ResearchPad - adipose-tissue-biology-and-obesity-ii https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[SUN-586 CXCR2 Repression by Glucocorticoids in Adipose Tissue]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8741 Obesity-induced type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a significant risk factor of cardiovascular disease (CVD), which affects 28.1 million adults in the United States. Adipose tissue chronic inflammation is one of the main factors that drive obesity-induced insulin resistance (IR) and T2D. Despite several studies that have shown a link between obesity, adipose tissue inflammation, and IR/T2D, the mechanisms underlying this association are not well understood. Synthetic glucocorticoids are widely used for their potent anti-inflammatory actions; however, their use is hampered due to off-target side effects. Glucocorticoids exert profound effects on adipose tissue, including the regulation of adipocyte metabolism and immune functions. However, whether their effects on adipose tissue are positive or negative it is still a controversial topic. Genome-wide microarray data obtained from adipocyte-specific glucocorticoid receptor (GR) knockout (AdipoGRKO) mice showed that lack of GR leads to a significant increase in the expression of pro-inflammatory genes in white adipose tissue (WAT). Moreover, WAT isolated from adipoGRKO mice demonstrated significant increase in immune cell infiltration, which correlates with our gene expression data. Among the most up-regulated genes, we found the C-X-C Motif Chemokine Receptor 2 (CXCR2), which is a critical mediator of chemotaxis to the sites of inflammation. Although studies have shown the presence of CXCR2 in adipocytes and suggested the contribution of CXCR2 signaling in adipocyte development, its role in obesity-driven adipose tissue inflammation is unknown. This led us to hypothesize that adipocyte specific administration of glucocorticoids can reduce obesity-induced adipocyte inflammation by inhibiting CXCR2 gene transcription and signaling. Our in vitro studies using 3T3-L1 cells derived adipocytes showed that treatment with the synthetic glucocorticoid, Dexamethasone (Dex) led to a significant repression of CXCR2 mRNA and protein levels. Correlating with these results, Dex treatment significantly inhibited macrophage migration to adipocytes in a mechanism dependent on GR activation and repression of CXCR2. Furthermore, these results were recapitulated in vivo. Together our findings suggest that local delivery of glucocorticoids to adipose tissue could ameliorate inflammation and reduce the risk of developing IR and T2D.

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<![CDATA[SUN-591 PAPP-A Inhibition - a Novel Anti-Obesity Therapeutic Approach]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7101 Background: Adipose tissue is a heterogeneous endocrine organ with tremendous capability for expansion. The antithetical pathogenicity of visceral adipose tissue (VAT), compared to subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), has been linked to the metabolic stress of enlarging mature adipocytes and a limited ability to recruit new adipocytes. One of the major distinguishing features of VAT preadipocytes is the high expression of Pregnancy Associated Plasma Protein–A (PAPP-A) when compared to SAT. PAPP-A is a zinc metalloprotease that is secreted, and can associate with the cell surface in an autocrine or paracrine fashion. It is the only known physiological IGFBP-4 (Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein) protease. It cleaves the IGF/IGFBP-4 complex, releasing IGF, making it more bio-available for receptor engagement and downstream signaling. The role of IGFs in adipogenic differentiation is well established. While there is quantitative depot-specific variability in PAPP-A expression among preadipocytes, mature adipocytes do not express any PAPP-A. These findings suggest that there may be a relationship between PAPP-A inhibition and adipogenic differentiation and maturation. Similar to human VAT, PAPP-A expression is highest in visceral fat in murine models. The PAPP-A KO mice, when fed a high fat diet, showed restrained visceral adiposity and decreased visceral adipocyte size, suggesting that PAPP-A could regulate adipogenesis locally in tissues that express high PAPP-A.

Hypothesis: PAPP-A inhibition is a novel anti-obesity treatment strategy. Methods/Results: We fed 20 male and 20 female wild type mice 42% high fat diet (HFD) starting at 10 weeks of age. Concomitantly, we treated 10 mice in each group with either mAb-PA1/41 (a PAPP-A neutralizing monoclonal antibody) or IgG2a (control isotope), intraperitoneally at a dose of 30 mg/kg weekly for the duration of the HFD. At the end of 15 weeks, the mice were sacrificed and the adipose tissue, serum and solid organs were harvested.

Compared to the control (IgG2a) mice, the mAb-PA1/41 treated male and female mice gained 40% less weight (P = 0.03) and had smaller visceral fat depots (mesenteric and pericardial). Also, when we looked at individual adipocyte size, the drug treated mice had 45% smaller mesenteric adipocytes (P = 0.002) and 44% smaller pericardial adipocytes (P= 0.003). Also, the visceral depots in the drug treated mice had 30% more cells (P = 0.006). In both groups, there was decreased liver lipid content (P=0.005). The mAb-PA1/41 treatment had no significant effect on subcutaneous fat depots.

Conclusion: Pharmacologic inhibition of PAPP-A decreased weight gain, visceral fat depot weight, visceral adipocyte size, hepatic lipid deposition and increased visceral adipocyte cell number in both male and female mice that were fed a high fat diet.

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<![CDATA[SUN-590 27-Hydroxycholesterol Triggers the Whitening of Brown Adipose Tissue]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_6714 27-Hydroxycholesterol (27HC) is the most abundant oxysterol in circulation and metabolized by a P450 enzyme CYP7B1. Its levels closely correspond to those of cholesterol in the body. In addition, previously it was found that 27HC is an endogenous selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), which links cholesterol metabolism to estrogen receptor actions (1). Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is the primary source of energy expenditure and energy homeostasis, as well as body temperature maintenance. While previously it was believed that BAT activity is limited to neonates and young children, it is now recognized that BAT is also active in adult humans and its function is impaired by metabolic diseases such as obesity. BAT is also a secretory organ and produces brown adipokines, although the exact function of BAT and adipokines from this tissue in obesity has not been completely understood. Recently, it was reported that 27HC plays an important role in obesity and augments body weight gain in response to a high fat, high cholesterol (HFHC) diet by increasing pre-adipocyte population in the white adipose tissue. 27HC mimics the effects by HFHC diet-feeding on white adipose tissue, such as promoting the inflammation and macrophage infiltration (2). In this study, we explored the effect of 27HC on BAT morphology and function. First, we compared the morphology of BAT from wild-type mice and Cyp7b1-/- mice that have elevated levels of 27HC using H&E staining. Interestingly, brown adipocytes from Cyp7b1-/- mice were larger in cell size than those from wild-type mice, and the cells were mostly unilocular compared to the multilocular cells from wild-type mice, indicating the transition toward a “whitening” phenotype. Next, We treated mice fed a normal chow or a HFHC diet with 27HC or vehicle control for 8 weeks to examine the direct effect by 27HC on BAT. Similar to the phenotype in Cyp7b1-/-mice, 27HC increased the “whitening” of BAT regardless of the diet. We also determined the gene expression of brown adipocyte markers such as UCP1, PGC1a, and DIO2, and found that 27HC significantly decreased the expression of the BAT markers regardless of the diet, confirming the “whitening” observed in the morphology. Moreover, the energy expenditure in mice treated with 27HC was decreased compared to the vehicle control on a HFHC diet, suggesting that 27HC also alters BAT function. These results show that 27HC causes the whitening of BAT, and shed light on the important role of 27HC in brown adipose tissue function. Future experiments will be warranted toward further understanding of the role of 27HC in BAT function. Reference:(1) Umetani, Michihisa, et al. Nature medicine 13.10 (2007): 1185. (2) Asghari, Arvand, et al. Endocrinology 160.10 (2019): 2485-2494.

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<![CDATA[SUN-LB106 The Transcriptomic Evidences on Role of Abdominal Visceral vs. Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue in the Pathophysiology of Diabetes in Asian Indian Indicates the Involvement of Both]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N190ded62-2a0d-440b-a78f-243f7aefb42f 25%). Moreover, 12 out of 16 significantly enriched pathways in VAT were among the top 20 pathways in SAT. GSEA in diabetics: VAT vs SAT: None of the gene sets were found significant at FDR < 25% which substantiated our hypothesis that overall pathophysioloigcal alteration in both depots are similar. WGCNA for statistical comparison of VAT and SAT depots The correlation between measures of average gene expression and overall connectivity between both depots was significantly positive. Several modules of co-expressed genes in both VAT and SAT showed positive as well as negative correlation with various intermediate phenotypic traits of diabetes. In both depots they enriched several pathways otherwise known to be associated with pathological adipose tissue like inflammation, adipogenesis etc.ConclusionsIn Asian Indians, diabetes pathology inflicts similar molecular alternations in VAT and SAT, which are more intense in the former. The role of both adipose depots in the pathophysiology of diabetes is along similar lines and they enrich several molecular pathways which are otherwise known to be implicated in pathological adipose tissue. ]]> <![CDATA[SUN-584 Micrornas in Brown and White Adipocytes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N93493193-97db-431b-af15-3cc07acc1def <![CDATA[SUN-589 MED1 Is a Lipogenesis Coactivator Required for Postnatal Adipose Tissue Expansion]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf4129607-065a-43d3-9bbc-f46a48720867 <![CDATA[SUN-587 IDH1-Dependent Alpha-KG Regulates Brown Fat Differentiation and Function by Modulating Histone Methylation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N47f9d4c1-362d-4827-ab74-9ce654734727 <![CDATA[SUN-LB102 Development of a Conceptual Model to Present the Impacts of Obesity on Physical Functioning]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb05cb7bc-0e2b-4b0a-9a55-429b10a0f915 <![CDATA[SUN-585 Associations Between UCP1(rs1800592),UCP2(rs6593366) and UCP3(rs1800849) with Fasting Glucose, Body Mass Index, and Energy Expenditure]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N04b4147f-7a58-4d40-a520-ee2b6619dd13 30kg/m2 and 100 subjects with BMI between18.5 -24.9 kg/m2, aged 20 to 50 years. Anthropometric data were recorded and the REE was measure for indirect calorimetric. Fasting glucose and lipid profile were assessed. Leptin, insulin and acylated-ghrelin were quantified by ELISA. Genomic DNA was extracted using comercial kit. Genotyping for three polymorphisms was performed by allelic discrimination using Taqman probes. Results: All the three polymorphisms of UCPs showed distribution in accordance with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The weight, BMI, glucose, triglycerides, leptin, insulin, HOMA-IR, and REE levels were signitifcantly higher in obese subjects. There was a strong correlation between REE with BMI (r=0.42, p<0.00001) and with insulin levels (r=0.229, p=0.001) in all group. No differences in genotypic and allelic frequencies of rs1800592 UCP-1, rs659366 UCP-2 and rs180084 UCP-3 polymorphisms between obese and lean subjects. No differences among the genotypes rs1800592 UCP-1 and rs1800849 UCP-3 with metabolic variables. In rs659366 UCP-2 polymorhism, the REE and glucose concentrations were lower in carriers of rs659366AA genotype (F=3.11, p=0.046; F=2.97, p=0.053, respectively) in whole group. In obese subjects with rs659366AA UCP-2 genotype, the REE was significantly low (F=4.15, P=0.017). Conclusion. In this work the obese subjects with rs659366AA genotype had low REE. We found low glucose concentrations in the carries of rs659366 AA genotype. ]]> <![CDATA[SUN-LB101 NRF2 Represses Obesity-Associated Adipose Tissue Inflammation in Mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb57a9370-9c0c-4cba-867c-615c73513ebb <![CDATA[SUN-LB100 GDF15 May Be Regulated by Cortisol After Sleeve Bariatric Surgery GDF15 May Be Regulated by Cortisol After Sleeve Bariatric Surgery]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2f8cf500-e8ad-4526-96b2-267e34460fd8 <![CDATA[SUN-592 Adipocyte Specific Endothelin a Receptor Knockout Increases Adiposity in Mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N31615a86-6fc6-4e0a-9015-c398fec5a853 <![CDATA[SUN-LB103 The Relationship Between Alcohol Consumption Patterns and Insulin Sensitivity in Obesity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N45f1ef76-357c-41dd-8697-81e42a56ae23 <![CDATA[SUN-LB104 Metabolic Inflexibility: Is It a Feature of Obesity or a Characteristic of Metabolically Unhealthy Youth?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nfa0013b9-9329-4ed9-b6a6-567fc980ef3f <![CDATA[SUN-LB107 Functional Characterisation of Human Heterozygous Non-Synonymous MC3R Variants]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N6677507e-b6e5-4d80-91d7-c1e2bac251df