ResearchPad - adverse-reactions https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Adherence to antiretroviral therapy and associated factors among Human immunodeficiency virus positive patients accessing treatment at Nekemte referral hospital, west Ethiopia, 2019]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7637 Antiretroviral therapy has a remarkable clinical effect in reducing the progress of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. The clinical outcome of Anti-Retroviral therapy depends on strict adherence. Poor adherence reduces the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy and increases viral replication. With changes in service delivery over time and differences in socio-demographic status from region to region, it is essential to measure adherence. Therefore, this study aimed to assess adherence to antiretroviral therapy and its associated factors among HIV/AIDS patients accessing treatment at Nekemte referral hospital, West Ethiopia.MethodsInstitutional based cross-sectional study was conducted on 311 HIV/AIDS patients from March 01 to March 30, 2019. The study participants were selected by a simple random sampling method and interviewed using structured questionnaires. Bivariable logistic regression was conducted to find an association between each independent variable and adherence to antiretroviral medication. Multivariable logistic regression was used to find the independent variables which best predict adherence. The statistical significance was measured using odds ratio at a 95% confidence interval with a p-value of less than 0.05.ResultsOut of a total of 311 patients sampled, 305 were participated in the study, making a response rate of 98.07%. From these 305 study participants,73.1% (95% CI = 68.2, 78.0) were adherent to their medication. Having knowledge about HIV and its treatment (AOR = 8.24, 95% CI: 3.10, 21.92), having strong family/social support (AOR = 6.21, 95% CI: 1.39, 27.62), absence of adverse drug reaction (AOR = 5.33, 95% CI: 1.95, 14.57), absence of comorbidity of other chronic diseases (AOR = 5.72, 95% CI: 1.91, 17.16) and disclosing HIV status to the family (AOR = 5.08, 95% CI: 2.09, 12.34) were significantly associated with an increased likelihood of adherence to antiretroviral medication.ConclusionThe level of adherence to antiretroviral therapy was found low compared to WHO recommendation. The clinician should emphasize reducing adverse drug reaction, detecting and treating co-morbidities early, improving knowledge through health education, and encouraging the patients to disclose their HIV status to their families. ]]> <![CDATA[Oxycodone versus morphine for cancer pain titration: A systematic review and pharmacoeconomic evaluation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N5c0f7a4c-4090-42ec-ba95-57e120b0c99c

Objective

To evaluate the efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Controlled-release Tablets (CR oxycodone) and Morphine Sulfate Sustained-release Tablets (SR morphine) for moderate to severe cancer pain titration.

Methods

Randomized controlled trials meeting the inclusion criteria were searched through Medline, Cochrane Library, Pubmed, EMbase, CNKI,VIP and WanFang database from the data of their establishment to June 2019. The efficacy and safety data were extracted from the included literature. The pain control rate was calculated to eatimate efficacy. Meta-analysis was conducted by Revman5.1.4. A decision tree model was built to simulate cancer pain titration process. The initial dose of CR oxycodone and SR morphine group were 20mg and 30mg respectively. Oral immediate-release morphine was administered to treat break-out pain. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was performed with TreeAge Pro 2019.

Results

19 studies (1680 patients)were included in this study. Meta-analysis showed that the pain control rate of CR oxycodone and SR morphine were 86% and 82.98% respectively. The costs of CR oxycodone and SR morphine were $23.27 and $13.31. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio per unit was approximate $329.76. At the willingness-to-pay threshold of $8836, CR oxycodone was cost-effective, while the corresponding probability of being cost-effective at the willingness-to-pay threshold of $300 was 31.6%. One-way sensitivity analysis confirmed robustness of results.

Conclusions

CR oxycodone could be a cost-effective option compared with SR morphine for moderate to severe cancer pain titration in China, according to the threshold defined by the WHO.

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<![CDATA[Withdrawn medicines included in the essential medicines lists of 136 countries]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nfc60a8e8-cffd-4562-8a11-e8128980c61b

Background

Essential medicines lists and related policies are intended to meet the priority health needs of populations and their implementation is associated with more appropriate use of medicines. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that countries carefully select the medicines to be included in their national essential medicines lists. Lists that are used to prioritize access to important treatments should not include medicines that have been withdrawn elsewhere because of an unfavourable benefit-to-harm balance; however, countries still list and use medicines that have been withdrawn worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine whether the national essential medicines lists of 137 countries include medicines that have been withdrawn in other countries.

Methods and findings

We performed an audit of national essential medicines lists for medicines that had been withdrawn. Medicines withdrawn from worldwide markets between 1953 and 2014 were identified using a systematic review of published literature and regulatory documents. The reviewers used sources including the WHO’s database of drugs, PubMed, and the websites of regulatory agencies to obtain information regarding adverse effects associated with the medicines, the year of first withdrawal, markets of withdrawal, and the level of evidence supporting each withdrawal. We recorded the number of countries with a withdrawn medicine included in their national medicines list, the number of withdrawn medicines included in each nation’s list, and the number of national essential medicines including each withdrawn medicine. 97 medicines were withdrawn in at least one country but still included in one more national essential medicines list. Of 137 countries with a national essential medicines list, 136 lists included at least one withdrawn medicine, with 54% of the lists containing 5 or fewer withdrawn medicines, and 27% including 10 or more withdrawn medicines. 11 medicines were withdrawn worldwide but still included on at least one national essential medicines list. Countries with longer essential medicines lists had more withdrawn medicines included in their lists.

Conclusions

This study found that withdrawn medicines are included in all but one national essential medicines list, representing a need for more stringent processes for selecting and removing medicines on these lists. Countries may wish to apply special scrutiny to medicines withdrawn in other nations when selecting medicines to include on their lists.

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<![CDATA[Differential completeness of spontaneous adverse event reports among hospitals/clinics, pharmacies, consumers, and pharmaceutical companies in South Korea]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6f14f7d5eed0c48467abbe

The differential pattern and characteristics of completeness in adverse event (AE) reports generated by hospitals/clinics, pharmacies, consumer and pharmaceutical companies remain unknown. Thus, we identified the characteristics of complete AE reports, compared with those of incomplete AE reports, using a completeness score. We used Korea Institute of Drug Safety and Risk Management-Korea Adverse Event Reporting System Database (KIDS-KD) between January 1, 2016 and December 31, 2016. The completeness score was determined out of a total of 100 points, based on the presence of information on temporal relationships, age and sex of patients, AE progress, name of reported medication, reporting group by profession, causality assessment, and informational text. AE reports were organized into four groups based on affiliation: hospitals/clinics, pharmacies, consumers, and pharmaceutical companies. Affiliations that had median completeness scores greater than 80 points were classified as ‘well-documented’ and these reports were further analyzed by logistic regression to estimate the adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. We examined 228,848 individual reports and 735,745 drug-AE combinations. The median values of the completeness scores were the highest for hospitals/clinics (95 points), followed by those for consumers (85), pharmacies (75), and manufacturers (72). Reports with causality assessment of ‘certain’, ‘probable’, or ‘possible’ were more likely to be ‘well-documented’ than reports that had causality assessments of ‘unlikely’. Serious reports of AEs were positively associated with ‘well-documented’ reports and negatively associated with hospitals/clinics.

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<![CDATA[Fecal microbiota transplantation for treatment of recurrent C. difficile infection: An updated randomized controlled trial meta-analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5217d8d5eed0c4847946a2

Objectives

Although systematic evaluation has confirmed the efficacy of fresh fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for treatment of recurrent and/or refractory and/or relapse C. difficile infection (RCDI), it lacks the support of well-designed randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and the latest guidelines do not optimize the management of FMT. In this paper, we focus on an in-depth study of fresh FMT and fecal infusion times to guide clinical practice.

Methods

We reviewed studies in PubMed, Medline, Embase, the Cochrane library and Cochrane Central written in English. The retrieval period was from the establishment of the databases to September 20th, 2018. The retrieval objects were published RCTs of RCDI treated by fresh FMT. The intervention group was fresh FMT group, while the control group included antibiotic therapy or placebo or frozen FMT or capsule. The primary and secondary outcomes were the clinical remission of diarrhea without relapse after 8–17 weeks and the occurrence of severe adverse events, respectively. Subgroup analysis analyzed the effect of single and multiple fecal infusions. Two authors independently completed the information extraction and assessed risk of bias and overall quality of the evidence.

Results

8 randomized controlled trials met the inclusion criteria, involving 537 patients (273 in the fresh FMT group and 264 in the control group). The recurrence rate of clinical diarrhea in the fresh FMT group was 11.0% (30/273), which was significantly lower than the control group (24.6%, 65/264; P < 0.05); the pooled relative risk (RR) was 0.38 (95%CI:0.16–0.87; I2 = 67%; P = 0.02) in the fresh FMT group, and the clinical heterogeneity was significant and random effects model was used; However, there was no significant difference neither for the effect of antibiotic treatment/frozen feces transplanted by enema (RR = 1.07; 95%CI: 0.64–1.80; I2 = 0%; P = 0.79) or capsule/frozen feces transplanted by colonoscopy (RR = 0.42; 95%CI: 0.05–3.94; I2 = 43%; P = 0.45) compared with fresh FMT. The subgroup analysis showed that FMT by multiple infusions could effectively and significantly (RR = 0.24; 95%CI:0.10–0.58; I2 = 0%; P = 0.001) improve the clinical diarrhea remission rate. Most mild to moderate adverse events caused by FMT were self-limited and could be quickly alleviated; no severe adverse events happened because of FMT.

Conclusions

Overall, the use of fresh feces for bacterial transplantation was the best efficiency for RCDI compared to antibiotic therapy or placebo. The fecal transmission method by enema was not ideal, but capsules or frozen feces transported by colonoscopy could be an alternative treatment compared to fresh FMT. For patients with severe RCDI, multiple fecal transplants can effectively improve their diarrhea remission rate. The focus of future research should be on how to standardize the production of capsules or frozen feces to better guide the clinical management of RCDI patients by FMT.

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<![CDATA[Prevalence and determinants of anti-tuberculosis treatment non-adherence in Ethiopia: A systematic review and meta-analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c40f75ed5eed0c484385fc9

Background

Tuberculosis is a global public health problem. One of the overarching dilemmas and challenges facing most tuberculosis program is non-adherence to treatment. However, in Ethiopia there are few studies with variable and inconsistent findings regarding non-adherence to treatment for tuberculosis.

Methods

This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to determine the prevalence of non-adherence to tuberculosis treatment and its determinants in Ethiopia. Biomedical databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, HINARI, EMBASE and Cochrane Library were systematically and comprehensively searched. To estimate the pooled prevalence, studies reporting the prevalence of adherence or non-adherence to tuberculosis treatment and its determinants were included. Data were extracted using a standardized data extraction tool prepared in Microsoft Excel and transferred to STATA/se version-14 statistical software for further analyses. To assess heterogeneity, the Cochrane Q test statistics and I2 test were performed. Since the included studies exhibited high heterogeneity, a random effects model meta- analysis was used to estimate the pooled prevalence of non-adherence to tuberculosis treatment. Finally, the association between determinant factors and non-adherence to tuberculosis treatment was assessed.

Results

The result of 13 studies revealed that the pooled prevalence of non-adherence to tuberculosis treatment in Ethiopia was found to be 21.29% (95% CI: 15.75, 26.68). In the subgroup analysis, the highest prevalence was observed in Southern Nations and Nationalities of Ethiopia, 23.61% (95% CI: 21.05, 26.17) whereas the lowest prevalence was observed in Amhara region, 10.0% (95% CI: 6.48, 13.17.0;). Forgetfulness (OR = 3.22, 95% CI = 2.28, 4.53), fear side effect of the drugs (OR = 1.93, 95% CI = 1.37, 2.74), waiting time ≥ 1 hour during service (OR = 4.88, 95% CI = 3.44, 6.91) and feeling distance to health institution is long (OR = 5.35, 95% CI = 4.00, 7.16) were found to be determinants of non-adherence to tuberculosis treatment.

Conclusion

In this meta-analysis, the pooled prevalence of non-adherence to tuberculosis treatment in Ethiopia was high. Forgetfulness, fear of side effect of the drugs, long waiting time (≥1 hour) during service and feeling distance to health institution is long were the main risk factors for non-adherence to tuberculosis treatment in Ethiopia. Early monitoring of the side effects and other reasons which account for missing medication may increase medication adherence in patients with tuberculosis in Ethiopia.

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<![CDATA[A multicenter survey of temporal changes in chemotherapy-induced hair loss in breast cancer patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3fa558d5eed0c484ca346c

Purpose

Many breast cancer patients suffer from chemotherapy-induced hair loss. Accurate information about temporal changes in chemotherapy-induced hair loss is important for supporting patients scheduled to receive chemotherapy, because it helps them to prepare. However, accurate information, on issues such as the frequency of hair loss after chemotherapy, when regrowth starts, the condition of regrown hair, and the frequency of incomplete hair regrowth, is lacking. This study aimed to clarify the long-term temporal changes in chemotherapy-induced hair loss using patient-reported outcomes for chemotherapy-induced hair loss.

Methods

We conducted a multicenter, cross-sectional questionnaire survey. Disease-free patients who had completed adjuvant chemotherapy consisting of anthracycline and/or taxanes for breast cancer within the prior 5 years were enrolled from 47 hospitals and clinics in Japan. Descriptive statistics were obtained in this study. The study is reported according to the STROBE criteria.

Results

The response rate was 81.5% (1511/1853), yielding 1478 questionnaires. Hair loss occurred in 99.9% of patients. The mean time from chemotherapy until hair loss was 18.0 days. Regrowth of scalp hair occurred in 98% of patients. The mean time from the completion of chemotherapy to the beginning of regrowth was 3.3 months. Two years after chemotherapy completion, the scalp-hair recovery rate was <30% in approximately 4% of patients, and this rate showed no improvement 5 years after chemotherapy. Eighty-four percent of the patients initially used wigs, decreasing to 47% by 1 year after chemotherapy and 15.2% after 2 years. The mean period of wig use was 12.5 months. However, a few patients were still using wigs 5 years after completing chemotherapy.

Conclusions

Our survey focused on chemotherapy-induced hair loss in breast cancer patients. We believe these results to be useful for patients scheduled to receive chemotherapy.

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<![CDATA[A test of positive suggestions about side effects as a way of enhancing the analgesic response to NSAIDs]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c37b79dd5eed0c48449066e

Side effects are frequent in pharmacological pain management, potentially preceding analgesia and limiting drug tolerability. Discussing side effects is part of informed consent, yet can favor nocebo effects. This study aimed to test whether a positive suggestion regarding side effects, which could act as reminders of the medication having been absorbed, might favor analgesia in a clinical interaction model. Sixty-six healthy males participated in a study “to validate pupillometry as an objective measure of analgesia”. Participants were unknowingly randomized double-blind to positive vs control information about side effects embedded in a video regarding the study drugs. Sequences of moderately painful heat stimuli applied before and after treatment with diclofenac and atropine served to evaluate analgesia. Atropine was deceptively presented as a co-analgesic, but used to induce side effects. Adverse events (AE) were collected with the General Assessment of Side Effects (GASE) questionnaire prior to the second induced pain sequence. Debriefing fully informed participants regarding the purpose of the study and showed them the two videos.The combination of medication led to significant analgesia, without a between-group difference. Positive information about side effects increased the attribution of AE to the treatment compared to the control information. The total GASE score was correlated with analgesia, i.e., the more AEs reported, the stronger the analgesia. Interestingly, there was a significant between-groups difference on this correlation: the GASE score and analgesia correlated only in the positive information group. This provides evidence for a selective link between AEs and pain relief in the group who received the suggestion that AEs could be taken as a sign “that help was on the way”. During debriefing, 65% of participants said they would prefer to receive the positive message in a clinical context. Although the present results cannot be translated immediately to clinical pain conditions, they do indicate the importance of testing this type of modulation in a clinical context.

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<![CDATA[Long-term tolerability and effectiveness of raltegravir in Japanese patients: Results from post-marketing surveillance]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3fa596d5eed0c484ca6253

Antiretroviral agents are approved in Japan based on non-clinical and clinical data reported from overseas. Neither the long-term tolerability nor the effectiveness of raltegravir or other integrase strand transfer inhibitors in Japan is known. This study reports on the long-term tolerability and effectiveness of raltegravir in Japanese clinical practice using data collected through approximately 9 years of post-marketing surveillance. This observational survey used data on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients initiated treatment with raltegravir between 2008 and 2017 in the HIV-related drug (HRD) cooperative survey to assess the safety and effectiveness of raltegravir in real world clinical practice. There were totally 1,303 patients prescribed raltegravir across 30 institutions; 1,293 patients and 1,178 patients were included for the safety and effectiveness analyses, respectively. The overall risk of adverse drug reaction was 17.25%, with abnormal hepatic function and hyperlipidaemia (<1.5%) having the highest proportion. Median HIV-1 RNA viral loads rapidly decreased below 40 copies/mL after 3 months of raltegravir use in treatment-naïve patients, and consistently sustained below 40 copies/mL after the start of raltegravir use in treatment-experienced patients. Among the patients who were treated for 7 years, 92.00% (95% CI: 73.97–99.02) maintained HIV-1 RNA viral load below 50 copies/mL. Additionally, CD4+ cell counts exceeded >500 cells/μL in treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced patients after 3 years and 4 years of treatment, respectively. In Japanese HIV patients, long-term treatment with raltegravir is well-tolerated and effective at viral suppression as measured by HIV-1 RNA levels and subsequent change in CD4+ cell counts. Such benefits can be expected for not only treatment-naïve but also treatment-experienced patients.

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<![CDATA[Antiretroviral adverse drug reactions pharmacovigilance in Harare City, Zimbabwe, 2017]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c23f27ad5eed0c484046e61

Introduction

Key to pharmacovigilance is spontaneously reporting all Adverse Drug Reactions (ADR) during post-market surveillance. This facilitates the identification and evaluation of previously unreported ADR’s, acknowledging the trade-off between benefits and potential harm of medications. Only 41% Antiretroviral (ARV) ADR’s documented in Harare city clinical records for January to December 2016 were reported to Medicines Control Authority of Zimbabwe (MCAZ). We investigated reasons contributing to underreporting of ARV ADR’s in Harare city.

Methods

A descriptive cross-sectional study and the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) guided surveillance evaluation was conducted. Two hospitals were purposively included. Seventeen health facilities and 52 health workers were randomly selected. Interviewer-administered questionnaires, key informant interviews and WHO pharmacovigilance checklists were used to collect data. Likert scales were applied to draw inferences and Epi info 7 used to generate frequencies and proportions.

Results

Of the 52 participants, 32 (61.5%) distinguished the ARV ADR defining criteria. Twenty-nine (55.8%) knew system’s purpose whilst 28 (53.8%) knew the reporting process. Knowledge scored average on the 5-point-Likert scale. Thirty-eight (73.1%) participants identified ARV ADR’s following client complaints and nine (1.3%) enquired clients’ medication response. Forty-six (88.5%) cited non-feedback from MCAZ for underreporting. Inadequate ARV ADR identification skills were cited by 21 (40.4%) participants. Reporting forms were available in five (26.3%) facilities and reports were generated from hospitals only. Forty-two (90.6%) clinicians made therapeutic decisions from ARV ADR’s. Averaged usefulness score was 4, on the 5-point-Likert scale. All 642 generated signals were committed to Vigiflow by MCAZ, reflecting a case detection rate of 4/ 100 000. Data quality was 0.75–1.0 (WHO) and all reports were causally assessed.

Conclusion

The pharmacovigilance system was useful, simple, and acceptable despite being unstable, not representative and not sensitive. It was threatened by suboptimal health worker knowledge, weak detection strategies and referral policy preventing ARV ADR identification by person place and time. Revisiting local policy, advocacy, communication and health worker orientation might improve pharmacovigilance performance in Harare city.

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<![CDATA[Dexmedetomidine combined with etomidate or emulsified isoflurane for induction reduced cardiopulmonary response in dogs]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c141ecbd5eed0c484d284a4

To investigate the effects of etomidate, emulsified isoflurane, and their combination with dexmedetomidine on physiological parameters, electrocardiogram (ECG) results, and the quality of induction and recovery during isoflurane maintenance anaesthesia. 5 mixed-breed dogs received each of four treatments: etomidate (E group); emulsified isoflurane (EI group); both dexmedetomidine and etomidate (DE group); or both dexmedetomidine and emulsified isoflurane (DEI group). All drugs were IV injection administered for induction, followed by 1.5 MAC (minimal alveolar concentration) of isoflurane to maintain anaesthesia. Rectal temperature (RT), respiratory rate (RR), heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and ECG were measured at baseline, 0, 5, 10, 20, 40, and 60 minutes after intubation. The quality of induction and recovery was evaluated for all dogs. All the anaesthetic procedures provided good conditions for induction of anaesthesia. The quality of induction and recovery in the E group was worse than other groups. The decrease of RR in the E and DE groups was stronger than that in the EI and DEI groups. The dogs in the E group had the most significant prolongation of the Q-T interval and changes in the S-T segment. Deviation and extension of the S-T segment were noted in the El group. The dogs in the DE and DEI groups had fewer changes in the ECG results than those in the E and EI groups. The addition of dexmedetomidine caused less effect on cardiopulmonary parameters and the ECG results than either etomidate or emulsified isoflurane alone. Thus, etomidate or emulsified isoflurane in combination with dexmedetomidine may be useful clinically for the induction of anaesthesia.

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<![CDATA[Healthy volunteers' perceptions of risk in US Phase I clinical trials: A mixed-methods study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bfdb399d5eed0c4845cac59

Background

There is limited research on healthy volunteers’ perceptions of the risks of Phase I clinical trials. In order to contribute empirically to long-standing ethical concerns about healthy volunteers’ involvement in drug development, it is crucial to assess how these participants understand trial risks. The objectives of this study were to investigate (1) participants’ views of the overall risks of Phase I trials, (2) their views of the risk of personally being harmed in a trial, and (3) how risk perceptions vary across participants’ clinical trial history and sociodemographic characteristics.

Methods and findings

We qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed semi-structured interviews conducted with 178 healthy volunteers who had participated in a diverse range of Phase I trials in the United States. Participants had collective experience in a reported 1,948 Phase I trials (mean = 10.9; median = 5), and they were interviewed as part of a longitudinal study of healthy volunteers’ risk perceptions, their trial enrollment decisions, and their routine health behaviors. Participants’ qualitative responses were coded, analyzed, and subsequently quantified in order to assess correlations between their risk perceptions and demographics, such as their race/ethnicity, gender, age, educational attainment, employment status, and household income. We found that healthy volunteers often viewed the overall risks of Phase I trials differently than their own personal risk of harm. The majority of our participants thought that Phase I trials were medium, high, or extremely high risk (118 of 178), but most nonetheless felt that they were personally safe from harm (97 of 178). We also found that healthy volunteers in their first year of clinical trial participation, racial and ethnic minority participants, and Hispanic participants tended to view the overall trial risks as high (respectively, Jonckheere-Terpstra, −2.433, p = 0.015; Fisher exact test, p = 0.016; Fisher exact test, p = 0.008), but these groups did not differ in regard to their perceptions of personal risk of harm (respectively, chi-squared, 3.578, p = 0.059; chi-squared, 0.845, p = 0.358; chi-squared, 1.667, p = 0.197). The main limitation of our study comes from quantitatively aggregating data from in-depth interviews, which required the research team to interpret participants’ nonstandardized risk narratives.

Conclusions

Our study demonstrates that healthy volunteers are generally aware of and reflective about Phase I trial risks. The discrepancy in healthy volunteers’ views of overall and personal risk sheds light on why healthy volunteers might continue to enroll in clinical trials, even when they view trials on the whole as risky.

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<![CDATA[Psycho-Socio-Economic Issues Challenging Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis Patients: A Systematic Review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da74ab0ee8fa60b95e6b

Background

Limited treatment options, long duration of treatment and associated toxicity adversely impact the physical and mental well-being of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients. Despite research advances in the microbiological and clinical aspects of MDR-TB, research on the psychosocial context of MDR-TB is limited and less understood.

Methodology

We searched the databases of PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase and Google Scholar to retrieve all published articles. The final manuscripts included in the review were those with a primary focus on psychosocial issues of MDR-TB patients. These were assessed and the information was thematically extracted on the study objective, methodology used, key findings, and their implications. Intervention studies were evaluated using components of the methodological and quality rating scale. Due to the limited number of studies and the multiple methodologies employed in the observational studies, we summarized these studies using a narrative approach, rather than conducting a formal meta-analysis. We used ‘thematic synthesis’ method for extracting qualitative evidences and systematically organised to broader descriptive themes.

Results

A total of 282 published articles were retrieved, of which 15 articles were chosen for full text review based on the inclusion criteria. Six were qualitative studies; one was a mixed methods study; and eight were quantitative studies. The included studies were divided into the following issues affecting MDR-TB patients: a) psychological issues b) social issues and economic issues c) psychosocial interventions. It was found that all studies have documented range of psychosocial and economic challenges experienced by MDR-TB patients. Depression, stigma, discrimination, side effects of the drugs causing psychological distress, and the financial constraints due to MDR-TB were some of the common issues reported in the studies. There were few intervention studies which addressed these psychosocial issues most of which were small pilot studies. There is dearth of large scale randomized psychosocial intervention studies that can be scaled up to strengthen management of MDR-TB patients which is crucial for the TB control programme.

Conclusion

This review has captured the psychosocial and economic issues challenging MDR patients. However there is urgent need for feasible, innovative psychosocial and economic intervention studies that help to equip MDR-TB patients cope with their illness, improve treatment adherence, treatment outcomes and the overall quality of life of MDR-TB patients.

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<![CDATA[Medication Adherence in the General Population]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9d9ab0ee8fa60b66e73

Background

Adherence to medication is low in specific populations who need chronic medication. However, adherence to medication is also of interest in a more general fashion, independent of specific populations or side effects of particular drugs. If clinicians and researchers expect patients to show close to full adherence, it is relevant to know how likely the achievement of this goal is. Population based rates can provide an estimate of efforts needed to achieve near complete adherence in patient populations. The objective of the study was to collect normative data for medication nonadherence in the general population.

Methods and Findings

We assessed 2,512 persons (a representative sample of German population). Adherence was measured by Rief Adherence Index. We also assessed current medication intake and side effects. We found that at least 33% of Germans repeatedly fail to follow their doctor's recommendations regarding pharmacological treatments and only 25% of Germans describe themselves as fully adherent. Nonadherence to medication occurs more often in younger patients with higher socioeconomic status taking short-term medications than in older patients with chronic conditions. Experience with medication side effects was the most prominent predictor of nonadherence.

Conclusions

The major strengths of our study are a representative sample and a novel approach to assess adherence. Nonadherece seems to be commonplace in the general population. Therefore adherence cannot be expected per se but needs special efforts on behalf of prescribers and public health initiatives. Nonadherence to medication should not only be considered as a drug-specific behaviour problem, but as a behaviour pattern that is independent of the prescribed medication.

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<![CDATA[Understanding the Nature of Medication Errors in an ICU with a Computerized Physician Order Entry System]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9ecab0ee8fa60b6cbf9

Objectives

We investigated incidence rates to understand the nature of medication errors potentially introduced by utilizing a computerized physician order entry (CPOE) system in the three clinical phases of the medication process: prescription, administration, and documentation.

Methods

Overt observations and chart reviews were employed at two surgical intensive care units of a 950-bed tertiary teaching hospital. Ten categories of high-risk drugs prescribed over a four-month period were noted and reviewed. Error definition and classifications were adapted from previous studies for use in the present research. Incidences of medication errors in the three phases of the medication process were analyzed. In addition, nurses' responses to prescription errors were also assessed.

Results

Of the 534 prescriptions issued, 286 (53.6%) included at least one error. The proportion of errors was 19.0% (58) of the 306 drug administrations, of which two-thirds were verbal orders classified as errors due to incorrectly entered prescriptions. Documentation errors occurred in 205 (82.7%) of 248 correctly performed administrations. When tracking incorrectly entered prescriptions, 93% of the errors were intercepted by nurses, but two-thirds of them were recorded as prescribed rather than administered.

Conclusion

The number of errors occurring at each phase of the medication process was relatively high, despite long experience with a CPOE system. The main causes of administration errors and documentation errors were prescription errors and verbal order processes. To reduce these errors, hospital-level and unit-level efforts toward a better system are needed.

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<![CDATA[Inappropriate Drugs in Elderly Patients with Severe Cognitive Impairment: Results from the Shelter Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dacfab0ee8fa60bb5a28

Background

It has been estimated that Nursing Home (NH) residents with impaired cognitive status receive an average of seven to eight drugs daily. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence and factors associated with use of inappropriate drugs in elderly patients with severe cognitive impairment living in NH in Europe.

Methods

Cross-sectional data from a sample of 1449 NH residents with severe cognitive impairment, participating in the Services and Health for Elderly in Long TERm care (SHELTER) study were analysed. Inappropriate drug use was defined as the use of drugs classified as rarely or never appropriate in patients with severe cognitive impairment based on the Holmes criteria published in 2008.

Results

Mean age of participating residents was 84.2±8.9 years, 1087 (75.0%) were women. Inappropriate drug use was observed in 643 (44.9%) residents. Most commonly used inappropriate drugs were lipid-lowering agents (9.9%), antiplatelet agents (excluding Acetylsalicylic Acid – ASA –) (9.9%), acetylcholinesterase, inhibitors (7.2%) and antispasmodics (6.9%). Inappropriate drug use was directly associated with specific diseases including diabetes (OR 1.64; 95% CI 1.21–2.24), heart failure (OR 1.48; 95% CI 1.04–2.09), stroke (OR 1.43; 95% CI 1.06–1.93), and recent hospitalization (OR 1.69; 95% CI 1.20–2.39). An inverse relation was shown between inappropriate drug use and presence of a geriatrician in the facility (OR 0.55; 95% CI 0.39–0.77).

Conclusion

Use of inappropriate drugs is common among older EU NH residents. Determinants of inappropriate drug use include comorbidities and recent hospitalization. Presence of a geriatrician in the facility staff is associated with a reduced rate of use of these medications.

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<![CDATA[Changes in Body Weight and Psychotropic Drugs: A Systematic Synthesis of the Literature]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da3aab0ee8fa60b87708

Introduction

Psychotropic medication use is associated with weight gain. While there are studies and reviews comparing weight gain for psychotropics within some classes, clinicians frequently use drugs from different classes to treat psychiatric disorders.

Objective

To undertake a systematic review of all classes of psychotropics to provide an all encompassing evidence-based tool that would allow clinicians to determine the risks of weight gain in making both intra-class and interclass choices of psychotropics.

Methodology and Results

We developed a novel hierarchical search strategy that made use of systematic reviews that were already available. When such evidence was not available we went on to evaluate randomly controlled trials, followed by cohort and other clinical trials, narrative reviews, and, where necessary, clinical opinion and anecdotal evidence. The data from the publication with the highest level of evidence based on our hierarchical classification was presented. Recommendations from an expert panel supplemented the evidence used to rank these drugs within their respective classes. Approximately 9500 articles were identified in our literature search of which 666 citations were retrieved. We were able to rank most of the psychotropics based on the available evidence and recommendations from subject matter experts. There were few discrepancies between published evidence and the expert panel in ranking these drugs.

Conclusion

Potential for weight gain is an important consideration in choice of any psychotropic. This tool will help clinicians select psychotropics on a case-by-case basis in order to minimize the impact of weight gain when making both intra-class and interclass choices.

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<![CDATA[Exploring Off-Targets and Off-Systems for Adverse Drug Reactions via Chemical-Protein Interactome — Clozapine-Induced Agranulocytosis as a Case Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db37ab0ee8fa60bd373f

In the era of personalized medical practice, understanding the genetic basis of patient-specific adverse drug reaction (ADR) is a major challenge. Clozapine provides effective treatments for schizophrenia but its usage is limited because of life-threatening agranulocytosis. A recent high impact study showed the necessity of moving clozapine to a first line drug, thus identifying the biomarkers for drug-induced agranulocytosis has become important. Here we report a methodology termed as antithesis chemical-protein interactome (CPI), which utilizes the docking method to mimic the differences in the drug-protein interactions across a panel of human proteins. Using this method, we identified HSPA1A, a known susceptibility gene for CIA, to be the off-target of clozapine. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of HSPA1A-related genes (off-target associated systems) was also found to be differentially expressed in clozapine treated leukemia cell line. Apart from identifying the CIA causal genes we identified several novel candidate genes which could be responsible for agranulocytosis. Proteins related to reactive oxygen clearance system, such as oxidoreductases and glutathione metabolite enzymes, were significantly enriched in the antithesis CPI. This methodology conducted a multi-dimensional analysis of drugs' perturbation to the biological system, investigating both the off-targets and the associated off-systems to explore the molecular basis of an adverse event or the new uses for old drugs.

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<![CDATA[Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Mipomersen in Patients with Severe Hypercholesterolemia Receiving Maximally Tolerated Lipid-Lowering Therapy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da35ab0ee8fa60b86227

Objectives

Mipomersen, an antisense oligonucleotide targeting apolipoprotein B synthesis, significantly reduces LDL-C and other atherogenic lipoproteins in familial hypercholesterolemia when added to ongoing maximally tolerated lipid-lowering therapy. Safety and efficacy of mipomersen in patients with severe hypercholesterolemia was evaluated.

Methods and Results

Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. Patients (n  = 58) were ≥18 years with LDL-C ≥7.8 mmol/L or LDL-C ≥5.1 mmol/L plus CHD disease, on maximally tolerated lipid-lowering therapy that excluded apheresis. Weekly subcutaneous injections of mipomersen 200 mg (n  = 39) or placebo (n  = 19) were added to lipid-lowering therapy for 26 weeks. Main outcome: percent reduction in LDL-C from baseline to 2 weeks after the last dose of treatment. Mipomersen (n = 27) reduced LDL-C by 36%, from a baseline of 7.2 mmol/L, for a mean absolute reduction of 2.6 mmol/L. Conversely, mean LDL-C increased 13% in placebo (n = 18) from a baseline of 6.5 mmol/L (mipomersen vs placebo p<0.001). Mipomersen produced statistically significant (p<0.001) reductions in apolipoprotein B and lipoprotein(a), with no change in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Mild-to-moderate injection site reactions were the most frequently reported adverse events with mipomersen. Mild-to-moderate flu-like symptoms were reported more often with mipomersen. Alanine transaminase increase, aspartate transaminase increase, and hepatic steatosis occurred in 21%, 13% and 13% of mipomersen treated patients, respectively. Adverse events by category for the placebo and mipomersen groups respectively were: total adverse events, 16(84.2%), 39(100%); serious adverse events, 0(0%), 6(15.4%); discontinuations due to adverse events, 1(5.3%), 8(20.5%) and cardiac adverse events, 1(5.3%), 5(12.8%).

Conclusion

Mipomersen significantly reduced LDL-C, apolipoprotein B, total cholesterol and non-HDL-cholesterol, and lipoprotein(a). Mounting evidence suggests it may be a potential pharmacologic option for lowering LDL-C in patients with severe hypercholesterolemia not adequately controlled using existing therapies. Future studies will explore alternative dosing schedules aimed at minimizing side effects.

Trial Registration

ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00794664.

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<![CDATA[Cancer Risk of Anti-TNF-α at Recommended Doses in Adult Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Meta-Analysis with Intention to Treat and per Protocol Analyses]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da71ab0ee8fa60b94f40

Background

The risk of malignancies on TNF-α antagonists is controversial. The aim of this survey was to assess cancer risk on TNF-α antagonists in adult rheumatoid arthritis patients, including the five marketed drugs (infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab, golimumab and certolizumab) used in line with the New Drug Application. Furthermore, the relative interest of modified intention to treat or per protocol analyses to assess such sparse events remains unknown.

Methodology/Principal Findings

Data sources were MEDLINE, CENTRAL, ISI Web of Science, ACR and EULAR meeting abstracts, scientific evaluation of the drugs leading to their marketing approval, and clinicaltrials.gov, until 31 December 2012.We selected double-blind randomized controlled trials in adult rheumatoid arthritis patients, including at least one treatment arm in line with New Drug Application. We performed random effect meta-analysis, with modified intention to treat and per protocol analyses. Thirty-three trials were included. There was no excess risk of malignancies on anti-TNF-α administered in line with New Drug Application in the per protocol model (OR, 0.93 95%CI[0.59–1.44]), as well as in the modified intention to treat model (OR, 1.27 95%CI[0.82–1.98]). There was a non-significant tendency for an excess non-melanoma skin cancer risk in both models (respectively, 1.37 [0.71–2.66] and 1.90 [0.98–3.67]). With fixed effect Peto model restricting to trials during at least 52 weeks, the overall cancer risk was respectively 1.60 [0.97–2.64] and 1.22 [0.72–2.08]. Whatever the model, modified intention to treat analysis led to higher estimations than per protocol analysis. The later may underestimate the treatment effect when assessing very sparse events and when many patients dropped out in placebo arms. In metaregression, there was no differential risk among the five drugs.

Conclusions/Significance

This study did not find any evidence for an excess cancer risk on TNF-α antagonists in adult rheumatoid arthritis patients, but an excess cancer risk after several years of exposure cannot be ruled out. Both modified intention to treat and per protocol analyses should be presented in such safety analyses.

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