ResearchPad - adrenal-medicine—clinical-applications-and-new-therapies https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[OR25-06 Morning ACTH Levels as a Reliable Biomarker for Excluding Autonomous Cortisol Secretion in Incidetally Discovered Adrenal Adenomas. A Prospective Cohort]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7197 Adrenal incidentalomas are common with a prevalence of 3-10% and in up to 30% of cases may have probable autonomous cortisol secretion. Hypercortisolism is associated with substantial cardiometabolic morbimortality and can physiologically decrease ACTH levels.

Objective: To determine the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of ACTH levels in evaluating autonomous cortisol secretion in a prospective cohort of incidentally discovered adrenal adenomas.

Methods: We prospectively evaluated 224 consecutive adult subjects with incidentally discovered adrenal masses on computed tomography. Finally, 168 participants with radiographic adenoma criteria underwent systematic hormonal assessment, including measurements of morning cortisol and ACTH on day 1, and a 1 mg dexamethasone suppression test (DST) on day 2. Hypercortisolism was excluded if the DST was < 1.8 mcg/dL. Autonomous cortisol secretion was defined as a DST > 5.0 mcg/dL and DST levels of 1.8-5.0 mcg/dL were considered to be possibly autonomous hypercortisolism. We evaluated the correlation of ACTH levels with clinical, radiographic, and endocrine variables. In order to identify the most sensitive threshold value for diagnosing autonomous cortisol secretion, we determined ROC curves and negative likelihood ratio (NLR). Concordance of repeated ACTH was assessed using Bland Altman analysis.

Results: The characteristics of the cohort were mean age 56 (+/- 11.8) years, 76% female, adenoma size 19 (+/- 7) mm, and 13% bilateral adenomas. Mean ACTH was 15 (+/- 11) pg/ml (range 5-72) and the mean DST was 2.2 (+/- 3.0) ug/dL (range 0.4-25.9). Fifty-four (32%) participants had a DST ≥1.8mcg/dL and 13 (8%) a DST≥5.0 mcg/dL. We found no correlation between ACTH levels and age, gender or body mass index. ACTH was inversely associated with adrenal adenoma diameter (r=-3.3 p=0.002) and volume (r=-2.9 p=0.008). There was an inverse association between ACTH and DST values (r=-3.1 p=0.01). In the subgroup of patients with a second ACTH measurement we found high concordance, with mean difference of 0.16+/-3.6 pg/ml (p=0.83). ROC analysis showed that an ACTH ≥20 pg/ml had a sensitivity of 98% to exclude hypercortisolism, with a negative predictive value of 97% and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.06. The only case with DST≥1.8 and ACTH≥20 had Cushing′s phenotype with both an adrenal adenoma and a pituitary ACTH-producing adenoma. Systematic evaluation of morning cortisol and ACTH allowed the detection of 5 cases of false negative low DST values due to the use of non-oral corticosteroids.

Conclusion: In this cohort, an ACTH ≥20pg/ml excluded autonomous cortisol secretion with excellent sensitivity and negative predictive value, providing strong reassurance that there is no clinically relevant hypercortisolism. Therefore, subjects with a normal DST and ACTH ≥20pg/ml should be candidates for relaxed surveillance.

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<![CDATA[OR25-04 Over 14% of Inpatients with Euvolemic Hyponatremia Have Undiagnosed Adrenal Insufficiency]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_6553 Background- The commonest cause of euvolemic hyponatremia (EvHNa) is the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). The diagnosis of SIADH requires the exclusion of secondary adrenal insufficiency (AI) and untreated hypothyroidism. Studies have suggested about 4% of unselected patients presenting to the emergency room with EvHNa have undiagnosed SAI.1 Among patients admitted to specialized endocrine units this prevalence maybe as high as 20%.2Objective- To study the prevalence of undiagnosed AI among inpatients with EvHNa admitted to general medical wards. Methods- This was a prospective, single centre observational study conducted among inpatients with EvHNa. EvHNa was defined as patients with a serum sodium (Na) <135 mEq/L, with no clinical evidence of dehydration or fluid excess, and a urine spot Na >30mmol/L. In addition patients with recent vomiting, renal failure, recent diuretic use, uncontrolled hyperglycemia and patients with history of use of oral or parenteral steroids in the last 6 months were excluded. Adrenal functions were assessed by a modified porcine ACTH stimulation test which has been described recently by Nair et al. A cut off cortisol value of <18mg/dl after 60 minutes of ACTH injection was used to diagnose AI.3Results- One hundred and forty one (141) patients were included after informed consent and all underwent a modified ACTH stimulation test. They had a mean age of 58 years and 52.3% (n=74) were males. Modified ACTH stimulation testing suggested 20/141 (14.2%) had undiagnosed AI. The mean age among those with AI was 55.2 years. In only 25% (5/20) AI was suspected based on clinical presentation by the treating physician. Despite excluding patients with documented steroid use, the commonest cause of AI (9/20) was secondary AI due to exogenous steroid use including high potency inhaled steroids (5/9) and the use of undocumented steroids or steroid containing medicaments by alternative practitioners (4/9). Hypopituitarism was diagnosed as the cause of AI in 5 patients, which included unsuspected Sheehan’s syndrome in post menopausal women (3/5), non functioning pituitary adenoma (1/5) and lymphocytic hypophysitis (1/5). Despite primary AI not commonly presenting as EvHNa, 3/20 patients had primary AI and in the remaining 3 patients the aetiology of AI remained unclear. Conclusions- Undiagnosed AI is much more common in our country among inpatients presenting with EvHNa to medical units. This increase is primarily driven by inhaled and undocumented exogenous steroid use and undiagnosed Sheehan’s syndrome. An assessment of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is mandatory before making a diagnosis of SIADH. References -(1) Diederich et al. Eur J Endocrinol 2003; 148: 609-617. (2) Cuesta et al. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2016; 85: 836-844. (3) Nair A et al. Eur J Endocrinol. 2019 Oct 1. pii: EJE-19-0558.R2.

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<![CDATA[OR25-05 Increased Overall Mortality and Cardiovascular Morbidity in Patients with Adrenal Incidentalomas and Autonomous Cortisol Secretion: Results of the ENS@T NAPACA-Outcome Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_6531 Objective. Several smaller studies on adrenal incidentalomas (AI) suggested an association between autonomous cortisol secretion (ACS) and mortality (Di Dalmazi Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2014, Debono J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2014, Patrova Endocrine 2017). However, a recent meta-analysis (9 studies, 1356 patients) could not confirm these findings (Elhassan Ann Intern Med 2019). Aim. To investigate the effects of ACS on mortality, prevalence of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, and (CV) morbidity, in a representative cohort of AI. Design. Retrospective observational study conducted at 27 ENS@T centers from 15 countries. Methods. Inclusion criteria: AI diagnosed 1996-2015, 1 mg dexamethasone suppression test, follow-up (FU) of ≥36 months, known survival status. Exclusion criteria: clinically relevant adrenal hormone excess (i.e. Cushing’s syndrome, pheochromocytoma, primary hyperaldosteronism), known malignancy. Patient stratification: serum cortisol after dexamethasone (>5 µg/dl, ACS; 1.9-5 µg/dl, possible ACS (PACS); ≤1.8 µg/dl, non-functioning adenoma (NFA)). Definition of CV events (CVE): hospitalization due to myocardial infarction and related interventions (PTCA, surgical bypass), stroke, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism. Results. 3640 patients (57% NFA, 36% PACS, 7% ACS) were considered eligible: 64% females; median age 61 years (range 18-91); median FU 84 months (36-277) (distribution between subgroups n.s.). 352 patients died during FU. Age- and sex adjusted overall survival was significantly reduced in patients with PACS (HR 1.55; 95%CI 1.24-1.94) and ACS (1.84; 1.29-2.61). Prevalence of CV risk factors were significantly higher in PACS and ACS than in NFA (hypertension: 72, 73, 57%, p<0.0001; dyslipidemia: 42, 49, 35%, p<0.0001; diabetes: 22, 25, 17%, p<0.0001) When adjusted to relevant confounders (i.e. age, sex, CV risk factors), time to first CVE was shorter in PACS (HR 1.36; 1.07-1.73) and ACS (HR 1.62; 1.10-2.40) compared to NFA. Conclusion. PACS and ACS are associated with increased overall mortality and CV morbidity. However, to prove causality a large randomized intervention trial is required.

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<![CDATA[OR25-07 A Multi-Center, Open-Label, Pivotal Phase 2 Study of Azedra® (HSA I-131-MIBG) in Patients with Unresectable, Locally Advanced or Metastatic Pheochromocytoma or Paraganglioma: Updated Long-Term Survival and Safety]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_6213 Background: Pheochromocytoma/Paraganglioma (PPGL) are rare neuroendocrine tumors with a 5-yr survival rate as low as 12%. There is a high unmet medical need for effective treatment options for patients with advanced disease. AZEDRA®, a high-specific-activity iodine-131 meta-iodobenzylguanidine (HSA I-131-MIBG), is the first and only FDA-approved therapeutic radiopharmaceutical agent indicated for the treatment of adult and pediatric patients with iobenguane scan positive, unresectable, locally advanced or metastatic PPGL who require systemic anticancer therapy. Methods: Patients with advanced PPGL who were heavily pre-treated and were ineligible for curative surgery or chemotherapy received a dosimetric dose followed by up to two therapeutic doses (each at 296 MBq/kg to a max of 18.5 GBq). The primary endpoint, defined as the proportion of patients with at least 50% reduction of all antihypertensive medication(s) lasting ≥6 months, was met and previously reported. Updated secondary endpoints including overall survival (OS) and safety are reported. Results: A dosimetric dose of HSA I-131-MIBG was administered to 74 patients. Of those, 68 patients received one therapeutic dose and 50 received two doses of HSA I-131-MIBG. Clinical benefit rates (objective tumor responses defined by RECIST 1.0 and stable disease) were observed in 71.4% and 98.0% of patients receiving one and two therapeutic doses, respectively. As of October 10, 2019, median survival time for all patients was 43.2 months (95% CI 31.4, >60). Median survival time was 19.3 months (95% CI 4.5, 32.4) and 49.1 months (95% CI 36.9, >60) in patients receiving one and two doses, respectively. The overall survival was 73.8% at 2 yrs, 47.5% at 4 yrs and 41.5% at 5 yrs. The most common (≥50%) adverse events were nausea, fatigue, and myelosuppression. Myelosuppressive events resolved within 4-8 wks without requiring stem cell transplantation. Late radiation toxicity included 7 patients with secondary malignancies (myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), colon cancer, and lung carcinoma) of which MDS, ALL and AML were considered related to I-131 radiotherapy. Conclusions: Results from this pivotal phase 2 study suggest that HSA I-131-MIBG is an efficacious and safe treatment for advanced PPGL.

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<![CDATA[OR25-03 The Effects of Crinecerfont (NBI-74788), a Novel CRF1 Receptor Antagonist, on Adrenal Androgens and Precursors in Patients with Classic Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Results from A Multiple-Dose Phase 2 Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne15fea48-4387-4f5e-8ff1-d8fbc7e9f111 <![CDATA[OR25-02 A Phase 3 Study of a Modified-Release Hydrocortisone in the Treatment of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N9a907e57-1a4e-48e0-91e2-c1b667abaa10 <![CDATA[OR25-01 Durable CYP21A2 Gene Therapy in Non-Human Primates for Treatment of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N899e681d-69ed-4368-8386-cbfa27a93017