adipocytes. This inhibitory effect on Il6 expression was abrogated by a PPAR-α inhibitor. Additionally, we examined the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathways and found that daidzein significantly inhibited palmitate-induced phosphorylation of JNK. Our data suggest that daidzein regulates pro-inflammatory gene expression by activating PPAR-α and -γ and inhibiting the JNK pathway in adipocyte and macrophage co-cultures. These effects might be favorable in improving adipose inflammation, thus, treatment of daidzein may be a therapeutic strategy for chronic inflammation in obese adipose tissue.

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<![CDATA[Pepsin Egg White Hydrolysate Ameliorates Obesity-Related Oxidative Stress, Inflammation and Steatosis in Zucker Fatty Rats]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da34ab0ee8fa60b85b9e

The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the administration of egg white hydrolysates on obesity-related disorders, with a focus on lipid metabolism, inflammation and oxidative stress, in Zucker fatty rats. Obese Zucker rats received water, pepsin egg white hydrolysate (750 mg/kg/day) or Rhizopus aminopeptidase egg white hydrolysate (750 mg/kg/day) for 12 weeks. Lean Zucker rats received water. Body weight, solid and liquid intakes were weekly measured. At the end of the study, urine, faeces, different organs and blood samples were collected. The consumption of egg white hydrolysed with pepsin significantly decreased the epididymal adipose tissue, improved hepatic steatosis, and lowered plasmatic concentration of free fatty acids in the obese animals. It also decreased plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and reduced oxidative stress. Pepsin egg white hydrolysate could be used as a tool to improve obesity-related complications.

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<![CDATA[New diagnostic index for sarcopenia in patients with cardiovascular diseases]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5cab0ee8fa60bdfe76

Background

Sarcopenia is an aging and disease-related syndrome characterized by progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength, with the risk of frailty and poor quality of life. Sarcopenia is diagnosed by a decrease in skeletal muscle index (SMI) and reduction of either handgrip strength or gait speed. However, measurement of SMI is difficult for general physicians because it requires special equipment for bioelectrical impedance assay or dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to explore a novel, simple diagnostic method of sarcopenia evaluation in patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD).

Methods

We retrospectively investigated 132 inpatients with CVD (age: 72±12 years, age range: 27–93 years, males: 61%) Binomial logistic regression and correlation analyses were used to assess the associations of sarcopenia with simple physical data and biomarkers, including muscle-related inflammation makers and nutritional markers.

Results

Sarcopenia was present in 29.5% of the study population. Serum concentrations of adiponectin and sialic acid were significantly higher in sarcopenic than non-sarcopenic CVD patients. Stepwise multivariate binomial logistic regression analysis revealed that adiponectin, sialic acid, sex, age, and body mass index were independent factors for sarcopenia detection. Sarcopenia index, obtained from the diagnostic regression formula for sarcopenia detection including the five independent factors, indicated a high accuracy in ROC curve analysis (sensitivity 94.9%, specificity 69.9%) and the cutoff value for sarcopenia detection was -1.6134. Sarcopenia index had a significant correlation with the conventional diagnostic parameters of sarcopenia.

Conclusions

Our new sarcopenia index using simple parameters would be useful for diagnosing sarcopenia in CVD patients.

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<![CDATA[The Roles of Adipokines, Proinflammatory Cytokines, and Adipose Tissue Macrophages in Obesity-Associated Insulin Resistance in Modest Obesity and Early Metabolic Dysfunction]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db1fab0ee8fa60bcef43

The roles of adipokines, proinflammatory cytokines, and adipose tissue macrophages in obesity-associated insulin resistance have been explored in both animal and human studies. However, our current understanding of obesity-associated insulin resistance relies on studies of artificial metabolic extremes. The purpose of this study was to explore the roles of adipokines, proinflammatory cytokines, and adipose tissue macrophages in human patients with modest obesity and early metabolic dysfunction. We obtained omental adipose tissue and fasting blood samples from 51 females undergoing gynecologic surgery. We investigated serum concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines and adipokines as well as the mRNA expression of proinflammatory and macrophage phenotype markers in visceral adipose tissue using ELISA and quantitative RT-PCR. We measured adipose tissue inflammation and macrophage infiltration using immunohistochemical analysis. Serum levels of adiponectin and leptin were significantly correlated with HOMA-IR and body mass index. The levels of expression of MCP-1 and TNF-α in visceral adipose tissue were also higher in the obese group (body mass index ≥ 25). The expression of mRNA MCP-1 in visceral adipose tissue was positively correlated with body mass index (r = 0.428, p = 0.037) but not with HOMA-IR, whereas TNF-α in visceral adipose tissue was correlated with HOMA-IR (r = 0.462, p = 0.035) but not with body mass index. There was no obvious change in macrophage phenotype or macrophage infiltration in patients with modest obesity or early metabolic dysfunction. Expression of mRNA CD163/CD68 was significantly related to mitochondrial-associated genes and serum inflammatory cytokine levels of resistin and leptin. These results suggest that changes in the production of inflammatory biomolecules precede increased immune cell infiltration and induction of a macrophage phenotype switch in visceral adipose tissue. Furthermore, serum resistin and leptin have specific roles in the regulation of adipose tissue macrophages in patients with modest obesity or early metabolic dysfunction.

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<![CDATA[Perirenal fat thickness measured with computed tomography is a reliable estimate of perirenal fat mass]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db53ab0ee8fa60bdc9fa

Deposition of perirenal adipose tissue has been associated with adverse renal and cardiovascular events. We compared various methods to measure perirenal adipose tissue using computerized tomography (CT)-scan and performed correlations with anthropometric measures associated with renal and cardiovascular events. Voluntary overweight and obese subjects undergoing a CT-scan for diagnostic purposes were included in the study. Perirenal adipose tissue volume, adipose tissue area of the renal sinus and perirenal fat thickness were manually measured bilaterally. The intra- and inter-observer coefficient correlations and the correlation between the diverse measures of renal adipose tissue, subcutaneous (SC-)fat and anthropometrics measures were analyzed using Pearson's correlation tests. The forty included patients (24 men, 16 women) had a mean age of 57.6 ± 18.1 years and a mean body mass index of 28.9 ± 2.9 kg/m2. Despite comparable waist circumference, women had a greater SC-fat thickness compared to men, and therefore a smaller amount of visceral fat, as well as smaller perirenal fat volumes. Perirenal fat thickness was better correlated with perirenal fat volume than adipose area of the renal sinus (p <0.02). The adipose area of the renal sinus did not correlate with any anthropometric measures. In women, perirenal fat volume and thickness showed a negative correlation with SC-fat thickness and no correlation with waist circumference. In men, perirenal fat volume and thickness showed a positive correlation with waist circumference and no correlation with subcutaneous fat thickness. In conclusion, perirenal fat thickness measured with CT-scan at the level of the renal veins is a simple and reliable estimate of perirenal fat volume, that correlated negatively with SC-fat in women and positively with waist circumference in men. The adipose area of the renal sinus did not correlate with any anthropometric measure.

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<![CDATA[Exendin-4 Upregulates Adiponectin Level in Adipocytes via Sirt1/Foxo-1 Signaling Pathway]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db52ab0ee8fa60bdc920

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor plays an essential role in regulating glucose metabolism. GLP-1 receptor agonists have been widely used for treating diabetes and other insulin resistance-related diseases. However, mechanisms underlying the anti-diabetic effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of GLP-1 agonist exendin-4 on the expression of adiponectin, an insulin sensitizing hormone. We found that exendin-4 increased the expression and secretion of adiponectin both in vitro and in vivo. Our data showed that exendin-4 upregulated adiponectin expression at both mRNA and protein levels in adipocytes and adipose tissues. The effects of exendin-4 on adiponectin expression were dependent on the GLP-1 receptor. We further demonstrated important roles of Sirt1 and transcriptional factor Foxo-1 in mediating the function of exendin-4 in regulating adiponectin expression. Suppression of Sirt1 or Foxo-1 expression significantly impaired exendin-4-induced adiponectin expression. Consistently, exendin-4 up-regulated Sirt1 and Foxo-1 expression in vivo. Our work is the first study demonstrating the role of Sirt1/Foxo-1 in regulating the regulatory function of a GLP-1 receptor agonist in adiponectin expression both in vitro and in vivo. The results provide important information for the mechanism underlying the function of GLP-1R on improving insulin resistance and related diseases.

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<![CDATA[Association of C1q/TNF-Related Protein-3 (CTRP3) and CTRP13 Serum Levels with Coronary Artery Disease in Subjects with and without Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da0cab0ee8fa60b77fbc

C1q/TNF-Related Protein-3 (CTRP3) and CTRP13 are two newly discovered adipokines regulating glucose and lipid metabolism. But their role in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and coronary artery disease (CAD) is still in infancy. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of gene expression and serum levels of CTRP3 and CTRP13 with CAD, metabolic and inflammatory markers in patients with and without T2DM. Serum levels of CTRP3, CTRP13, adiponectin and inflammatory cytokines and their gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were determined in 172 subjects categorized as group I (without T2DM and CAD), group II (with CAD but no T2DM), group III (with T2DM but no CAD) and group IV (with T2DM and CAD). Serum levels and gene expression of CTRP3, CTRP13 and adiponectin in the group I were higher compared to other groups. Inflammatory cytokines in the control group were lower than other groups too. CTRP3 serum levels have an independent association with BMI, smoking and CTRP3 gene expression; also CTRP13 serum levels has an independent association with BMI, HDL-C, insulin, HOMA-IR, HbA1c and TNF-α. Decreased serum levels of CTRP3 and CTRP13 were also associated with CAD. It appears that the decreased levels of CTRP3 and especially CTRP13 were associated with increased risk of T2DM and CAD. These findings suggest an emerging role of these adipokines in the pathogenesis of CAD, but further studies are necessary to establish this concept.

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